nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒03‒17
twenty-two papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. The effect of Intellectual Property Rights on domestic innovation in the pharmaceutical sector By Simona Gamba
  2. University Innovation and the Professor's Privilege By Hvide, Hans K; Jones, Benjamin
  3. Beyond EU-US Trade Dynamics: TTIP Effects Related to Foreign Direct Investment and Innovation By Paul J.J. Welfens; Andre Jungmittag
  4. Changing Patterns in M&E-Investment-Based Innovation Strategies in CESEE and FSU Countries By Michael Landesmann; Sandra M. Leitner; Robert Stehrer
  5. Getting the most from public R&D spending in times of budgetary austerity By Reinhilde Veugelers
  6. The ‘fit’ between forward-looking activities and the innovation policy governance sub-system By Attila Havas; K. Matthias Weber
  7. Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft: Indikatorenbericht zur Innovationserhebung 2015 By Rammer, Christian; Crass, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hud, Martin; Hünermund, Paul; Iferd, Younes; Köhler, Christian; Peters, Bettina; Schubert, Torben
  8. Policy Brief : Promoting Human Capital and Innovation in Low Income Countries (LICs) By Voeten, Jaap
  9. Innovation systems and policy: A tale of three countries By Jan Fagerberg
  10. What's the price of consulting? Effects of public and private sector consulting on academic research By Fudickar, Roman; Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
  11. Policy Brief : Institutions, Resources and Innovation in Developing Countries: A Firm Level Approach By Basara, Laura; Voeten, Jaap
  12. The dynamic simulation of TIS functions in transitions pathways By Köhler, Jonathan; Braungardt, Sibylle; Hettesheimer, Tim; Lerch, Christian; Nabitz, Lisa; Sartorius, Christian; Walz, Rainer
  13. Le dispositif d'évaluation de l'action IDEFI 7 : création de sections technologiques Identifier et maitriser les enjeux sociaux de l'évaluation By Alain Briole
  15. Problemy dzielenia się wiedzą w poziomej współpracy badawczo-rozwojowej By Karbowski, Adam
  16. New firm formation in the wake of mergers and acquisitions: Are employees pushed or pulled into entrepreneurship? By Lougui, Monia; Broström, Anders
  17. Equity crowdfunding: a new model for financing entrepreneurship? By Saul Estrin; Susanna Khavul
  18. The Entrepreneurship Beveridge Curve By Gries, Thomas; Jungblut, Stefan; Naudé, Wim
  19. Entrepreneurship in Developed and Developing Nations: Contrasting the Entrepreneurs and their Contributions By Brian Polin; Stephan Golla
  20. Technology-Skill Complementarity in the Early Phase of Industrialization By Franck, Raphaël; Galor, Oded
  21. Regional Development and Employment Creation by Establishing a Base for the Offshore Wind Energy Industry (Japanese) By IWAMOTO Koichi
  22. Descriptive analysis of the knowledge network formation in East Asia By Nabeshima, Kaoru; Kang, Byeongwoo; Kashcheeva, Mila

  1. By: Simona Gamba
    Abstract: This paper analyses the causal effect of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protecting pharmaceutical products and processes on pharmaceutical domestic innovation in a panel of 74 countries. The identification strategy exploits the different timing across these countries of two homogeneous sets of IPR reforms. Domestic innovation is measured as citation-weighted domestic patent applications filed at the European Patent Office (EPO): the highly skewed distribution of the dependent variable, and the high number of zero observations, are taken into account by using count data models. In particular, a Zero Inflated Negative Binomial model is adopted to take into consideration the choice not to patent at the EPO. Results show that patent protection stimulates innovation, although the effect is not long-lasting. Developing countries profit significantly less than developed ones from the protection, benefiting from an effect that is roughly one half the one for developed countries.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Pharmaceutical sector, Innovation, Patents, TRIPS, Developing countries
    JEL: I18 O31 O34 O1 K10
    Date: 2016–03
  2. By: Hvide, Hans K; Jones, Benjamin
    Abstract: National policies take varied approaches to encouraging university-based innovation. This paper studies a natural experiment: the end of the "professor's privilege" in Norway, where university researchers previously enjoyed full rights to their innovations. Upon the reform, Norway moved toward the typical U.S. model, where the university holds majority rights. Using comprehensive data on Norwegian workers, firms, and patents, we find a 50% decline in both entrepreneurship and patenting rates by university researchers after the reform. Quality measures for university start-ups and patents also decline. Applications to literatures on university technology transfer, innovation incentives, and taxes and entrepreneurship are considered.
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW)); Andre Jungmittag (Economics and Quantitative Methods at the Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: The international economic debate on the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) has focused mainly on trade induced real income gains while the FDI related and innovation induced benefits have been largely neglected, although the EU and the US are leading FDI host countries and FDI source countries. Moreover, from a theoretical perspective a knowledge production function has to be considered in order to analyze FDI and innovation dynamics – and this can then be linked to output and economic growth, respectively. The panel data estimation of knowledge production functions for 20 EU countries between 2002-2012 shows clear empirical evidence that a rise of the FDI stock-GDP ratio will raise patent applications. Additionally, a higher per capita income – that could reflect trade related real income gains in the context of TTIP – also contributes to more patent applications. Time series data analysis for Germany indicates additionally that FDI induced higher innovation dynamics will raise output. Combining trade benefits and FDI/innovation related real income gains plus transatlantic macroeconomic interdependency effects a real income gain of nearly 2% should be expected for both Germany and the EU as a whole: considerably higher than what the official TTIP report for the European Commission has suggested. The approach developed has broad implications for deep regional integration (TPP, TTIP).
    Keywords: Knowledge production function, Innovation, FDI, TTIP, Empirical Analysis, EU
    JEL: F14 F43 O30 O47 O52
    Date: 2016–02
  4. By: Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract Understanding the complexity of innovation processes and unravelling the complicated relationships between innovation and productivity is pivotal to effective and purposeful public policy, designed particularly for economically lagging economies to initiate their swifter technology-induced growth and catching-up with richer economies. In this respect, the analysis focuses on machinery and equipment (M&E) acquisition as a key innovation strategy and uses a modified CDM model (Crépon et al., 1998). The model is extended by introducing binding financing constraints to shed light on the drivers and determinants of innovation inputs, the relationship between innovation input and innovation output and, finally, the relationship between innovation output and firm productivity. We consider three different economic phases, spanning from the early 2000s and the immediate pre-crisis period to the immediate post-crisis period. The analysis uses firm-level data for a large set of Central, East and Southeast European countries (CESEE) and Former Soviet Union countries (FSU) and demonstrates that financing constraints were non-negligible and very harmful, inducing entrepreneurs to be less likely to invest in M&E but also to invest less in the acquisition of M&E. Moreover, it points to the important role of M&E investment efforts for an establishment’s innovation success, suggesting that establishments with higher M&E investment effort are also more likely to become successful product innovators. Finally, it consistently demonstrates that successful innovative activities pay off, significantly enhancing innovators’ labour productivity levels.
    Keywords: funding constraints, innovation strategies, innovation outcome, establishment performance, Central, East and Southeast Europe and Former Soviet Union, pre- and post-crisis developments
    JEL: G21 D24 L25 O1 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Highlights This working paper reviews the evidence on the impact of public R&D spending. The authors first look at the evidence from micro-analysis of the impact of public intervention on private R&D and innovation, with a focus on the latest results from crosscountry micro-research performed within SIMPATIC. To analyse the impact of public R&D on growth, the micro-results on private R&D investment effects are complemented with a macro-perspective. To this end, the authors look at how public R&D performs in affecting GDP growth and jobs in applied macro-models most commonly used in EU policy analysis. They focus particularly on the NEMESIS model in development within the SIMPATIC project. The authors conclude with some policy recommendations from the reviewed micro and macro SIMPATIC evidence for designing public R&D projects and programmes.
    Date: 2016–02
  6. By: Attila Havas (Institute of Economics - Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences); K. Matthias Weber (AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Donau-City-Straße 1, 1220 Vienna, Austria)
    Abstract: Forward-looking activities (FLAs) can influence innovation systems in various ways to a significant extent. This paper focuses on changes induced by FLAs in the innovation policy governance sub-systems (IPGSs) of the national innovation system (NIS). Our knowledge is surprisingly limited even on this subset of FLA impacts, despite several decades of practice and non-negligible analytical efforts. We propose new taxonomies of FLAs and IPGSs and explore hypotheses on the likely ‘fit’ between different types of FLAs and various IPGSs. Countries selected to illustrate the relevance of our analytical framework include Germany, Greece, and Hungary. Our intention is contribute to a more refined theory building concerning the role and likely impacts of FLAs. Further, as a better understanding of impacts supports the design of more appropriate and effective FLAs, as well as more insightful evaluation of FLAs, this approach is of practical relevance, too.
    Keywords: Forward-looking activities (FLAs); Impacts of FLAs; STI policy governance sub-systems; Tentative taxonomies
    JEL: B52 O30 O38 O39
    Date: 2016–01
  7. By: Rammer, Christian; Crass, Dirk; Doherr, Thorsten; Hud, Martin; Hünermund, Paul; Iferd, Younes; Köhler, Christian; Peters, Bettina; Schubert, Torben
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Voeten, Jaap (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Jan Fagerberg (University of Oslo, Ålborg University and University of Lund)
    Abstract: Nordic policy makers have long been aware of the fact that prosperity requires more than just, say, well-functioning labor markets and/or generous social and educational policies. It also requires that the capabilities of the labor force are put to productive use in a way that enhances the productivity of the nation and hence the returns for the stakeholders. Nordic policy makers have therefore for a long time experimented with various policy instruments supporting productivity growth. Over the years different labels have been attached to such policy experiments (science, technology, industry policy etc.), but more recently the term innovation policy has become more widely used, and this practice is also adopted here. The paper provides an account of how innovation policies have evolved in three Nordic countries (Sweden, Norway and Finland) and considers the possible lessons from what has been done. The discussion informed by the literature on national innovation systems (introduced in the second section of the paper).
    Date: 2016–02
  10. By: Fudickar, Roman; Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
    Abstract: Academic consulting is recognised as an important and effective means of knowledge transfer with the public and private sectors. These interactions with external sectors offer opportunities for research application but also raise concerns over their potentially negative consequences for academic research and its dissemination. For a sample of social, natural and engineering science academics in Germany, we find consulting to be widespread, undertaken by academics at all seniority levels and in all disciplines, with academics in the social sciences more likely to provide advice to the public sector and those in engineering to the private sector. Controlling for the selection into consulting, we then investigate its effect on research performance. While previous research suggested that consulting activities might come at the cost of reduced research output, our analysis does not confirm this concern. The results, however, suggest that stronger engagement in consulting increases the probability to cease publishing research altogether. Moreover, public sector consulting comes with lower average citations which may suggest a move towards context-specific publications that attract fewer citations. We draw lessons for research institutions and policy about the promotion of academic consulting.
    Keywords: academic consulting,university-industry interaction,science advice,knowledge transfer,research performance,exit from academia
    JEL: O31 O33 O38 I23
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Basara, Laura; Voeten, Jaap (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Köhler, Jonathan; Braungardt, Sibylle; Hettesheimer, Tim; Lerch, Christian; Nabitz, Lisa; Sartorius, Christian; Walz, Rainer
    Abstract: [Introduction] This paper has the objective of extending the System of Innovation (Kuhlmann and Arnold 2001; figure 1) and Technological Innovation System (TIS) (Bergek et al. 2008) approaches to include pathways of development over time and to include considerations of interactions between niches and the regime from the Multi-Level perspective framework on sustainability transitions (Grin et al. 2010). This should include consideration of consumers and the demand side, which is less comprehensively discussed in the SSI and TIS literature than in the sustainability transitions literature. The reason for this paper is that the SSI has no explanation of dynamics. It is really a typology of actor types which are assumed to be necessary for innovation. TIS is an application of SSI to individual technologies and a more detailed analysis of how successful the innovation system is, using the concept of functions of the innovation systems. These functions then have to be performed successfully for the technology to be taken up. However, there is still no analysis of the interactions between the functions or how interaction determines the evolution of the innovation system through time and its success or failure. Also, a critical aspect of the evolution of technologies and the associated social systems is missing: the feedbacks between the dominant design or regime and the new, alternative technology. The current institutional and market setting is taken as exogenous to the innovation system analysis in the TIS. The analysis is limited to identifying those innovation functions which are being successfully undertaken and those which are weak, together with barriers to the uptake of the new technology and proposing measures to overcome these barriers. Here, the MLP on transitions offers an explicit treatment of niche-regime interactions. [...]
    Date: 2016
  13. By: Alain Briole (Université Paul Valéry - Montpellier III)
    Abstract: The evaluation of action 7 IDEFI , ”Création de sections technologiques” tries to catch the social challenge underlying this innovation. Beyond the functionalist approach, the evaluation focuses on social competences and students' self-development. This paper shows the methodological and conceptual frame of the study.
    Abstract: L’évaluation de l’action 7 IDEFI, ”Création de sections technologiques” intègre dans son dispositif la prise en compte des enjeux sociaux de l’innovation. Pour dépasser les logiques fonctionnaliste et instrumentale généralement retenues, l’évaluation développe une démarche centrée sur les compétences sociales et le développement personnel des étudiants. Cette communication expose la méthodologie générale de cette démarche, son opérationnalisation et le cadre théorique qui la soutient.
    Keywords: teaching innovation,innovation social challenge,social skills,self-development,innovation pédagogique,enjeux sociaux de l’évaluation,compétences sociales,développement personnel
    Date: 2015–06–24
    Abstract: The analysis of the functioning of Poland within the European Union allows to conclude that the economy of our country effectively adapts to the structures of the European Union. The visible positive effects include a.o. an increase of the financial credibility and of the investment attractiveness.The current economic growth is a result of entrepreneurship, cheap labor force, the catch-up effect resulting from the import of technologies from developed countries. The growth is mainly due to an increase in the total factor productivity. This means innovation and its ability to be implemented. Poland's shift in the innovation ranking of the EU countries up from the group of modest innovators in 2012 to moderate innovators in 2013 is not very satisfactory. The goal of this paper is to present the role of EU funds in improving innovation both within the "Innovative Economy" program 2007-2013 and the "Smart Growth" program 2014-2020.Special attention was paid to small and medium-sized enterprises, which are the driving force of economic development, and to balancing the levels of development of Polish regions. A new strategy for the financing of small and medium-sized enterprises in both analyzed periods was also presented. Particular attention was paid to the promotion of research and its links with business, the development of innovative technologies and actions improving the competitiveness of enterprises.The paper is also focused on the evolution of financial instruments allowing the change from the business innovation model based on buying innovative solutions to the creation of the firm's own innovations. The creation of a viable model of knowledge-based economy linking science with business is the most important task for improving innovation.The new perspective and new aid programs 2014-2020 will provide strong support for future beneficiaries of the EU budget grants. Smart use of EU support for innovative economy is the biggest challenge faced not only by Poland but the whole Central and Eastern Europe.
    Keywords: EU funds, SMEs, financing innovation
    JEL: O31 M13 D92
  15. By: Karbowski, Adam
    Abstract: Intensive development of inter-firm R&D cooperation since the mid 1980s led to the crystallization of various forms of inter-firm R&D cooperation. Particularly important from the market structure perspective and the pace of innovation introduction to the marketplace is horizontal R&D cooperation, i.e. the R&D cooperation of competitors. Horizontal R&D cooperation is however hampered by the existence of the conflict of incentives to share technical knowledge with market rivals. In the literature one may find formal and legally-based solutions to the problem of incentives, i.e. know-how contracting, know-how licensing and debt financing of R&D projects. In the following paper the new solution to the sketched out problem of incentives is suggested. The cooperating firms can alleviate the problem through the choice of fixed cost of setting up the collaboration. The fixed cost constitutes the important strategic measure that can be used by managers to stabilize the horizontal R&D cooperation.
    Keywords: inter-firm cooperation, research and development, knowledge sharing
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Lougui, Monia (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Broström, Anders (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between mergers and acquisitions (M&A) and employee entrepreneurship in human capital-intensive service sectors. We investigate two sets of theoretical mechanisms. First, M&As may push employees entrepreneurship by lowering the average barriers of leaving the current employment (i.e. being associated with general deterioration of working conditions). Second, M&A activities may generate new entrepreneurial opportunities, which are first and foremost accessible by employees directly affected by M&As. Results on employee entrepreneurship in 3 039 Swedish firms during the time period 2000-2009 confirm that the number of firms spawned from a specific incumbent increases following an M&A. Push-oriented factors are found to contribute to this effect, but a dominating part of the total effect remains unexplained. This suggests that pull-oriented explanations of opportunity creation in the wake of M&As constitute an important avenue for further research on employee entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: employee entrepreneurship; mergers; acquisitions; opportunity costs; entrepreneurial opportunity
    JEL: G34 L26 L80 M50
    Date: 2016–02–22
  17. By: Saul Estrin; Susanna Khavul
    Abstract: In recent years, the UK has become a leader in fostering an entirely novel mechanism for raising capital for small business enterprises. Saul Estrin and Susanna Khavul explain how 'equity crowdfunding' works - and the benefits that online financial marketplaces provide for large networks of investors and entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: crowdfunding, entrepreneurs, business enterprise, taxation, venture capital
    Date: 2016–02
  18. By: Gries, Thomas (University of Paderborn); Jungblut, Stefan (University of Paderborn); Naudé, Wim (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We propose that the rate of creation and failure of start-up firms can be modelled as a search and matching process, following labor market matching models. Setting out an endogenous growth model with entrepreneurship we derive a Entrepreneurship Beveridge Curve, through which we illustrate that entrepreneurial start-ups are the outcome of the efficiency with which entrepreneurial abilities are matched with business opportunities. The Entrepreneurship Beveridge Curve is a potentially useful analytical tool to add to the formalization of the economics of entrepreneurship, and we mention a number of extentions and applications.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, start-ups, labor market matching
    JEL: L26 M13 O10 O14
    Date: 2016–02
  19. By: Brian Polin (Jerusalem College of Technology); Stephan Golla (Fulda University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: Many studies have compared entrepreneurship in multiple countries. Most suggest that entrepreneurship, or entrepreneurial intent (EI) is higher in developing countries than in developed countries. The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor classifies nations' economies as being factor-driven, efficiency-driven or innovation-driven and illustrates that entrepreneurship is indeed more widespread in lesser developed economies.While the linkage between economic development and entrepreneurship seems to be clear, the explanation seems less so. Many of the models used to explain entrepreneurial behavior at the individual level have been used to explain differing levels of entrepreneurship at the national level as well. Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior features prominently among these models (Iakoleva et at, 2011). "National culture" and its related Hofstede Cultural Dimensions has also been used (Hofstede et al 2004; Schlaegel et al 2013). "Push" (dissatisfaction with available opportunities) and "pull" (desire for better income or higher status) has also been offered as an explanation (Hofstede et al 2004; Wennekers et al 2007). Another explanation, closely related to push and pull is supply and demand (Wennekers et al 2002). "Demand" is workplace opportunities, while "supply" is individual capabilities and preferences.Regardless of the explanation, lesser developed nations often present fewer employment opportunities for university graduates. Whether as a matter of choice or last-resort, university students in lesser developed nations indicate higher EI and view entrepreneurship as the preferred job alternative post-graduation.The macro-economic phenomenon of limited employment opportunities for university graduates is society-wide and doesn't distinguish between those who are naturally more inclined toward entrepreneurship and those who are not. This would suggest that many entrepreneurs in developing countries do not willingly make this career choice. This might also suggest that the outcomes of the entrepreneurial ventures in developing countries are less positive than in developed countries and are less beneficial to the country's economy. A recent meta-analysis (van Praag et al 2007) of 57 studies measures the contribution of entrepreneurship and points to three positive contributions: (1) employment generation, (2) innovation, and (3) productivity and growth. However, all of the underlying studies were conducted in developed nations, so no conclusions about the contribution of entrepreneurship specific to developing economies may be reached. This research examines the economic and social benefits of entrepreneurship across many countries, both developed and developing, and provides insights into the widely varying results, based on a country's level of economic development.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Career choice, Cross-country comparison
    JEL: O00 O57 L26
  20. By: Franck, Raphaël (Bar-Ilan University); Galor, Oded (Brown University)
    Abstract: The research explores the effect of industrialization on human capital formation. Exploiting exogenous regional variations in the adoption of steam engines across France, the study establishes that, in contrast to conventional wisdom that views early industrialization as a predominantly deskilling process, the industrial revolution was conducive for human capital formation, generating broad increases in literacy rates and educational attainment.
    Keywords: technology-skill complementarity, economic growth, industrialization, human capital, steam engine
    JEL: N33 N34 O14 O33
    Date: 2016–02
  21. By: IWAMOTO Koichi
    Abstract: This paper is the compilation of lectures I have delivered across Japan since Offshore Wind Generation (written by Koichi Iwamoto and published by Nikkan Kogyo Shimbun, Ltd. in December 2012) was published. It mainly analyzes the questions of "What benefits will offshore wind generation bring to the local economy?" and "Will offshore wind generation offer business that my company can get?" because these questions are of more importance to the local economy than discussions on the power market and trends in nuclear power. Because people are not necessarily given an accurate picture of offshore wind generation in Japan, I frequently deliver lectures from a common sense viewpoint shared in the international society. Technological innovation in the field of wind power is impressive. For example, the Walney Offshore Wind Generation Plant, which is located 35 km offshore of northwestern Great Britain and which will be supplied with turbines with an output of 8 MW by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Vestas Wind Systems of Denmark, has a generation capacity of 1,020,000 kW. Therefore, for the first time ever, a wind generation plant with a generation capacity exceeding one million kW will soon begin operating. The cumulative installed capacity of worldwide wind generation was about 415 million kW at the end of 2015, exceeding the installed capacity of nuclear generation. Additionally, an industrial cluster of wind generation creates numerous employment opportunities. In fact, Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven of Germany, Esbjerg of Denmark, and Green Port Hull of Great Britain are attracting wide attention as emerging industrial clusters. Therefore, I have emphasized in my lectures that wind generation is the new leading power source in the world. In Japan, construction of large-scale bases for the wind power industry is under way in areas such as the Hibikinada district of Kitakyushu, Ishikari Bay New Port area in Hokkaido, and Akita. Chiefly, the large project in Kitakyushu is on par with those in Europe, and Kitakyushu is working on this citywide project that greatly benefits its economy. Lastly, I will discuss the importance of the zoning rule and make a proposal regarding the matter.
    Date: 2016–02
  22. By: Nabeshima, Kaoru; Kang, Byeongwoo; Kashcheeva, Mila
    Abstract: This paper shows descriptively how the knowledge network in East Asia has been formed. In addition, the correlation between the knowledge network and economic growth is also examined. Evidence is provided to show that plugging into the knowledge network of developed countries could be a key for increasing innovativeness in a country.
    Keywords: Asia, Research & development, Scientific technology, Technological innovations, Technology transfer, Economic growth, Economic development, Macroeconomics, Network, Globalization, East Asia, Knowledge network, Patent data
    JEL: O11 O40 O53
    Date: 2016–03

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