nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒03‒10
23 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Does economic growth matter? Technology-push, demand-pull and endogenous drivers of innovation in the renewable energy industry By Sam, Aflaki; Syed Abul, Basher; Andrea, Masini
  2. Asymmetric information in the regulation of the access to markets By Simone Ghislandi; Michael Kuhn
  3. The promotion of renewable energy innovation: When state intervention and competition go hand in hand By Lionel Nesta; Francesco Vona
  4. Essay on the State of Research and Innovation in France and the European Union By Antoine Kornprobst
  5. Examining Processes in Research and Development at the Department of Science and Technology By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Yasay, Donald B.; Gaspar, Raymond E.
  6. Patents and the global diffusion of new drugs By Iain Cockburn; Jean O. Lanjouw; Mark Schankerman
  7. R&D, Export, and Investment Decision By O.A. Carboni; G. Medda
  8. The usage of EU resources in local social innovation By Sebastiano Sabato; Gert Verschraegen
  9. Innovation decision of Tunisian service firms: an empirical analysis By Hanen SDIRI; Mohamed AYADI
  10. EU Regional and Cluster policies within their synergic effects By Marcel Kordos; Sergej Vojtovic
  11. Firm Entry and Macroeconomic Dynamics: A State-level Analysis By Gourio, Francois; Messer, Todd; Siemer, Michael
  12. Informality, Innovation, and Aggregate Productivity Growth By Schipper, Tyler
  13. Identity-driven Cooperation versus Competition By Bosworth, Steven; Snower, Dennis J.
  14. Embracing the sharks: The impact of information exposure on the likelihood and quality of CVC investments By Mohammadi, Ali; Khashabi, Pooyan
  15. The quest for status and R&D-based growth By Hof, Franz X.; Prettner, Klaus
  16. The Costs and Benefits of Alternative Development Patterns: A Paradigm of Two Universities By asif, numra; Asghar, Zahid
  17. Circular Causality of R&D and Export in EU countries By Dilek Cetin; Michele Cincera
  18. Building a competitive city through innovation and global knowledge -- the case of Sino-Singapore Suzhou industrial park By Zeng,Zhihua
  19. Replicator dynamics in value chains: Explaining some puzzles of market selection By Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone
  20. Visions on high-speed trains: a methodological analysis By Susana Martins Moretto; António Brandão Moniz; Douglas Robinson
  21. Sustainable Intrapreneurship - The GSI Concept and Strategy - Unfolding Competitive Advantage via Fair Entrepreneurship By Anton, Roman
  22. Does Techological Progress Affect the Location of Economic Activity? By Tabuchi, T.; Thisse, J.-F.; Zhu, X.
  23. UMA ANÁLISE DO MERCADO DE CONSUMO COLABORATIVO By Cintia Farago Guimarães; Paulo Roberto Scalco

  1. By: Sam, Aflaki; Syed Abul, Basher; Andrea, Masini
    Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the longstanding technology-push vs. demand-pull debate and to the literature on renewable energy policy assessment. We argue that in addition to the traditional push–pull dichotomy, the drivers of technological change must be differentiated by whether they are exogenous or endogenous to the economic system and must be assessed with respect to their contribution to both the creation and the diffusion of innovation. We apply this perspective to study innovation in the renewable energy (RE) industry in 15 European Union countries from 1990 to 2012. Using different panel data estimators, we find that public R&D investments, policies supporting RE and per capita income all have a positive effect on either innovation creation or diffusion, whereas the variability of policy support has a negative impact on diffusion. However, impacts are heterogeneous and differ depending on the innovation dimension considered. Most importantly, we find that economic growth is a stronger driver of RE diffusion than technology-push or exogenous demand-pull mechanisms, whereas it is relatively ineffective at stimulating innovation creation. The effect of economic growth on RE diffusion exhibits a nonlinear, U-shaped pattern that resonates with the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis. RE penetration remains negligible at low levels of growth whereas it increases sharply only after income per capita has reached a given threshold. This effect has both a direct cause (with increased affluence demand for environmental quality rises) and an indirect cause (with increased affluence expensive RE policies become more affordable and get implemented more extensively). Our findings have implications for policy making. They suggest that for RE diffusion to increase, innovation policies should be carefully balanced. Government action should be directed not only at shielding renewables from competition with fossil fuel technologies, but also at stimulating aggregated demand and economic growth.
    Keywords: Deployment policy, Technological innovation, Renewable Energy, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Nonstationary Panel.
    JEL: C23 O31 O33 O38 O44
    Date: 2016–02–29
  2. By: Simone Ghislandi (Department of Socioeconomics, Vienna University of Economics and Business); Michael Kuhn (Wittgenstein Centre, Vienna Institute of Demography)
    Abstract: It is frequently argued that the high costs of clinical trials prior to the admission of new pharmaceuticals are stifling innovation. At the same time, regulation of the access to markets is often justified on the basis of consumers’ inability to detect the true quality of a product. We examine these arguments from an information economic perspective by setting a framework where the incentives to invest in R&D are influenced by the information structure prevailing when the product is launched in the market at a later stage. In this setting, by changing the information structure, regulation (or the lack of) can thus indirectly affect R&D efforts. More formally, we construct a moral hazard – cum – adverse selection model in which a pharmaceutical firm exerts an unobservable effort towards developing an innovative (high quality) drug (moral hazard) and then announces the (unobservable) quality outcome to an uninformed regulator and/or consumers (adverse selection). We compare the outcomes in regard to innovation effort and expected welfare under two regimes: (i) regulation, where products undergo a clinical trial designed to ascertain product quality at the point of market access; and (ii) laissez-faire with free entry, where the revelation of quality is left to the market process. Results show that whether or not innovation is greater in the presence of entry regulation crucially depends on the efficacy of the trial in identifying (poor) quality, on the probability that unknown qualities are revealed in the market process, and on the preference and cost structure. The welfare ranking of the two regimes depends on the differential effort incentive and on the net welfare gain from implementing full information instantaneously. For example, in settings of vertical monopoly, vertical differentiation and horizontal differentiation with no variable cost of quality, entry regulation tends to be the preferred regime if the effort incentive under pooling is relatively low and profits do not count too much towards welfare. A complementary numerical analysis shows how the outcomes vary with the market and cost structure.
    Keywords: adverse selection, (entry) regulation, moral hazard, pharmaceutical industry, R&D incentives
    JEL: D82 I18 L15 L51 O31
    Date: 2016–02
  3. By: Lionel Nesta (OFCE); Francesco Vona (OFCE)
    Abstract: This policy brief addresses the issue of the complementarity of policies supporting renewable energy and market competition in fostering green innovation. Innovation is commonly regarded as the best answer to sustaining current life standards while overcoming severe environmental concerns. This is especially relevant in the case of energy, where increasing resource scarcity calls for the rapid development of alternative energy sources, notably renewable energy. 2) Although as of today, renewable energy (RE henceforth) cannot compete with fossil fuel in terms of production costs, impressive technological progress has paved the way to new promising sources such as biomass, solar and wind, among others. 3) Countries too have developed areas of specialization in specific types of renewable energy sources: for example, Denmark has established a strong technological advantage in wind technologies, Sweden and Germany have specialized in bioenergy, Germany and Spain in solar, Norway and Austria in Hydropower. France, with its specialization in nuclear energy, seems to be lagging behind in RE innovation, as compared with other major players such as the USA or Germany.
    Keywords: Renewable energy; Green innovation; Market competition
    JEL: Q2 Q4
    Date: 2014–10
  4. By: Antoine Kornprobst (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Innovation in the economy is an important engine of growth and no economy, whatever its complexity and degree of advancement, whether it is based on industry, agriculture, high tech or the providing of services, can be truly healthy without innovating actors within it. The aim of this work, done by an applied mathematician working in finance, not by an economist or a lawyer, isn't to provide an exhaustive view of the all the mechanisms in France and in Europe that aim at fostering innovation in the economy and to offer solutions for removing all the roadblocks that still hinder innovation; indeed such a study would go far beyond the scope of this study. What I modestly attempted to achieve in this study was firstly to draw a panorama of what is working and what needs to perfected as far as innovation is concerned in France and Europe, then secondly to offer some solutions and personal thoughts to boost innovation.
    Keywords: Law and Economics,Financial Markets,Financial institutions,Innovation,Start-up Creation
    Date: 2016–01
  5. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Yasay, Donald B.; Gaspar, Raymond E.
    Abstract: Research and development (R&D) activities have long been recognized as one of the critical components to improve a country's productivity and competitiveness as well as people's well-being. Notable advancements in agriculture (to develop new variety of crops), health (to improve nutrition and combat various diseases), industry (to develop new products and services), as well as in climate change adaptation and mitigation are products of R&D. The Department of Science and Technology (DOST), chiefly through sectoral councils and R&D performers, has been successfully undertaking or supporting a considerable share of R&D activities in the country while noting limited resources available. However, there is a need to improve the thrust for R&D, which may require the conduct of an R&D summit to finalize the scope of the government's R&D medium- and long-term agenda. The DOST also needs to reexamine the distribution of grant-in-aid funds to R&D institutes and identify breakdowns of R&D funding for basic research, applied research, and development. The DOST may need to pilot test scientific methods, such as Analytic Hierarchy Processes, for selection of R&D proposals for funding by its sectoral councils.
    Keywords: Philippines, impact evaluation, research and development (R&D), Department of Science and Technology (DOST), R&D institutes, grant-in-aid (GIA) fund, R&D activities
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Iain Cockburn; Jean O. Lanjouw; Mark Schankerman
    Abstract: Analysis of the timing of launches of 642 new drugs in 76 countries during 1983-2002 shows that patent and price regulation regimes strongly affect how quickly new drugs become commercially available in different countries. Price regulation delays launch, while longer and more extensive patent rights accelerate it. Health policy institutions and economic and demographic factors that make markets more profitable also speed up diffusion. The estimated effects are generally robust to controlling for endogeneity of policy regimes with country fixed effects and instrumental variables. The results highlight the important role of policy choices in driving the diffusion of new innovations.
    JEL: I18 L11 L51 L65 O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2016
  7. By: O.A. Carboni; G. Medda
    Abstract: This paper provides an empirical analysis of the mechanism through which R&D and export influence investment decision. The analysis is based on a large representative and cross-country comparative sample of manufacturing firms across seven European countries. To control for reverse causality between export decision and R&D spending and investment, we use an instrumental variable analysis to overcome the problem of endogeneity. Employing a three step procedure, it is assumed that R&D decision is endogenously determined by receiving public subsidies, and, in turn, affect investments through its impact on engagement by the firm in international trade. The results suggest that R&D positively affects export propensity. We find that there is an average increase in propensity to invest for those firms which decide to engage in R&D activities. The results also reveal that the effect of decision to export on investment behaviour is positive and highly significant, when accounting for endogeneity of export activity.
    Keywords: r&d, IV model, export
    JEL: O32 F14 B22
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Sebastiano Sabato; Gert Verschraegen
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, the European Union (EU) has made available a number of resources for promoting and supporting social innovation in the field of poverty and social exclusion (cf. Sabato et al. 2015). These resources include, most obviously, funding but also networking opportunities, cognitive resources, visibility and reputational resources. This paper investigates a) how resources provided by the European Union (EU) have been used in socially innovative initiatives implemented at the local level, b) what has been their added value and c) which difficulties local actors have encountered when accessing and using these resources. Our study is based on the analysis of sixteen socially innovative initiatives implemented in five Member States (Austria, Belgium, Italy, Sweden and the UK) and concerning three policy areas: Roma inclusion (notably, education-related initiatives), homelessness and housing exclusion (Housing First), and labour market activation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from our analysis. First, the EU level appears as a key layer of multi-scalar social innovation systems, often able to directly sustain local projects, bypassing the national level. Indeed, EU resources – especially financial and cognitive resources – have been used in most of our case studies and have often been deemed essential for the implementation of those projects. Second, in a number of cases EU resources have been strategically used by local actors in order to implement initiatives at odds with established domestic policy legacies, i.e. for experimenting with either new policy approaches or new instruments/methods within established approaches. We call this the leverage effect of EU resources. Third, the various welfare regimes are characterised by different social innovation patterns, especially in relation to institutionalization and up-scaling dynamics: welfare regime-related peculiarities can be identified, also when it comes to using EU resources for such purposes. While countries belonging to Universalistic and (in part) Corporatist welfare regimes appear particularly able in using EU resources to experiment with innovative initiatives, then mainstreaming successful projects into public policies once the EU co-funding period expires, this capacity appears much more limited in countries belonging to Familistic and Liberal welfare regimes. Fourth, EU resources have, remarkably enough, not been used for up-scaling socially innovative initiatives in any of our cases, even though the EU emphasizes that resources are also intended to be used for this. Finally, a number of shortcomings which make access to EU resources and their management difficult have been identified, including complex and time-consuming procedures related to EU funds and the inadequacy of the support provided by public bodies. These shortcomings often limit small organisations’ ability to exploit EU resources, thus contributing to the creation of a ‘frozen’ situation where big and well-established organisations – which have developed expertise and experience in dealing with EU resources – enjoy a sort of incumbents’ advantage.
    Keywords: social innovation; poverty and social exclusion; EU structural funds; leverage effect; welfare regimes
    JEL: I3
  9. By: Hanen SDIRI; Mohamed AYADI
    Date: 2016–02–18
  10. By: Marcel Kordos (Alexander Dubcek University in Trencin); Sergej Vojtovic (Alexander Dubcek University in Trencin)
    Abstract: EU Regional policy appears to be one of the most important current programs and agenda at EU level which support clusters in emerging industries in EU. Based on the comparative analysis of European cluster policy and EU Regional policy mutual interaction the object of the paper is to assess the impact of the EU Cluster policy effects on the EU Regional policy regarding the EU competitiveness enhancement in the international economics system. Technological advance, knowledge based production, innovation implemented into new technologies are the outputs of effective synergy how the EU cluster policy can be involved in the EU Regional policy. Those are the tools leading to increasing economic growth, sustainable social and economic development and higher quality of life of European Communities inhabitants. The EU position analysis in international economic relations will also be the object of study with regards to its competitiveness enhancement possibilities within the global economic environment while using the latest science and technology achievements as a synergic output of the EU Regional and Cluster policy interaction.
    Keywords: social and economic development, technology and innovation, international economics, EU competitiveness enhancement
    JEL: O52
  11. By: Gourio, Francois (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Messer, Todd (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago); Siemer, Michael (Board of the Governors of the Federal Reserve System)
    Abstract: Using an annual panel of U.S. states over the period 1982-2014, we estimate the response of macroeconomic variables to a shock to the number of new firms (startups). We find that these shocks have significant effects that persist for many years on real gross domestic product, productivity and population. This is consistent with simple models of firm dynamics where a “missing generation” of firms affects productivity persistently.
    Keywords: Business cycles; Firms entry; Firms dynamics; Gross Domestic Product; macroeconomics; productivity; population
    JEL: E31 E32 L1 L16
    Date: 2016–01–31
  12. By: Schipper, Tyler
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the ability to innovate affects firms' decisions to operate informally and the aggregate consequences of their sectoral choice. I embed a sectoral choice model, where firms choose to operate in the formal or informal economy, into a richer general equilibrium environment to analyze the aggregate effects of firm-level decisions in response to government taxation. I calibrate the model and conduct simulations to quantify the impacts on the aggregate economy. I find that a change in tax rates from 50% to 60% leads to a 20.9% reduction in the size of the formal sector. This change is accompanied by a 0.07 percentage point reduction in TFP growth per year. Given that countries like Mali, Mexico, and Sri Lanka impose total tax rates near 50%, these findings have significant and applicable policy implications across a broad range of lesser developed countries. Even at lower tax rates, for instance 10%, a 10% increase, decreases the size of the formal sector by more than 7.7%.
    Keywords: Informality, Innovation, Productivity Growth, TFP
    JEL: H32 O17 O31 O41
    Date: 2014–05–28
  13. By: Bosworth, Steven; Snower, Dennis J.
    Abstract: This paper seeks to extend the domain of identity economics by exploring motivational foundations of in-group cooperation and out-group competition. On this basis, we explore the reflexive interaction between individual economic decisions and social identities in response to technological change in market economies. Our analysis explores how technological change falling on marketable goods and services, rather than nonmarket caring relationships, leads to a restructuring of identities, which increases the scope of individualism and promotes positional competition at the expense of caring activities. Since positional competition generates negative externalities while caring activities create positive ones, these developments have important welfare implications.
    Keywords: Cooperation; identity; motivation; Reflexivity; technological progress
    JEL: A13 D03 D62 D71 I31 O10
    Date: 2016–02
  14. By: Mohammadi, Ali (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Khashabi, Pooyan (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU), Munich School of Management, Institute for Strategy, Technology and Organization)
    Abstract: For high-tech startups, gaining access to resources and funding is often considered crucial. This need has created technology markets to attract partners and resource providers. Corporate venturing is a form of markets for technology (MfT) that provides nurturing, specialized advice and resources to new technology by investing in startups. However the typical issues involved with MfT – namely misappropriation risks– have made startups reluctant about sharing their key technological information with corporate venture capitalists (CVC), potentially retarding efficient market matching and consequently technology development. Lifting informational constraints may facilitate the market and enable us to measure the pure impact of CVC investment. Assessing the potential impact of information constraints has been challenging due to severe endogeneity concerns. This study investigates the causal impact of technological information exposure on the likelihood, quality and timing of CVC-startup match formation. We exploit the American Inventor’s Protection Act (AIPA) as an exogenous shock to technological information publicity, which enables us to measure an unbiased impact of information exposure. The results confirm that strategic information withhold by startups has lowered the incident of CVC investments, while informational exposure increases the likelihood, quality and hazard rate of CVC-startup match.
    Keywords: American Inventor’s Protection Act; Corporate Venture Capital; Information revealing; high-tech startups; Misappropriation
    JEL: G14 L26 M13 O32
    Date: 2016–03–01
  15. By: Hof, Franz X.; Prettner, Klaus
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of status preferences on technological progress and long-run economic growth. For this purpose, we extend the standard relative wealth approach by allowing the two components of the representative household's wealth, physical capital and shares, to differ with respect to their status relevance. Relative wealth preferences imply that the effective rate of return of saving in the form of a particular asset is the sum of its market rate of return and its status-related extra return. It is shown that the status relevance of shares is of crucial importance: First, an increase in the intensity of the quest for status raises the steady-state economic growth rate only if the status-related extra return of shares is strictly positive. Second, for any given degree of status consciousness, the long-run economic growth rate depends positively on the relative status relevance of shares. Third, while in the standard model the decentralized long-run economic growth rate is less than its socially optimal counterpart, the wealth externalities in our model counterbalance this distortion to some extent provided that shares matter for status.
    Keywords: status concerns,relative wealth,technological progress,long-run economic growth,social optimality
    JEL: D31 D62 O10 O30
    Date: 2016
  16. By: asif, numra; Asghar, Zahid
    Abstract: Cities are places where innovation, invention, technological and knowledge spillovers occur. However, they are also places where unemployment, crime, pollution, and exploitation of human resources occur. One major problem of cities of today is the low density leapfrog/scattered development pattern that leads to high service provision costs and reduces the welfare of society. This study aims at comparing the cost of smart versus scattered development patterns for Pakistan. Due to data limitations two universities are selected for analysis purpose. On the basis of observational analysis QAU is labeled as leapfrog/scattered whereas COMSATS is categorized as Compact Development. We hypothesize that low density scattered development leads to higher service provision and social costs and compact development can lead to cost savings. The empirical exercise consisted of a randomized survey indicate that COMSATS students have better access to different facilities due to compact development pattern. The ordinal probit model was employed on survey results. Connectivity was found to be significantly associated with walkability though association is not the same as causation. The comparative analysis for service provision cost showed striking cost differential, as QAU spends a lot more than COMSATS to provide basic facilities. The results prove the baseline hypothesis. It is suggested that. QAU should use elements of smart growth like infill development and should make better use of large land endowment rather than it has become a curse. Both universities should work to raise social interaction among students. The real benefits of smart growth lie with the cities, and each city should apply smart growth to achieve cost savings and higher social capital.
    Keywords: Sprawl, Density, Social Costs, inefficient Land Endowment
    JEL: R10 R14 R38 R59
    Date: 2016–02–16
  17. By: Dilek Cetin; Michele Cincera
    JEL: F14 O33
    Date: 2015–12–01
  18. By: Zeng,Zhihua
    Abstract: Special economic zones can be an effective instrument to promote industrialization if implemented properly in the right context. In China, starting in the 1980s, special economic zones were used as a testing ground for the country's transition from a planned to a market economy, and they are a prime example of China's pragmatic and experimental approach to reforms. One of the great special economic zone success stories in China is the Suzhou Industrial Park, a modern industrial township developed in the early 1990s through a Sino-Singapore partnership. It is successful not just in the economic sense, but also in terms of urban and social development in an eco-friendly way. One key lesson is that in a weak market environment, a facilitating and reform-oriented host government, coupled with foreign expertise and knowledge as well as a"whole value chain"approach can go a long way in developing urban-industry well-integrated special economic zones. This paper is intended to examine the success factors and key lessons of the Sino-Singapore Suzhou Industrial Park, which can be useful for other developing countries.
    Keywords: E-Business,ICT Policy and Strategies,Emerging Markets,Environmental Economics&Policies,Tertiary Education
    Date: 2016–02–18
  19. By: Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone
    Abstract: The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain, causing strategic advantages to firms in partnering.
    Keywords: innovation,replicator dynamics,returns to scale,value chain
    JEL: C63 D24 L14 O32
    Date: 2016
  20. By: Susana Martins Moretto (IET/CICS.NOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Portugal and University of Tongji, Shanghai, R.P. China); António Brandão Moniz (IET/CICS.NOVA, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Portugal, and ITAS, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany); Douglas Robinson (Teqnode, Paris, France)
    Abstract: Future Oriented Technology Analysis (FTA) has been visible in railway planning since 2001. Over a dozen reports have been produced in the past thirteen years, the majority being descriptive endogenous technocentric visions. They have played a role in the revitalization of the sector, predominantly relating to collective alignments and interdependencies in choice and form of the technological path the various stakeholders’ follow to achieve policy goals. A striking example is the case of ERRAC visions, where strategic agendas and roadmaps greatly impacted the high-speed train technology transition from the second to the third generation of vehicles. However, today’s socio-economic events have revealed the limitations of previously applied FTA fall short for railways. In particular, there is an inability to bridge technocentric visions with the societal challenges that are becoming increasingly prominent on the policy agenda. To fill this FTA-need in railways it is here proposed a role for constructive technology assessment as bridging function towards achieving success in the transition to a next generation of high-speed trains. The findings here presented result from the analysis of reports and interviews with their commissioning institutions and drafters.
    Keywords: future oriented technology analysis; constructive technology assessment; technology transitions; s-curve; multi-level alignments; high-speed trains
    JEL: O31 O38 R42
    Date: 2015–11
  21. By: Anton, Roman
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship are among the most important prerequisites and concepts of modern economics and free market theory. Intrapreneurship is defined here in its broadest definition, as grades of entrepreneurship within a given system or entity, such as a company, organization, sector, cluster, national or even global economy. Hereby, intrapreneuring is more than only providing some opportunity to some employees. The wider definition rather unfolds intrapreneuring into a new universal concept of economics, efficiency, and effectiveness, which helps to solve some key dilemmas including the principal-agent-problem (PAP). This study reviews intrapreneuring in the public and private sector based on major empirical research. To optimally manage intrapreneuring, a set of sound goals and incentives, contextual, structural, behavioral, and legal-contractual measures are needed, as well as fair chances and a fair bargain for all. Free markets require internal opportunity and frameworks of fair competition. On this account, sustainable intrapreneurial modules could give rise to industry5.0. Intrapreneuring is proposed to reflect all grades of entrepreneurship that are itemized into its key dimensions independence, opportunity risk, and reward. Balanced dimensions of the right level assure graded sustainable intrapreneuring (GSI) for optimal output. Due to the universality of this concept, it applies for all work systems and sectors, public or private, micro- and macroeconomically, together with other 3D-concepts of economics. Social intrapreneurship, 3BL-GSI, or shared value strategies, could solve most societal problems if financed via QE in a GSI-conform digital full-reserve economy.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneuring; intrapreneurship; intrapreneuring; fairness; fair; equal opportunity; risk; reward; competition; economy; independence; concept; GSI; graded; sustainable; intrapreneuring; Pinchot; innovation; competitive; advantage; strategy; HR; organizational; development; social; shared value; public; private; public-private; partnership; sector; dimension; reserve; work; system; mission; vision; 3BL; TBL; optimal; output; monetary; incentive; opportunity; possibility; discrimination; economic; profit; environment; business; free; market; intra; extra; open; access; correlation; macroeconomics; country; national; economics; KPIs; performance; network; PAP; PAPs; PA; principal; agent; principal-agent; problem; entrepreneurialism; proportionality; equilibrium; equilibria; regression; review; research; analysis; compilation; sustainably; decentralization; hierarchy; structure; top-down; bottom-up; management; TCT; SMEs; SME; MNCs; MNC; R&D; SMART; life; IT; EVP; theory; extrapreneuring; ICS; CEOs; MPS; JDR; LMX; PEAA; PrI; TPM; PVM; E-Gov; PI; GI; TTIP; industry4.0; industry5.0; Corporate; Firm; employee; entrepreneurial; activity; frameworks; platforms; life-cycle; entry-level; positions; intramarket; extramarket; US; EU; world; global; international; comparison; growth; GDP; index; economical; empirical; data; statistical; organizational; culture
    JEL: A1 D0 D00 D01 D02 D20 D21 D22 D23 D50 E00 H0 H00 I0 M0 M00 M10 M12 M2 M5 M50 M51 M52 M54 P1 P10 Z1 Z10
    Date: 2014–10–31
  22. By: Tabuchi, T. (University of Tokyo); Thisse, J.-F. (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium); Zhu, X. (Zhejiang University)
    Abstract: We show that how technological innovations and migration costs interact to shape the space-economy. Regardless of the level of transport costs, rising labor productivity fosters the agglomeration of activities, whereas falling transport costs do not affect the location of activities. When labor is heterogeneous, the number of workers residing in the more productive region increases by decreasing order of productive efficiency when labor productivity rises. This process affects in opposite directions the welfare of those who have a lower productivity.
    Date: 2015–01–14
  23. By: Cintia Farago Guimarães (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Paulo Roberto Scalco (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas)
    Abstract: Recent innovations in technology have made possible the creation of a new market called, collaborative consumption. The collaborative consumption market is based on a mode of consumption that differs from the traditional way that people consume products in two significant ways: it engenders personal relationships between individuals who share a product; and it is environmentally sustainable. Through it’s mechanism of transforming goods into services and redistributing used goods to a network of new users, collaborative consumption affectively minimizes the production of new goods, thereby minimizing the environmental impact of large-scale consumption. This paper analyzes this new market from the perspective of New Institutional Economics, specifically utilizing theories of Transaction Cost, Social Capital, and Dilemma of Collective Action.
    Keywords: Collaborative Consumption; cooperation; evaluation mechanisms; technological innovations; New Institutional Economics
    Date: 2014–06

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