nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒03‒06
29 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  2. The Link between R&D, Innovation and Productivity: Are Micro Firms Different? By Julian Baumann; Alexander S. Kritikos
  4. Concentration on the few? R&D and innovation in German firms 2001 to 2013 By Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
  5. Innovation, cooperation network and economic growth, a Tunisian study By zerzeri, feriel
  6. Economic and Technological Complexity: A Model Study of Indicators of Knowledge-based Innovation Systems By Inga Ivanova; Oivind Strand; Duncan Kushnir; Loet Leydesdorff
  7. Clusters and collective learning networks: the case of the Competitiveness Cluster ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region By Christian Longhi
  8. God Helps Those Who Help Themselves! A Study of User-Innovation in Russia By Konstantin Fursov; Thomas Thurner
  9. Innovation, Inequality and a Golden Rule for Growth in an Economy with Cobb-Douglas Function and an R&D Sector By Paul J.J. Welfens
  10. Research and development strategy for environmental technology in Japan: A comparative study of the private and public sectors By Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke
  11. Knowledge Spillovers, absorptive capacity and growth: An Industry-level Analysis for OECD Countries By Ioannis Bournakis; Dimitris Christopoulos; Sushanta Mallick
  12. Two Sides to the Evasion: The Pirate Bay and the Interdependencies of Evasive Entrepreneurship By Elert, Niklas; Henrekson, Magnus; Lundblad, Joakim
  13. The Effects of Knowledge Spillovers through Labor Mobility By Castillo, Victoria; Figal-Garone, Lucas; Maffioli, Alessandro; Rojo, Sofia; Stucchi, Rodolfo
  14. Comments on the Impact of Knowledge on Economic Growth across the Regions of the Russian Federation By Jens K. Perret
  15. Will the real R&D employees please stand up? Effects of tax breaks on firm level outcomes By Irem Guceri
  16. Smart Specialization Strategies and Key Enabling Technologies. Regional evidence from European patent data. By Sandro Montresor; Francesco Quatraro
  17. Obstacles to progress in R&D activities caused by Institutional and Regulatory Frameworks: the case of the Biotech Sector in Colombia By Estrada, Fernando; Moscoso, Fabio F; Diaz, Natalia; Andrade, Nelson
  18. Good and bad innovations in the housing sector - General background and a policy proposal By Borg, Lena
  19. Growth Accounting and Endogenous Technical Change By Angus C., Chu; Guido, Cozzi
  20. The Comparative Economics of Catch-Up in Output per worker, total factor productivity and technological gain in Sub-Saharan Africa By Ssozi, John; Asongu, Simplice A
  21. Industrial Dynamics: A Review of the Literature 1990-2009 By Carlsson , Bo
  22. Communicating Sensory Attributes and Innovation Through Food Product Labeling By Caroline Lancelot Miltgen; Gaelle Pantin-Sohier; Bianca Grohmann
  23. Convince me or commit me? Avoid the cognitive trap induced by Non-Human Actors in early stages of NPD. By Fabien Jean; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  24. Design theory at Bauhaus: teaching “splitting” knowledge By Pascal Le Masson; Armand Hatchuel; Benoit Weil
  26. Dokumentation zur Innovationserhebung 2015 By Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben; Hünermund, Paul; Köhler, Mila; Iferd, Younes; Peters, Bettina
  27. Top Incomes, Rising Inequality, and Welfare By Kevin J. Lansing; Agnieszka Markiewicz
  28. Intra-Firm Diffusion of Green Energy Technologies and the Choice of Policy Instruments By Tobias Stucki; Martin Wörter
  29. Catching-up in a globalised context: Technological change as a driver of growth By Verspagen, Bart; Kaltenberg, Mary

  1. By: Uday Bhanu Sinha (Departments of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, University of Delhi, India)
    Abstract: We consider a mechanism for optimizing the value of a patent owned by an independent patent holder who is not a producer in the market. We consider two kinds of cost reducing innovations: “common innovation” and “new technology innovation” in a homogeneous good Cournot market with ex-ante asymmetric costs of production. We show that the value of the patent is maximized when the patent holder sells the patent to the efficient firm at a fixed payment who would further license the innovation to its rival. This patent sale dominates all other licensing mechanisms for both kinds of innovations.
    Keywords: Patent sale; licensing; asymmetric firms; cost reducing innovation; auction; fixed fee; royalty, two part tariff
    JEL: D43 D44 D45 L13 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Julian Baumann; Alexander S. Kritikos
    Abstract: We analyze the link between R&D, innovation, and productivity in MSMEs with a special focus on micro firms with fewer than 10 employees; usually constituting the majority of firms in industrialized economies. Using the German KfW SME panel, we examine to what extent micro firms are different from other firms in terms of innovativeness. We find that while firms engage in innovative activities with smaller probability, the smaller they are, for those firms that do make such investment, R&D intensity is larger the smaller firms are. For all MSMEs, the predicted R&D intensity is positively correlated with the probability of reporting innovation, with a larger effect size for product than for process innovations. Moreover, micro firms benefit in a comparable way from innovation processes as larger firms, as they are similarly able to increase their labor productivity. Overall, the link between R&D, innovation, and productivity in micro firms does not largely differ from their larger counterparts.
    Keywords: MSMEs, R&D, Innovation, Productivity
    JEL: L25 L60 O31 O33
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Stefania Cosci (LUMSA University); Valentina Meliciani (University of Teramo); Valentina Sabato (LUMSA University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of relationship lending on innovation (the probability to innovate and the intensity of innovation). Using a unique dataset providing detailed information on bank-firm relationships across European firms, we relate different proxies of relationship lending (soft information, long-lasting relationships, number of banks, share of the main bank) to innovation. We find a very strong and robust positive effect of ‘soft-information intensive’ relationships, a less robust positive effect of long-lasting relationships and a negative effect of credit concentration as measured by the number of banking relationships. We also find that ‘soft-information intensive’ relationships reduce credit rationing for innovative firms, while long-lasting relationships seem to favour innovation via other relational channels. These results raise some concern on the impact of screening processes based on automatic procedures, as those suggested by the Basel rules, on firms’ capability to finance innovative activities in Europe.
    Keywords: relationship lending; innovation; R&D; credit constraints; soft information
    JEL: G10 G21 G30 O30 O31
    Date: 2015–03
  4. By: Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben
    Abstract: Innovation activities in the German enterprise sector showed two opposing trends over the past two decades: While total innovation expenditures grew substantially, the number of firms conducting innovation activities fell sharply. Innovation expenditures hence concentrate on fewer firms. In this paper we analyse the evolution of firms' innovation and R&D activities. Based on panel data from the German part of the Community Innovation Survey covering a 13 years period (2001 to 2013) we use continuous-time Markov-Chains to analyse the changing properties of the firms' choices to conduct R&D and non-R&D innovation activities. Our findings are threefold. As compared to the pre-crisis period 2001-2007 there is a considerable change in innovation and R&D behaviour of German firms from 2008 onwards with an increasing number of firms exiting R&D and innovation activities. Smaller firms are the main driver behind this process, particularly with regard to quitting non-R&D innovation activities. Although smaller firms were also less likely to move to higher levels of innovativeness and R&D engagement and more likely to fall back in the pre-crisis period, these trends have been more pronounced in the crisis and even in the post-crisis period. Both public innovation support and better financial capabilities can increase the rate chances to move to higher levels of innovativeness and reduce the chances to fall back.
    JEL: O31 C22
    Date: 2016
  5. By: zerzeri, feriel
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate postulations on the relations between innovation activities and economic factors growth. The old explication of innovation are limited to the notions of technological progress but there si a new way to analyze innovation and it doesn't limit itself to the number of patent, it deals with improvements on production, process, organisation. This study focus on the determinants of innovations on a microeconomic and a macroeconomic level. This paper explain the role of the innovation system, the government role, the cooperation network and the human ressources capacity in improving tunisian firms growth.
    Keywords: Innovation, Economic growth, cooperation, patent, open innovation,networks, human ressources
    JEL: O31 O33 O44
    Date: 2016–01–18
  6. By: Inga Ivanova; Oivind Strand; Duncan Kushnir; Loet Leydesdorff
    Abstract: Hidalgo & Hausmann's (2009) Economic Complexity Index (ECI) measures the complexity of national economies in terms of product groups. Analogously to ECI, we develop the Patent Complexity Index (PatCI) on the basis of a matrix of nations versus patent classes. Using linear algebra, the three dimensions countries, product groups, and patent classes can be combined into an integrated ("Triple Helix") measure of complexity (THCI). We measure ECI, PatCI, and THCI during the period 2000-2014 for the 34 OECD member states, the BRICS countries, and a group of emerging economies (Argentina, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, Romania, and Singapore). The positive correlation between ECI and average income claimed as an argument for the predictive value of ECI cannot be confirmed using our data. The three complexity indicators are significantly correlated between themselves, yet each captures another aspect of the complexity. THCI adds the trilateral interaction terms among the three bilateral interactions, and can thus be expected to capture the extent of systems integration between the global dynamics of markets (ECI) and technologies (PatCI) in each national system of innovation. Of the world's major economies, Japan scores highest on all three indicators, while China has been increasingly successful in combining economic and technological complexity. Our empirical results raise questions about the interpretation and empirical fruitfulness of the complexity approach.
    Date: 2016–02
  7. By: Christian Longhi (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Since the development of the knowledge based economies, clusters and clusters policies have been the subject of increased interest, as sources of knowledge, innovation, and competitiveness. The paper focuses on a case study drawn from the French cluster policy, the pole of competitiveness ‘Secure Communicating Solutions’ in the French Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur Region, based on two high tech clusters, Rousset – Gémenos and Sophia-Antipolis. The policy aims to provide the firms incentives to build network relations of heterogeneous actors to trigger innovative processes. The analysis of the collaborative R&D projects of the pole provides insights on the nature of the collective learning networks working in the clusters as well as the prevailing organizational forms resulting from the firms strategies. It show that knowledge spillovers are not simply “in the air” but very specific of the learning networks and clusters from which they belong. Clusters thus need to be analyzed jointly with networks in order to understand the processes underlying their innovation capacity
    Keywords: Collective Learning Networks,Knowledge,Innovation,Clusters,Cluster Policy,Social Network Analysis
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Konstantin Fursov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Thomas Thurner (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the specificities of Russian user-innovators on a sample of 1670 home interviews. The percentage of end users who innovate in their daily life in the Russian population and the willingness to share one’s ideas and developments is much higher in comparison to western countries and probably historically rooted in long-standing community activities which spread during soviet times. Our data suggests the existence of two different groups of user-innovators: one group of urban, male, well educated, and financially better-situated individuals who innovate for career reasons (or for fun) vs. a much more diverse group of small town folks who innovate out of necessity. While the first group confirms findings well described in the literature, the second group seems to be unique to developing markets and to Russia in particular. User-innovation happens also in remote areas, and among user groups outside of the working age. As these user-innovators are reluctant to share their innovations with others and would rather keep them for themselves, a great source of ideas and commercial opportunity remains untouched. Russia’s innovation system has so far concentrated on the classical innovation modes around major cities or big companies. Given Russia’s extensive presence of user-innovators, it might be a promising policy move to provide greater support to existing and emerging amateur communities. We believe that our study adds insights into the informal and totally neglected viewpoint on Russia’s innovation.
    Keywords: user innovation, innovation community, Russia
    JEL: H00 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Paul J.J. Welfens (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: The innovative approach presented introduces a modified neoclassical growth model which includes a new bias of technological progress in a quasi-endogenous growth model in which part of labor is used in the research & development sector. The combination of a macroeconomic production function and a new progress function, plus the assumption that the output elasticity of capital is positively influenced by the size of the R&D sector, sheds new light on innovation and growth as well as income inequality: Thus there is a new approach for explaining Piketty’s historical findings of a medium term rise of the capital income share in industrialized countries – both in the earlier and later part of the 19th century and in 1990-2010. In the approach presented herein, the golden rule issues are also highlighted and it is shown that choosing the right size of the R&D sector will bring about maximum sustainable per capita consumption. While the basic new model is presented for the case of a closed economy, one could easily accommodate both trade and foreign direct investment and thereby get a better understanding of complex international investment, trade and FDI dynamics – including with respect to the envisaged Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
    Keywords: Innovation, Growth, Inequality, Golden Rule, Piketty
    JEL: O11 O32 O40 D63
    Date: 2015–03
  10. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: Environmental protection technology plays an important role in a sustainable society, simultaneously promoting economic development and pollution control. This study examines the determinants of technology inventions related to environmental protection in Japan. We use patent application data in a decomposition analysis framework. We find that environmental patent applications increase according to the prioritization of environmental patents by private companies and according to efficiency improvements in patent applications in the public sector. Additionally, patent applications related to emissions trading increased rapidly among private companies, mainly due to their increased priority after 2005. The different determinants of environmental technologies between the private and public sectors are useful for formulating effective policies to promote environmental innovation.
    Keywords: Green invention; decomposition analysis; research and development strategy; patent data; log mean Divisia index
    JEL: O32 Q55
    Date: 2016–02
  11. By: Ioannis Bournakis; Dimitris Christopoulos; Sushanta Mallick
    Abstract: Given the decline in growth momentum in the manufacturing sector in many OECD countries, the role of knowledge-based capital has emerged as a key driver for sustained growth. While empirical studies on estimating knowledge spillovers have usually been undertaken at the country level, the spillover effects can be more definitive only if the analysis is conducted at the industry-level. The effectiveness of international spillovers is conditional on recipient country’s absorptive capacity and this is an important component of the spillover mechanism that has not attracted significant attention so far. This paper therefore assesses the effect of spillovers in driving per capita output growth taking into account the role of absorptive capacity. Our main findings are first, that there is evidence for a robust positive relationship between human capital and output growth across these countries at industry level. Second, the potential of international spillover gains is greater in countries with higher human capital and a more protective environment as far as intellectual property rights are concerned. Countries that improve their absorptive capacity can potentially increase gains from spillovers either via trade or FDI (including vertical FDI). Finally, significant heterogeneity is found between high and low-tech industries with high-tech group displaying greater knowledge spillovers, suggesting that low-tech industries need to be more innovative in order to absorb the technological advancements of domestic and international rivals.
    Keywords: Growth; R&D; Knowledge Spillovers; Absorptive Capacity; Human Capital; Intellectual Property Rights.
    JEL: E24 F1 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–04
  12. By: Elert, Niklas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Lundblad, Joakim (Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE))
    Abstract: Evasive entrepreneurs innovate by circumventing or disrupting existing formal institutional frameworks by evading them. Since such evasions rarely go unnoticed, they usually lead to responses from lawmakers and regulators. We introduce a conceptual model to illustrate and map the interdependence between evasive entrepreneurship and the regulatory response it provokes. We apply this framework to the case of the file sharing platform The Pirate Bay, a venture with a number of clearly innovative and evasive features. The platform was a radical, widely applied innovation that transformed the Internet landscape, yet its founders became convicted criminals because of it. Applying the evasive entrepreneurship framework to this case improves our understanding of the relationship between policymaking and entrepreneurship in the digital age, and is a first step towards exploring best responses for regulators facing evasive entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Regulation; Self-employment
    JEL: L50 M13 O31 P14
    Date: 2016–01–06
  13. By: Castillo, Victoria; Figal-Garone, Lucas; Maffioli, Alessandro; Rojo, Sofia; Stucchi, Rodolfo
    Abstract: We estimate the effects of knowledge spillovers on firms’ performance and workers’ wages. We use an innovation support program as an exogenous shock to the knowledge of non-participant firms and an employer-employee dataset to track the mobility of workers—and knowledge diffusion—between firms. We find that non-participants that acquired new knowledge by hiring skilled workers exposed to the program increased employment, the average wage they pay, exports, and productivity. Finally, we find that—depending on the level of competition—a wage premium was paid either by participant or non-participant firms to retain or acquire workers.
    Keywords: Knowledge spillover, Labor mobility, Innovation, Panel data
    JEL: D2 J3 O3 O38
    Date: 2016–01–30
  14. By: Jens K. Perret (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW))
    Abstract: Using a basic growth accounting approach it is deduced how far the regional knowledge infrastructure plays any significant role across the regions of the Russian Federation. Aside from aspects of the size of the regional innovation system, like the number of researchers and students, it is discussed in how far the inflow and outflow of knowledge plays a role in determining the economic growth. The study shows thereby that while the Russian growth dynamics are indeed driven by the exploitation of natural resources, foremost of oil and gas, a significant part of Russian growth is due to its innovation system. This shows that innovation oriented growth politics as promoted by former president Dmitry Medvedev do have a solid foundation to be built on.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Russian Federation, Knowledge, Innovations
    JEL: O31 P25
    Date: 2015–04
  15. By: Irem Guceri (Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the effect of R&D tax incentives in a quasi-experimental setting. I identify the impact by exploiting a reform in UK policy which increased the SME threshold from 250 to 500 employees. First, I provide evidence that tax incentives help to increase R&D spending at the company level, and the effect translates to a user cost elasticity of -1.18. Second, R&D generated through the reform may be attributable to an increase in the number of R&D employees. I use R&D survey data for which the companies do not have an incentive to relabel their ordinary spending as R&D.
    Keywords: R&D, tax credits, difference-in-differences
    JEL: H25 O30
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Sandro Montresor; Francesco Quatraro
    Abstract: The paper investigates the drivers of Smart Specialisation Strategies (S3) with a focus on Key Enabling Technologies (KETs). We re-examine the interpretation of S3 as new regional technological advantages (RTAs) obtained through relatedness, by reconceptualising within it the original focus on General Purpose Technologies (GPTs) and by considering their inter-regional spillovers. Combing regional patent and economic data for a 30-year panel (1980-2010) of 26 European countries, we find that KETs positively impact on new RTAs, pointing to a novel “enabling” role for them. KETs also negatively moderate the RTAs-impact of cognitively proximate pre-existing technologies, suggesting that KETs could make relatedness less binding in pursuing S3. The net-impact of KETs is positive, pointing to a new case for plugging KETs in the S3 policy tool-box. Furthermore, KETs also display cross-regional spillovers in their RTAs-impact, leaving KETs “poor” regions with a possible back-up from closer KETs “rich” ones.
    Keywords: Smart Specialization Strategies, Key Enabling Technologies, Relatedness, Revealed Technological Advantages
    JEL: R11 R58 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–08
  17. By: Estrada, Fernando; Moscoso, Fabio F; Diaz, Natalia; Andrade, Nelson
    Abstract: This article is based on an exhaustive review of empirical evidence from secondary sources of information seeking to answer the research question: What are the main obstacles raised by the Institutional and Regulatory framework for R&D activities in Colombia’s biotechnology sector? The main findings indicate: (I) that there is a flawed competitive environment that tends to create oligopolies and other scenarios that facilitate the hoarding of information and knowledge and prevent access by many scientists to relevant new information breakthroughs, thus generating material asymmetries between the scientific communities of developed and developing countries; and (II) that other obstacles, generally associated with government shortcomings, produce non-financial transaction costs in terms of time and administrative processes, that represent significant impediments to the development of the biotechnology industry and which, in the Colombian case, have slowed progress in the sector.
    Keywords: Biotechnology, Property Rights, Public Policy, Institutional Environment.
    JEL: H41 O11 O14 O16 O34 Q14 Q18
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Borg, Lena (Department of Real Estate and Construction Management, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: Purpose – The purpose is to propose a classification system for techniques to increase awareness of the uncertainties and risk connected to new techniques and materials, especially when the buyer is a non-professional client. The new classification system should increase information flow and decrease the problem occurring in principal-agent relationships in terms of moral hazard. The aim is also to shift the focus of the discussion from the quantity of innovations to how incentives can be created to further "good" innovations and to reduce the risk of "bad" innovations. The paper explores how housing firms in Sweden, municipal and private firms, are positioning themselves to implement new techniques and contracts in the construction sector. Design/methodology/approach – The paper combines a literature review with an on-line questionnaire in combination with three face-to-face semi-structured interviews. The key data were collected from actors that build for their own management. Findings – The paper reports two main findings. First, actors that build for their own management are risk-averse. Second, it seems that a classification system could be a good way to handle the uncertainties and risk connected to innovations in the housing construction sector. The study also underlines the need for an active public sector which takes responsibility for helping the sector to open up for more firms that will invest in the right kind of innovations. Originality/value – The paper is one of the few that focus on discussing the potential of shifting the focus from the quantity of innovations to how incentives can be created to further "good" innovations and to reduce the risk of "bad" innovations. Also, it proposes a two-step classification system for new technical innovation to achieve increased transparency and reduced information asymmetry in the construction sector.
    Keywords: Innovations; Housing construction; Procurement; Incentives
    JEL: L74 O31 R33
    Date: 2015–11–05
  19. By: Angus C., Chu; Guido, Cozzi
    Abstract: This study examines the validity of two conventional approaches to growth accounting under endogenous technical change. We find that the traditional approach to growth accounting, pioneered by Solow (1957), is consistent with the lab-equipment specification for technological progress, whereas the more recent approach, proposed by Hayashi and Prescott (2002) and Kehoe and Prescott (2002), is consistent with the knowledge-driven specification. We develop a unified approach to growth accounting, which in essence takes a weighted average of the Solow approach and the Hayashi-Kehoe-Prescott approach. We show that our unified approach is consistent with a more general specification for technological progress under which the degree of capital intensity in the innovation process determines the relative weight placed on the two approaches. Finally, we apply our unified approach to data of the Chinese economy to explore the quantitative importance of capital accumulation on economic growth in China.
    Keywords: growth accounting; endogenous technical change; capital accumulation
    JEL: O3 O4
    Date: 2016–02
  20. By: Ssozi, John; Asongu, Simplice A
    Abstract: After investigating the effect of external financial flows on total factor productivity and technological gain, we use the beta catch-up and sigma convergence to compare dispersions in output per worker, total factor productivity and technological gain in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for the years 1980-2010. The comparative evidence is articulated with income levels, years of schooling, and health factors. We find; first, a positive association between foreign direct investment, trade openness, foreign aid, remittances and total factor productivity. However, when foreign direct investment is interacted with schooling, it is direct effect becomes negative on total factor productivity. Second, beta catch-up is between19.22% and 19.70% per annum with corresponding time to full catch-up of 25.38 years and 26.01 years respectively. Third, we find sigma-convergence among low-income nations and upper-middle income nations separately, but not for the entire sample together. Fourth, schooling in SSA is not yet a significant source of technology, but it can make external financial inflows more effective. Policies to induce external financial flows are not enough for development if absorptive capacity is low. More policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: External capital flows, Human capital, Total Factor Productivity, Convergence, and Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: E23 F21 O11 O33 O55
    Date: 2015–09
  21. By: Carlsson , Bo (Case Western Reserve University, Weatherhead School of Management, Department of Economics, Cleveland and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the literature in the field of Industrial Dynamics as it has emerged since I first introduced the term in 1985. Nearly 8,000 articles in 12 major journals have been reviewed and classified under five broad themes that constitute the basic questions in industrial dynamics: 1. The causes of industrial development and economic growth, including the dynamics and evolution of industries and the role of entrepreneurship 2. The nature of economic activity in the firm and the dynamics of supply, particularly the role of knowledge. 3. How the boundaries and interdependence of firms change over time and contribute to economic transformation. 4. Technological change and its institutional framework, especially systems of innovation. 5. The role of public policy in facilitating adjustment of the economy to changing circumstances at both micro and macro levels. Under each theme, the main findings and their implications for theory and policy are summarized.
    Keywords: industrial dynamics; literature review; knowledge; technological change; institutions; growth
    JEL: D00 D20 L00 O30
    Date: 2016–01–18
  22. By: Caroline Lancelot Miltgen (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Gaelle Pantin-Sohier (UA - Université d'Angers); Bianca Grohmann (Concordia University - CONCORDIA UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: This article explores the influence of food product packaging on consumers’ sensory expectations and perceived newness of the product. Two experiments examine to what extent consumers use product typicality, graphical representations, and package typicality in evaluating new food products. Study 1 finds that (1) a typical flavor induces more positive expectations of pleasantness, taste, color, and smell, and (2) the presence of graphic representation on product labels increases perceived pleasantness but does not affect sensory expectations. Study 2 indicates that the product seems newer in the absence of a package (label-only condition), but when the product packaging is presented, an atypical package conveys more newness than a typical package. These results provide practical guidelines for the design and introduction of innovative food products.
    Keywords: Communication of sensory information, consumer expectations, new food products, packaging, sensory attributes
    Date: 2015–12–21
  23. By: Fabien Jean (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Akrich, Callon & Latour's concept of interessement has been broadly used in NPD. A gap in this theoretical stream of research remains in the difference between human actors' commitment and convincement. The first concerns the enrolment of competent allies while the second concerns arousing top managers' approbation. To address this gap, our qualitative research takes place at SAFRAN, a corporate conglomerate of highly specialised companies. We take the focus of non-human actors (NHA) involved in early stages of NPD analysing 28 NHA of 5 different representational media in 4 different contexts. To characterise NHAs we review the literature on artefacts made within NPD and identify two utmost types (A and B). We find that NHAs which match type A artefacts do better at convincing in prospect of an entry gate to development and that NHAs which match type B artefacts do better at committing in the ideation process. The difficulty for managers is that type A or type B artefacts cannot be recognised according to their representational medium. The consequence is a misunderstanding: some NHA which match type B artefacts create no interessement because type A artefacts were expected, introducing the risk of missing an innovation opportunity. However their failure may not be definitive as managers have the ability to switch from convincement logic to commitment logic. This change in interaction is more probable to happen in informal meetings than in distant artefacts review. Some NHA take advantage of their A-B artefact ambiguity, human actors interact with them by alternating logics, inducing richer decisionmaking and ideation. We conclude that if managers were aware of the two types of artefacts they could adapt their attitude accordingly and take better decisions. We suggest that managers favour artefacts presentations in informal meetings to favour switching between convincement and commitment logics and avoid the cognitive trap.
    Keywords: innovation, prototype, artefacts, ideation, decision, actor-network theory
    Date: 2014–06–15
  24. By: Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Armand Hatchuel (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Recent advances in design theory help clarify the logic, forms and conditions of generativity. In particular, the formal model of forcing predicts that high-level generativity (so-called generic generativity) can only be reached if the knowledge structure meets the 'splitting condition'. We test this hypothesis for the case of Bauhaus (1919–1933), where we can expect strong generativity and where we have access to the structures of knowledge provided by teaching. We analyse teaching at Bauhaus by focusing on the courses of Itten and Klee. We show that these courses aimed to increase students' creative design capabilities by providing the students with methods of building a knowledge base with two critical features: 1) a knowledge structure that is characterized by non-determinism and non-modularity and 2) a design process that helps students progressively 'superimpose' languages on the object. From the results of the study, we confirm the hypothesis deduced from design theory; we reveal unexpected conditions on the knowledge structure required for generativity and show that the structure is different from the knowledge structure and design process of engineering systematic design; and show that the conditions required for generativity, which can appear as a limit on generativity, can also be positively interpreted. The example of Bauhaus shows that enabling a splitting condition is a powerful way to increase designers' generativity.
    Keywords: design theory, industrial design, engineering design, splitting condition, generativity
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Mohammad Saleh Farazi (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Ana Pérez-Luño (Department of Business Organization and Marketing, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Shanthi Gopalakrishnan (School of Management, New Jersey Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This study focuses on knowledge structuration and its strategic implications for new research-intensive firms. These firms mainly pursue growth strategies by leveraging their knowledge-based resources and capabilities in inter-organizational relationships, while they are typically constrained on other resources. Therefore, they need to strategically develop and structure their knowledge resources in a way that guarantees their survival and serves their future goals best. Taking biotechnology firms as our research setting, we first identify groups of firms with similar generic knowledge structuration, i.e. depth and breadth of knowledge possessed by the firm. Then, drawing from organizational learning theory and knowledge-based view, we discuss how strategically structuring the technological knowledge of the firm can affect the benefits it gains from collaborating with other organizations. We provide research propositions for different strategic groups and theoretically link knowledge structuration to both exploration and exploitation alliances.
    Keywords: Knowledge strategy, structuration, depth, breadth, alliance, biotechnology
    Date: 2016–02
  26. By: Rammer, Christian; Schubert, Torben; Hünermund, Paul; Köhler, Mila; Iferd, Younes; Peters, Bettina
    Abstract: Das Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) erhebt seit 1993 im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) und in Kooperation mit dem Fraunhofer-Institut für System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI) und dem Institut für angewandte Sozialwissenschaften (infas) jährlich die Innovationsaktivitäten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Die Innovationserhebung ist als eine Panelerhebung konzipiert und wird als Mannheimer Innovationspanel (MIP) bezeichnet. Sie ist alle zwei Jahre der deutsche Beitrag zu den Community Innovation Surveys (CIS) der Europäischen Kommission. Die hier dokumentierte Erhebung des Jahres 2015 fand wieder im Rahmen der CIS statt. Auf europäischer Ebene wurde diese Erhebungswelle als "CIS 2014" bezeichnet, da sich die Benennung der CIS-Erhebungen am Berichtsjahr orientiert. Der vorliegende Bericht dokumentiert wesentliche Ergebnisse der in Deutschland durchgeführten Erhebung des Jahres 2015. Ein Vergleich mit Ergebnissen des CIS 2014 aus anderen Ländern ist zum Zeitpunkt der Berichterstellung (Ende 2015) nicht möglich, da Ergebnisse des CIS 2014 auf europäischer Ebene erst in der zweiten Jahreshälfte 2016 veröffentlicht werden.
    Date: 2016
  27. By: Kevin J. Lansing (Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, and Norges Bank); Agnieszka Markiewicz (Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This paper develops a general-equilibrium model of skill-biased technological change that approximates the observed shifts in the shares of wage and non-wage income going to the top decile of U.S. households since 1980. Under realistic assumptions, we find that all agents can benefit from the technology change, provided that the observed rise in redistributive transfers over this period is taken into account. We show that the increase in capital’s share of total income and the presence of capital-entrepreneurial skill complementarity are two key features that help support the wages of ordinary workers as the new technology diffuses.
    Keywords: Income Inequality, Skill-biased Technological Change, Capital-skill
    JEL: E32 E44 H23 O33
    Date: 2012–10–26
  28. By: Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Martin Wörter (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Environmental benefits only unfold if green (environmentally friendly) technologies are widely diffused and intensively deployed within a firm. We investigate how different types of policies - directly and in combination - affect the number of different green energy technologies adopted by a single firm (intra-firm diffusion). Using data from a dedicated survey on the diffusion of green energy technologies of 1200 Swiss firms and applying well-identified econometric models, we found that energy taxes are a very effective policy instrument for the intra-firm diffusion of green energy technologies. Even more important, however, are non-political measures that show the largest effect among all tested instruments. Additional analyses show that (a) time-consistency in policy making is more important for energy tax regimes than for regulations and (b) no evidence for complementarities between the policy types could be identified.
    Keywords: Technology Adoption, Innovation, Policies, Intra-firm diffusion, Survey data
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2016–01
  29. By: Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University, SBE); Kaltenberg, Mary (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper aims to understand the role that technology plays, particularly in structural change, as a driver of economic growth. Noting the exceptional few countries that succeeded in becoming a developed state and the accelerated period of globalisation (1995 - 2009), we analyse growth patterns at the product, sectoral and macroeconomic levels. Utilising trade data, we detail the type of complex products exported as a reflection of a nation's latent capabilities. At the sectoral level, technological shifts are observed through a TFP analysis to understand how countries use technological progress at varying development stages to realise economic growth. Finally, we use input-output analysis for a macroeconomic perspective on the impact of globalisation on production by sector and on demand patterns of foreign and domestic markets, both globally and regionally
    Keywords: Innovation, Technological Change, Economic development, Economic Growth, Structural change, International Trade, Convergence, Input-Output analysis
    JEL: C67 F14 O11 O12 O30 O47
    Date: 2015–12–01

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