nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2016‒02‒29
38 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship By Backman, Mikaela; Lööf, Hans
  2. Innovation Performance of Chilean SMEs: A Bivariate Probit Analysis By Rehman, Naqeeb Ur
  3. Do R&D and ICT Affect Total Factor Productivity Growth Differently? By Edquist, Harald; Henrekson, Magnus
  4. ERAWATCH Country Reports 2012: Italy By Leopoldo Nascia; Bianca Potì; Emanuela Reale
  5. Uncovering Regional Clustering of high technology SMEs: Russian Case By Vera Barinova; Denis Burkov; Stepan Zemtsov; Vladimir Eremkin
  6. Measuring creativity: Learning from innovation measurement By Stéphane Lhuillery; Julio Raffo; Intan Hamdan-Livramento
  7. Entrepreneurship and Innovation: New Entries, Survival, Growth By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Marco Vivarelli
  8. Immigration and Innovation: Chinese Graduate Students in U.S. Universities By Patrick Gaule; Mario Piacentini
  9. To Be Born Is Not Enough: The Key Role of Innovative Startups By Colombelli, Alessandra; Krafft, Jackie; Vivarelli, Marco
  10. Unternehmensgründungen: Mehr innovative Startups durch einen Kulturwandel für Entrepreneurship? By Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
  11. Trade Competition, Technology and Labor Re-allocation By Bahar Baziki, Selva; Ginja, Rita; Borota Milicevic, Teodora
  12. Stagnation Traps By Gianluca Benigno; Luca Fornaro
  13. From technological to symbolic innovation? Open source, Maker Movement and global demand for 3D printers By Fassio, Claudio; Grilli, Luca
  14. The Joint Influencing Mechanism of Proximities and Knowledge Base on Multinational Companies’ Global Innovation Networks By Liu , Ju; Liefner , Ingo
  15. Développement d'une expérimentation visant à révéler la valeur client de quelques innovations pour l'automobile By Muller, L.; Ruffieux, B.; Astruc, C.; Blumenthal, D.
  16. Empirical Analysis of Factors Promoting Product Innovation in ASEAN Economies: Focusing on Absorptive Capacity and ICT Use By Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Ueki, Yasushi; Shinohara, Sobee
  17. Determinants of trade: the role of innovation in presence of quality standards By Maria Cipollina; Federica Demaria; Filomena Pietrovito
  18. Organisational change and the productivity effects of green technology adoption By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
  19. Digital Dynamism: How IT and social media are enhancing business opportunities for Sri Lankan entrepreneurs  By Anushka Wijesinha
  20. Analyzing Challenges & Opportunities of Ethiopian SMEs: Micro & Macro Economic Drivers By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  21. Empower Workers to Innovate and Entrepreneurship: Raison d'être of Successful Workers Cooperatives By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  22. Strategic Entrepreneurship and Knowledge Spillovers: Spatial and Aspatial Perspectives By Tavassoli, Sam; Bengtsson, Lars; Karlsson , Charlie
  23. Assessing the Effects of Kyoto Mechanisms on the Diffusion of Climate Change Mitigation Technologies By Imai, Kenichi
  24. What determines entepreneurial failure: taking advantage of the institutional context By Lucio Fuentelsaz; Consuelo González-Gil; Juan P. Maicas
  25. New employment experiences and trajectories between salary-earning and entrepreneurs By Isabela Dos Santos Paes; Géraldine Guérillot; Jean-Luc Moriceau; Julien Billion
  26. Integrated Macroeconomic Production Function for Open Economies: A New Schumpeterian Solow Model for Globalization By Welfens, Paul J. J.
  27. Industry Clustering and Unemployment in US Regions: An Exploratory Note By Lambert, Thomas; Mattson, Gary; Dorriere, Kyle
  28. Structuration processes in complex dynamic systems - an overview and reassessment By Gräbner, Claudius; Heinrich, Torsten; Kudic, Muhamed
  29. Ultra-Broadband For All In Europe: Can Access Regulation Hinder Innovation And Welfare Maximisation? By Amendola, Giovanni Battista
  30. Research output indicators are not productivity indicators By Javier Ruiz-Castillo
  31. Le régime de production des « savoirs explicités à destination des gestionnaires » de l’invention de l’imprimerie au début de la Révolution industrielle, By Cédric Poivret
  32. Diffussion of ICT-products and "five Russias" By Baburin, Vyacheslav; Zemtsov, Stepan
  33. Differences in Job De-Routinization in OECD Countries: Evidence from PIAAC By de la Rica, Sara; Gortazar, Lucas
  35. Social Innovation in the Local Public Sector: A Cross-Regional Approach for Romania By Matei, Ani; Savulescu, Carmen; Antonovici, Corina Georgiana
  36. Does skill-biased technical change diffuse internationally? By Schulte, Patrick
  37. Virtue as Competence in the Entrepreneurial Society By Karlson, Nils; Fergin, Elina
  38. The impact of network competition in the mobile industry By Houpis, George; Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Ovington, Thomas; Serdarevic, Goran

  1. By: Backman, Mikaela (Jönköping University, & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This introduction to the special issue “The Geography of Innovation and Entrepreneurship” in Annals of Regional Science surveys a collection of nine papers which consider agglomeration economies and spatial heterogeneity of regions and firms through the lenses of innovation and entrepreneurship. They all make use of extensive and detailed data sources that enable models to provide a richer picture of how firms, industries and regions are affected by innovation and entrepreneurship but also how these entities shape and foster renewal. These factors include spatial concentration, industry composition, labour market characteristics, immigration, firm characteristics, R&D activities and R&D collaboration. The papers add to the understanding of the geography of innovation and entrepreneurship by suggesting alternative ways of identifying spillovers, combing and integrating internal and external knowledge sources, and by estimating the impact on innovation, new firm formation and growth.
    Keywords: Innovation; entreprenurship; spillovers; regional economy; spatial heterogeneity
    JEL: C10 O30 R10
    Date: 2015–09–11
  2. By: Rehman, Naqeeb Ur
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the innovation activities of Chilean firms’ by using micro level data. Previous studies showed research gap related to micro level analysis of the Chilean SMEs. For the first time, multiple proxies have been used as dependent variables (product/process innovations and patent application/spending), which is neglected by the past studies. A micro level data has been obtained from the World Bank, Enterprise Survey on 696 Chilean SMEs. Bivariate probit estimation method has been used. Results: The results showed that SMEs are less likely to apply for patents and introduce product innovations. This outcome indicates that Chilean SMEs face resource constraint in terms of introducing product innovations and applying for patents. In addition, SMEs undertaking R&D and making network ties with other research institutions are more likely to introduce patents and product innovations. Similarly, SMEs that are engage in quality programs are more likely to spend on patents. Lastly, SMEs with public support for innovation activities positively influence the patent application. Findings imply that SMEs investment in knowledge based assets (e.g., R&D, networks and quality methods) accelerate their innovation output. Policy makers should not only provide financial incentives (R&D subsidies) to SMEs but also encourage their strong ties with research institutions for higher innovation output.
    Keywords: Innovation, R&D, SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2016–01–04
  3. By: Edquist, Harald (Erricsson Research); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: We analyze the effect of ICT and R&D on total factor productivity (TFP) growth across different industries in Sweden. R&D alone is significantly associated with contemporaneous TFP growth, thus exhibiting spillover effects. Although there is no significant short-run association between ICT and TFP, we find a positive association with a lag of seven to eight years. Thus, spillovers from R&D affect TFP much faster than spillovers from ICT-investments. We also divide ICT capital into hardware and software capital. To our knowledge, this distinction has not been made in any previous study analyzing TFP at the industry level. The results show that lagged hardware capital services growth is significantly associated with TFP growth. Hence, investments complementary to hardware are needed to reap the long-run TFP effects from reorganizing production.
    Keywords: ICT; R&D; Spillovers; Total factor productivity; Panel data analysis
    JEL: L16 O33 O47
    Date: 2016–02–08
  4. By: Leopoldo Nascia (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica); Bianca Potì (CERIS – CNR); Emanuela Reale (CERIS – CNR)
    Abstract: This analytical country report is one of a series of annual ERAWATCH reports produced for EU Member States and Countries Associated to the Seventh Framework Programme for Research of the European Union (FP7). The main objective of the ERAWATCH Annual Country Reports is to characterise and assess the performance of national research systems and related policies in a structured manner that is comparable across countries. The Country Report 2012 builds on and updates the 2011 edition. The report identifies the structural challenges of the national research and innovation system and assesses the match between the national priorities and the structural challenges, highlighting the latest developments, their dynamics and impact in the overall national context. They further analyse and assess the ability of the policy mix in place to consistently and efficiently tackle these challenges. These reports were originally produced in December 2012, focusing on policy developments over the previous twelve months. The reports were produced by independent experts under direct contract with IPTS. The analytical framework and the structure of the reports have been developed by the Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the Joint Research Centre (JRC-IPTS) and Directorate General for Research and Innovation with contributions from external experts.
    Keywords: European research and innovation policy, Innovation Union, ERAWATCH, European Research Area, Policy Mixes, Transnational and International Cooperation, NETWATCH, ERA Nets, Foresight, Joint programming of research, Researchers, Universities
    Date: 2014–03
  5. By: Vera Barinova (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Denis Burkov (RANEPA); Stepan Zemtsov (RANEPA); Vladimir Eremkin (RANEPA)
    Abstract: The Soviet Union predetermined Russia’s economic activity’s location patterns. While the main forms of industry organization were territorial production complexes (TPC) - networks of industrial organizations united by a single technological process, - switch to the market economy in the early 90s destroyed economic ties within the TPC, leading to fragmentation of large enterprises and formation of a number of independent firms. Some scientists believe that this situation over the last 20 years could serve as a necessary foundation for clusters’ formation. Nowadays interest in clusters in Russia is rekindled due to the need to find new support mechanisms for production and innovation in a stagnating economy. The Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation has initiated a project to support pilot territorial innovation clusters with infrastructure formation funding. The aim of this work is to identify clusters as areas of geographical concentration of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in high technology sector. Authors also try to check, whether existing cluster initiatives comply with the actual concentration of high-tech SMEs and whether there is any potential for new cluster initiatives. The present paper analysis exploits modified methodology, based on localization index. The study provides tables and maps, reflecting small and medium businesses concentration in Russian regions using evidence from high and medium-high technology industries. The authors empirically confirm the existence of traditional and well-known clusters and identify new concentrations of firms in Russia. This useful information can be used for policy advice.
    Keywords: cluster identification, localization, SME, Russian regions, industrial complex, territorial innovation cluster, innovation, high technology, innovative firms
    JEL: F34 G24 O18 O47 R11
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Stéphane Lhuillery (ICN Business School & BETA-CNRS 7522, Nancy, France.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Intan Hamdan-Livramento (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.)
    Abstract: There is a growing interest in broadening the measurement scope of innovation and considering “creative” activities, meaning that the usual indicators of innovation satisfy neither scholars nor policy makers. Conceptually, there is not much difference between innovative and creative activity: but to what extent are current measures that capture innovation relevant for creativity? Can the new measures for creativity benefit from the experience accumulated through R&D and innovation? Our article provides insights and lessons learned from using measures of innovative activities for scholars who are interested in capturing creative activities. We underscore the difficulties faced when measuring innovation and draw some parallels of these difficulties with the efforts undertaken to measure creativity.
    Keywords: innovation metrics; creativity measurement; patents; copyrights.
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2016–02
  7. By: Alessandra Colombelli (DIGEP, Politecnico di Torino; BRICK, Collegio Carlo Alberto); Jackie Krafft (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis; GREDEG-CNRS); Marco Vivarelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milano; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the reasons why entry per se is not necessarily good and the evidence showing that innovative startups survive longer than their non-innovative counterparts. In this framework, our own empirical analysis shows that greater survival is achieved when startups engage successfully in both product innovation and process innovation, with a key role of the latter. Moreover, this study goes beyond a purely microeconomic perspective and discusses the key role of the environment within which innovative entries occur. What shown and discussed in this contribution strongly supports the proposal that the creation and survival of innovative start-ups should become one qualifying point of the economic policy agenda.
    Keywords: innovation, startups, survival, product innovation, process innovation
    JEL: L26 O33
    Date: 2016–02
  8. By: Patrick Gaule; Mario Piacentini
    Abstract: Immigration is rapidly changing the composition of the R&D workforce in the United States. We study here Chinese chemists and chemical engineers who migrate to the United States for their graduate studies. We analyze productivity at the individual researcher level, thus bypassing the identification issues that earlier studies had to confront when analyzing the relationship between immigration and innovation at the university or firm level. Using new data and measurement techniques, we find robust evidence that Chinese students make disproportionate contributions to the scientific output of their advisors and departments. We attribute this result to a selection effect as it is relatively more difficult for Chinese students to gain admission to U.S. PhD programs. Our results strengthen the case for liberal student migration policies.
    Keywords: high-skilled migration; students; universities; China;
    JEL: F22 I23 O15 O33 J61
    Date: 2015–01
  9. By: Colombelli, Alessandra (Politecnico di Torino); Krafft, Jackie (GREDEG-CNRS); Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the reasons why entry per se is not necessarily good and the evidence showing that innovative startups survive longer than their non-innovative counterparts. In this framework, our own empirical analysis shows that greater survival is achieved when startups engage successfully in both product innovation and process innovation, with a key role of the latter. Moreover, this study goes beyond a purely microeconomic perspective and discusses the key role of the environment within which innovative entries occur. What is shown and discussed in this contribution strongly supports the proposal that the creation and survival of innovative start-ups should become one qualifying point of the economic policy agenda.
    Keywords: innovation, startups, survival, product innovation, process innovation
    JEL: L26 O33
    Date: 2016–02
  10. By: Röhl, Klaus-Heiner
    Abstract: Europa hinkt im Vergleich zu den Vereinigten Staaten oder Israel bei der Zahl erfolgreicher Startups hinterher. Innovationsstarke Gründungen, die innerhalb weniger Jahre zu globalen Konzernen wie Google oder Amazon heranwachsen, finden nicht hier statt. In vielen Staaten und Regionen Europas gibt es eine hartnäckige Wachstumsschwäche mit hoher Arbeitslosigkeit, zu deren Überwindung auch ein Gründungsboom zur Umsetzung neuer kreativer Ideen beitragen könnte. Selbst in Deutschland, das eine gute makroökonomische Performance vorweist, sinken die Gründungszahlen seit mehreren Jahren. Vieles weist darauf hin, dass die konstatierte Gründungsschwäche Europas auch eine kulturelle Dimension besitzen könnte. Besonders gründungsstarke Regionen, die auf innovative Start-ups konzentriert sind, haben offenbar einen starken 'Entrepreneurial Spirit'. In diesem Policy Paper wird deshalb der Frage nachgegangen, was die 'Entrepreneurial Culture' erfolgreicher Gründungsregionen ausmacht und inwieweit eine unterschiedliche Gründungskultur zu den Differenzen im Gründungsgeschehen zwischen weiten Teilen Europas und anderen hoch entwickelten Volkswirtschaften, speziell den Vereinigten Staaten, Großbritannien und Israel, beiträgt. Neben den gesellschaftlichen und institutionellen Rahmenbedingungen einer Gründerkultur wird auch auf die Persönlichkeitsstruktur erfolgreicher Entrepreneure beleuchtet. Nach einem internationalen Vergleich der Gründungsquoten wird auf die unterschiedlichen Startup-Systeme in Europa, Amerika und Israel eingegangen, die auch auf Unterschiede in der Verfügbarkeit von Wagniskapital zurückzuführen sein dürften. Abschließend wird die Rolle des Bildungssystems in der Vermittlung von wirtschaftlichen Kenntnissen sowie Entrepreneurship beleuchtet, bevor im Fazit Empfehlungen zum Ausbau von Gründerkultur und Risikobereitschaft gegeben werden.
    Abstract: Europe is lagging behind the United States and Israel in the number of successful start-ups. Highly innovative start-ups that grow to become global companies the size of Google or Amazon within just a few years are not being founded here. Many of Europe’s countries and regions are experiencing persistent low growth with high unemployment, which is something a boom in new companies implementing new creative ideas could help alleviate. Even in Germany, which has a much better macroeconomic performance, the number of companies being founded has been falling for several years. There are strong indicators that Europe’s aforementioned weakness when it comes to the starting of new companies may also have a cultural dimension. Regions which are seeing particularly strong numbers of innovative start-ups being founded appear to have a strong entrepreneurial spirit. This policy paper will therefore examine what defines the entrepreneurial culture of successful start-up regions and to what extent different entrepreneurial cultures contribute to the differences in entrepreneurial activity between large areas of continental Europe and other highly developed economies, especially the United States, the United Kingdom, and Israel. This paper will examine both the societal and institutional framework that exists in an entrepreneurial culture and the personality structure of successful entrepreneurs. Following an international comparison of enterprise birth rates, this paper will review the different start-up systems in Europe, the United States, and Israel, which are also expected to have a connection to differences in the availability of venture capital. Finally, this paper considers the role of the education system in transferring business knowledge and entrepreneurship. This is followed by a conclusion in which recommendations are given regarding how to develop an entrepreneurial culture and a willingness to take risks.
    JEL: L25 L26 M13 M14
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Bahar Baziki, Selva (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey); Ginja, Rita (Department of Economics); Borota Milicevic, Teodora (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the changes in labor allocation across firms and industries in response to changes in technology (captured by the adoption of information and communication technologies, ICT) and import competition, due to increased exposure to trade competition from China. We use detailed matched worker-firm data from the Swedish manufacturing sector. We provide new evidence on the mobility of heterogeneous workers across firms and document increased assortative matching of workers in ICT intensive industries. However, the sorting patterns are not uniform across industries within this group. The adoption of ICT along with stronger Chinese import competition results in a significant skill upgrade within high-wage firms. Incontrast, in the absence of strong pressures in import competition, sorting occurs at the low end of the worker-firm distribution, i.e. low-skill workers allocate to low-wage firms. Industries with low ICT intensity do not exhibit any of these sorting patterns. We rationalize our empirical findings through a labor market matching model which is able to explain the increased assortative matching in ICT intensive industries through an increase in the relative demand for qualifiedd workers.
    Keywords: Wage Inequality; Employment Dynamic; Assortative Matching; Import Competition; Technological Change
    JEL: E24 F16 J31 J63 O33
    Date: 2015–12–26
  12. By: Gianluca Benigno; Luca Fornaro
    Abstract: We provide a Keynesian growth theory in which pessimistic expectations can lead to very persistent, or even permanent, slumps characterized by unemployment and weak growth. We refer to these episodes as stagnation traps, because they consist in the joint occurrence of a liquidity and a growth trap. In a stagnation trap, the central bank is unable to restore full employment because weak growth depresses aggregate demand and pushes the interest rate against the zero lower bound, while growth is weak because low aggregate demand results in low profits, limiting firms' investment in innovation. Policies aiming at restoring growth can successfully lead the economy out of a stagnation trap, thus rationalizing the notion of job creating growth.
    Keywords: secular stagnation, liquidity traps, growth traps, endogenous growth, multiple equilibria
    JEL: E32 E43 E52 O42
    Date: 2016–02
  13. By: Fassio, Claudio (CIRCLE, Lund University; BRICK, Collegio Carlo Alberto); Grilli, Luca (Politecnico di Milano, Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering)
    Abstract: The recent turbulent evolution of the 3D printing industry is strictly related with two important phenomena: the widespread adoption of Open Source (OS) business models by new companies on the one hand, and the increasing importance of communities of users, such as the so-called Maker Movement, on the other. This study is the first to analyze the factors that drive the adoption of different types of 3D printers and argues that, in line with the classification introduced by Hirschman (1982), 3D printers should be considered as both technological and symbolic innovations in order to understand their adoption patterns. While technological innovations are adopted for their technical utility, the adoption of symbolic product innovations serves mainly to communicate a novel social meaning to a specific pre-existing product. The recent growth of communities of interest that strongly endorse the OS philosophy, like the Maker Movement, has led 3D OS printers to gain many of the features of symbolic innovations. Taking advantage of an international sample of 3D printer users from 39 different countries, our study shows that while the high-quality 3D printers of established producers (3D proprietary printers) are mainly adopted for technologically-driven reasons, the adherence to the Maker Movement and to its ethical values is an important driver behind the adoption of 3D OS printers. Moreover this is especially true for the users that started to use 3D printers after 2011, when the Maker philosophy started gaining great momentum. The findings show that the global demand for 3D printer is increasingly fragmented between users driven by different motivations in their adoption choices. In this respect, the study advances our understanding about the interplay between OS business models, communities of interest and innovation adoption and inform managers on the importance of recognizing and exploiting the novel symbolic nature of 3D OS printers.
    Keywords: 3D printing; symbolic product innovations; communities of users
    JEL: L17 O32
    Date: 2016–02–15
  14. By: Liu , Ju (CIRCLE, Lund University); Liefner , Ingo (Department of Economic Geography, Justus Liebig University Giessen)
    Abstract: This paper explores the joint influencing mechanism of the two-dimensional proximity, namely geographical and organisational proximity, and knowledge base on the relational pattern of multinational companies’ (MNCs) global innovation networks (GINs). It argues when it comes to MNCs’ GINs, the conventional geographical-proximity-and-knowledge-base framework allows only for an incomplete understanding of the network relational patterns and particularly the observed differences between different GINs. The paper suggests an extended theoretical framework based on a two-dimensional proximity concept and the knowledge base approach for understanding how and why MNCs’ GINs are organised in specifically different ways. An in-depth comparative case study with social network analysis is used to illustrate the applicability of the framework in question.
    Keywords: global innovation network; Multinational company; Knowledge base; Geographical proximity; Organisational proximity; Social network analysis
    JEL: F23 L60 M16 O32
    Date: 2016–01–18
  15. By: Muller, L.; Ruffieux, B.; Astruc, C.; Blumenthal, D.
    Abstract: Les constructeurs automobiles en général et Renault en particulier sont performants quant à l’évaluation des coûts des innovations mais sont plus imprécis quant à l’évaluation des valeurs clients correspondantes. Cette dernière est souvent dévolue à des experts dont les préférences peuvent s’éloigner des goûts des consommateurs. Les innovations de produits concernés peuvent être de nature multiple : amélioration incrémentale d’un produit existant, nouvelle fonction, modification d’un standard, pack d’options. Du point du vue industriel, l’objectif de cette étude est la construction de protocoles robustes pour évaluer en termes monétaires la valeur client d’une innovation au plus tôt dans le processus d’innovation afin d’aider à (i) la conception de produits (demand-led conception), (ii) la sélection des meilleures innovations , (iii) la mise en forme (package d’options, série) des innovations et (iv) la tarification. D’un point de vue académique, cette étude est l’occasion de développer des méthodologies nouvelles d’économie expérimentale de terrain (‘field experiment’) permettant une meilleure approche des dispositions à payer des consommateurs et de leurs déterminants. En particulier, il s’agit d’ (i) identifier les spécificités du produit automobile et leur adapter des protocoles, (ii) confronter nos méthodes nouvelles aux méthodes des constructeurs automobiles et (iii) développer nos méthodes et mieux modéliser la demande.
    JEL: C93 D12
    Date: 2016
  16. By: Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Ueki, Yasushi; Shinohara, Sobee
    Abstract: In recent years, East Asian economies have been rapidly developing. The reason is that firms have been successfully achieving product and process innovation by introducing advanced technologies and know-how from MNCs. In order to enhance innovation, firms have to own technology, capability and ICT use. In particular, collaborations with outside organizations such as MNCs (Multi-national corporations), universities, public organizations, local firms are indispensable for firms in developing economies. Authors’ previous research clarified external linkages enhance innovation capability and ICT use, and innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation in ASEAN firms. These studies analyzed under what conditions firms can promote absorptive capability if they had external linkages. Whether or how absorptive capacity affected innovation capability and ICT use were not explained there. Based on survey data from four ASEAN economies such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, from 2013 to 2014, this study clarifies how absorptive capacity, ICTs, and innovation capability such as QC and cross-functional team enhance product innovation by using SEM (Structural equation modeling). As a result, the following causality from external linkages (origin) to innovation (final outcome) is demonstrated: (i) absorptive capacity is enhanced by external linkages such as local firms, public organizations, and universities; (ii) absorptive capacity enhances innovation capability; (iii) innovation capability enhances ICT use; and (iv) innovation capability and ICT use promote product innovation. These are similar to those of authors’ previous research. Since data are different, it is difficult to compare the results, but the robustness of the results is demonstrated.
    Keywords: ICT use,absorptive capacity,external linkages,product innovation,SEM (Structural equation modeling)
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Maria Cipollina (UNIMOL - University of Molise [Campobasso] - University of Molise); Federica Demaria (MOISA - Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD] - CIRAD - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement - IAMM); Filomena Pietrovito (UNIMOL - University of Molise [Campobasso] - University of Molise)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role that quality standards and innovation play on trade volume, by using a gravity model. The role of innovative activity and quality standards in enhancing trade performance is widely accepted in the literature. However, in this paper, we argue that the net effect of quality standards on trade depends on the producers’ ability to innovate and comply with these requirements. In particular, by using a sample of 60 exporting countries and 57 importing countries, for a wide range of 26 manufacturing industries over the period 1995-2000, we show that the most innovative sectors are more likely to enhance the overall quality of exports, and then gain a competitive advantage. We also find that this effect depends on the level of technology intensity at sector-level and on the level of economic development of exporting country.
    Keywords: trade policies,non-tariff measures,innovation,trade flows,gravity model
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
    Abstract: This study investigates induced productivity effects of firms introducing new environmental technologies. The literature on within-firm organisational change and productivity suggests that firms can achieve higher productivity gains from adopting new technologies if they adapt their organisational structures. Such complementarity effects may be of particular importance for the adoption of greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technologies. The adoption of these technologies is often induced by public authorities to limit the social costs of climate change, whereas the private returns are much less obvious. This study finds empirical support for complementarity between green technology adoption (either CO2-reducing or resources and energy efficiency-enhancing technologies) and organisational change. While the sole adoption of green technologies is associated with lower productivity, the simultaneous implementation of green technologies and organisational innovations is not.
    Keywords: technical change,environmental innovation,organisational change,productivity
    JEL: D23 O33 O32 Q55 L23 D24
    Date: 2016
  19. By: Anushka Wijesinha (Ministry of Industry and Commerce of Sri Lanka)
    Abstract: As the Sri Lankan economy attempts to transform into a more value-added and knowledge-led one, recent advancements in technology and innovation have created a plethora of new opportunities for small and medium-sized enterprises. This paper provides four case studies of innovative enterprises and initiatives to demonstrate how the digital economy is enhancing the country’s business potential and creating jobs. The firms studied are all start-ups run by young professionals (between 28-35 years) and are specifically unique to show the range of possible benefits. The aim of this initiative is to shape a new narrative around the use of IT and social media for entrepreneurship in the future.
    Keywords: Competitiveness, entrepreneurship, innovation, SMEs, technology
    JEL: M13 M15 M21 M37 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–07
  20. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: The Ethiopian economy is dominated by the agriculture and services sectors, with each accounting for about 43-44 percent of gross domestic product (GDP), leaving only about 13 percent for industry of which manufacturing accounts for about 6-7 percent. The low industrial contribution is attributed to lower participation of private enterprises; thanks to lack of encouraging policy & conducive environment for entrepreneurs. This research proposal aims at investigating inhibiting factors of growth at micro, macro & meta level. Industrial development and entrepreneurship are two side of a coin. Entrepreneurship encompasses the promoters, government and financial institutes. Entrepreneurship development is essential to solve the problem of economic development through creating local employment, balanced area development, decentralization of economic power and diversion of profits from rich to middle class & poor. Many local innovations go unnoticed because of innovator’s limitations in commercialize the product. An apex institute may be set up to help and promote commercialization of low cost local innovations. If stakeholders of entrepreneurship work in tandem, SMEs can grow fast
    Keywords: Ethiopia, Export, Ethiopian SMEs
    JEL: A1 A11 A12
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: The study critically analyses selected Indian workers cooperatives to find reasons over time of its success or failures. Worker cooperatives flourish in many industries and regions, where decisions are made democratically by workers who also act as entrepreneurs, managers and members. By value creation it tends to provide employment, remains accountable to community. The entrepreneurs are risk takers but who innovate to satisfy ever-changing consumers’ needs succeed through well managed business. The study has qualitative research design employed on variety of workers cooperatives. It looks at phenomena of business cycle, value creation cum distribution, overlapping multiple roles of workers, management practices, innovation & product life cycle, consumer satisfaction vis-à-vis business performance. We attempts to explore and interpret dynamism of activities and interactions among key stakeholders to ascertain success factors. We find that continuous innovation and entrepreneur spirit is the key to success. The finding may help to advance socio-economic enterprises.
    Keywords: Workers Cooperative, Labour Cooperative, Industrial Cooperative
    JEL: A12 A3 L00
    Date: 2015–01–10
  22. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University); Bengtsson, Lars (Faculty of Engineering, Department of Industrial Management and Logistics, Lund University); Karlsson , Charlie (Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), & Jönköping International Business School (JIBS))
    Abstract: The literature in the Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) is increasingly embracing the concept and implication of knowledge spillovers. In this paper, we add to the theoretical literature on SE and knowledge spillovers by investigating the different types of knowledge spill-overs and what they imply for various dimensions of SE. On the one hand, we distinguish between spatial and aspatial knowledge spillovers. On the other hand, we distinguish be-tween various dimensions of SE, i.e. inputs, resource orchestration, and output. Finally, we conceptually link the various types of knowledge spillovers and dimensions of SE and dis-cuss the implications. Doing so, we argue that spatial knowledge spillovers (inter-firm) play the major role in increasing the amount of ‘inputs’ dimension of SE, while the aspatial knowledge (either inter-regional or intra-firm) play the major role not only for ‘inputs’, but also for ‘resource orchestration’ dimension. At the end, the paper provides suggestions for future research.
    Keywords: Strategic entrepreneurship; knowledge spillovers; spatial; aspatial
    JEL: D23 D83 L10 L26 R10
    Date: 2016–01–14
  23. By: Imai, Kenichi
    Abstract: The Kyoto Mechanisms, namely, the Clean Development Mechanism(CDM), Joint Implementation(JI), and International Emissions Trading(IET), were introduced primarily to help Annex I countries attain emissions reduction targets cost efficiently. In addition, the introduction of the CDM and JI were expected to promote international technology transfer of climate technologies. To what extent do the Kyoto Mechanisms contribute to the international diffusion of climate technologies? What are the main factors that influence the international diffusion of climate technologies under the Kyoto Mechanisms? The purpose of this study is to explore the answers to these two research questions based on a review of a growing number of studies on this topic, particularly on the CDM, as well as an analysis of the data on main technologies, host and investing countries of CDM and JI projects. The study found first that the effects of the CDM and JI on the international transfer of climate technologies are neither strong nor weak, and second that these effects vary by host country, technology type and host country's absorptive capacity of technology. One of main implications of this study is the necessity of empirical studies about credit-incentive son technology innovation.
    Date: 2015–10
  24. By: Lucio Fuentelsaz (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Consuelo González-Gil (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza); Juan P. Maicas (Faculty of Economics and Business Studies, Universidad de Zaragoza)
    Abstract: Most management literature has been devoted to explaining business success. However, empirical evidence shows that one of the main problems of new ventures is precisely failure. A simple Google search for “business success” provides 986 million results, while “business failure” finds approximately ten times fewer. The same is found in the academic literature, which has been less interested in explaining the determinants of entrepreneurial failure. In this paper, we contribute to the entrepreneurship literature by offering new theoretical insights into and empirical evidence on the determinants of entrepreneurial failure. Our results confirm that both the quality of formal institutions and high-impact entrepreneurship reduce failure and, more importantly, that these two variables reinforce each other. As a consequence, a greater development of formal institutions strengthens the negative relationship between high-impact entrepreneurship and failure.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, failure, institutions, GEM
    JEL: L26 M21
    Date: 2015–05
  25. By: Isabela Dos Santos Paes (DEFIS - Droit, Economie, Finances et Sociologie - Télécom Ecole de Management - Institut Mines-Télécom); Géraldine Guérillot (Umalis lab (ESCP Europe & Institut Mines-Télécom-Télécom Ecole de Management)); Jean-Luc Moriceau (DEFIS - Droit, Economie, Finances et Sociologie - Télécom Ecole de Management - Institut Mines-Télécom); Julien Billion (Umalis lab (ESCP Europe & Institut Mines-Télécom-Télécom Ecole de Management))
    Abstract: Traditionally, as well as in pop culture, entrepreneurship is conceived of as opposed to salary-earning, and decision from being a salaried employee to entrepreneur as a great leap. However, entrepreneurship studies and new employment forms blur this border between two worlds and the plunging from one world to the other. A study is conducted on employees working at this frontier: French umbrella professionals (salariés portés), inquiring qualitatively about their conception of entrepreneurship, their experience of crossing and of their new condition, as well as their aspirations, fears and values. No leap in activity was found, but there was the feeling of having shifted to another mental universe. The respondents had all the feeling of being entrepreneurs without creating new products, markets or business ventures. They enjoy their full engagement in their work and experience a different relation to time. Considering themselves as entrepreneurs grants them with a desirable social status, but underscores their risky position and an increased portion of their life to be devoted to work. This study aims at providing guidance for public policies fostering employment through entrepreneurship and for workers considering such a working hybrid status. It also puts into perspective the classical contours of entrepreneurship and salaried positions and call for closer examination of the new forms of employment.
    Keywords: Independent Workers,Umbrella Company,Work Experience,Career Trajectory,Entrepreneurship
    Date: 2015–09
  26. By: Welfens, Paul J. J. (University of Wuppertal)
    Abstract: The macroeconomic production function is a traditional key element of modern macroeconomics, as is the more recent knowledge production function which explains knowledge/patents by certain input factors such as research, foreign direct investment or international technology spillovers. This study is a major contribution to innovation, trade, FDI and growth analysis, namely in the form of a combination of an empirically relevant knowledge production function for open economies – with both trade and inward FDI as well as outward foreign direct investment plus research input – with a macro production function. Plugging the open economy knowledge production function into a standard macroeconomic production function yields important new insights for many fields: The estimation of the production potential in an open economy, growth decomposition analysis in the context of economic globalization and the demand for labor as well as long run international output interdependency of big countries; and this includes a view at the asymmetric case of a simple two country world in which one country is at full employment while the other is facing underutilized capacities. Finally, there are crucial implications for the analysis of broad regional integration schemes such as TTIP or TPP and a more realistic and comprehensive empirical analysis.
    Keywords: potential output, innovation, knowledge production function, macroeconomics, globalization
    JEL: E23 F02
    Date: 2016–02
  27. By: Lambert, Thomas; Mattson, Gary; Dorriere, Kyle
    Abstract: Much has been written by various scholars and practitioners over the years about the benefits of industrial clustering, whether the clustering revolves around mature industries or around new and innovative industries (innovation clustering). The benefits of such clustering or local agglomeration economies supposedly include greater regional exports, greater employment growth, greater payroll growth, and greater new business establishment creation, among other impacts. However, the work for this research note has not uncovered much if any literature on how agglomeration affects United States regional unemployment rates. In general, greater clustering is associated with lower US metro area unemployment rates on average, although this depends upon how one defines a cluster. Additionally, most growing industrial and innovation clusters over the last two decades or so require highly educated and skilled workers. Since most of the unemployed at any given time tend to be less educated and less skilled than most workers on average, local and state economic development policies that focus on clustering must be careful in targeting lower unemployment rates as a policy goal or outcome. On the other hand, greater clustering and greater industry concentration do not seem to be associated with greater levels of unemployment during stagnant economic times as some may expect. That is, it does not appear that diversity of industry has an advantage over industry clustering and concentration in bad economic times. Finally, the arguments that decentralized or local economic development planning is better for the macroeconomy than centralized planning at the national level is discussed in light of the results for industrial clustering found in this paper.
    Keywords: agglomeration economies, economic development, industrial clustering, unemployment, and urban economics.
    JEL: R11 R3 R38
    Date: 2016–02–16
  28. By: Gräbner, Claudius; Heinrich, Torsten; Kudic, Muhamed
    Abstract: Many questions addressing the emergence and dynamics of economic networks are still unresolved, especially regarding dynamics on and of networks. Previous research shows that processes at the micro-level affect socio-economic systems at aggregated levels. These insights facilitated the development of models taking the network structure explicitly into account. However, what is still missing is a systemic network theory that considers the full complexity of socio-economic systems. We argue that sociological, economic and institutional theories are complementary in many respects and have the potential to fill this gap by providing the theoretical ground for an eclectic network theory. In this paper, we address key concepts that are concerned with structuration processes in socio-economic networks, review and reassess the literature in this field and discuss approaches to explain pattern formation processes at higher aggregation levels. We propose to take advantage of the complementarities of the above outlined yet unconnected research programs.
    Keywords: complex systems; innovation networks; structuration processes; network dynamics; evolutionary economics
    JEL: D85 L14 O31 O33
    Date: 2016–01–25
  29. By: Amendola, Giovanni Battista
    Abstract: Most of the European countries risk not reaching the 2020 Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) targets. In order to achieve these targets, private investments in ultra-broadband networks should be vigorously promoted by access regulation whilst the deployment of ultra-broadband networks in unprofitable areas should be subsidized by means of appropriate public funding. Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTC) is considered a key technology in order to reach the 2020 DAE targets. This deployment model is widely adopted in a number of countries including, among others, Germany, the UK and Italy. The paper addresses FTTC regulation both at national and local level, that is in geographic areas subsidized by State aids. First, it emerges a clear trade-off at national level between the goal of infrastructure-based competition at the cabinet level and the achievement of the 2020 DAE targets. Inappropriate access regulation may indeed jeopardize the 2020 DAE targets by decreasing private investors’ incentives to roll out FTTC networks, as well as to deploy new technologies such as Vectoring. Access regulation may thus, rather paradoxically, increase the amount of State aid funding which is required in a given country to meet the 2020 DAE targets. Second, excessive access obligations in geographies subsidized by State aids can also substantially increase State aid funding and, thus, undermine the capability of a given country to reach the 2020 DAE targets.
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Javier Ruiz-Castillo
    Date: 2016–01
  31. By: Cédric Poivret (IRG - Institut de Recherche en Gestion - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - UPEC UP12 - Université Paris-Est Créteil Val-de-Marne - Paris 12)
    Abstract: A l’aide d’un inventaire des ouvrages destinés aux gestionnaires parus en langue française avant 1800, nous déterminons les grandes caractéristiques des savoirs explicités à destination des gestionnaires avant 1800. Un programme d’étude de l’histoire de la pensée gestionnaire, de l’invention de l’imprimerie jusqu’à aujourd’hui est proposé en conclusion de ce travail.
    Keywords: Histoire de la gestion comme science, ère préindustrielle, négociants, arithmétique commerciale, comptabilité, Jacques Savary, ingénieurs, physiocrates
    Date: 2014–03–19
  32. By: Baburin, Vyacheslav; Zemtsov, Stepan
    Abstract: The authors explored the potential of new information and communications technologies (ICT) absorption in Russian regions primarily on an example of mobile communication. ICT-sector is rapidly growing, especially in consumer market, and it is an ideal object for diffusion research because it is fast spreading, and it can be obtained by almost all parts of a social system. The purpose was to classify regions by the rate of innovativeness. The saturation rate for mobile phone usage (active SIM cards per 100 people) was used as a proper indicator on the first stage of the research. All regions were classified according to rates of diffusion from 1999 to 2011, and five clusters were identified, corresponding to diffusion stages, identified by E. Rogers: innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority and laggards. There were four stages of spatial diffusion, according to the theory of T. Hagerstrand. Each stage were determined by several factors. The most influential factors were income, price of services and competition. Mobile phone usage in most Russian regions reached 100% saturation (one active SIM card per capita) in 2006-2007. Later development was determined not by demand for phone connection, but by the demand for internet connection, which was easily provided by mobile systems in smartphones, tablets, and other devices. To assess the innovativeness of regional communities, or their ability to absorb new products, cluster analysis, based on the threshold values of Bass model parameters, was performed. The results were similar to those obtained earlier, but the early appearance of innovators in several regions did not increase the total number of users. Both previous methods of classification could be biased regarding special features of mobile communication diffusion. That is why, on the last stage an integral index of innovativeness was introduced, including rate of diffusion for several ICT-products on the early period of their introduction. The analysis proved that hierarchical model of diffusion from the main centres to secondary prevailed in Russia. Factor of geographical location also played an important role. The research showed the significant difference in the rate of diffusion between Russian regions. Five stable clusters were identified, which were corresponding with idea of “five Russias” existence. Moscow and Saint Petersburg’s rate of diffusion was higher than in most countries, but there was a widespread periphery.
    Keywords: geography of innovation, diffusion of innovation, Russian regions, mobile communication, logistic curve, Bass model, regions-innovators, index of innovativeness
    JEL: L86 O33 O52 R19
    Date: 2014–05–02
  33. By: de la Rica, Sara (University of the Basque Country); Gortazar, Lucas (World Bank)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is threefold. First, we compute differences on the degree of de-routinization of job contents across a harmonized and hence comparable sample of Anglo-Saxon, many European and even Asian advanced countries. We do so by using very precise information on job contents at the worker level, which allows for job task heterogeneity within occupations. Second we assess the extent to which computer adoption leads to the observed difference in the degree of de-routinization of job contents. Third, we test whether higher degrees of technology adoption are associated to higher wage inequality. Our results show remarkable differences in the degree of de-routinization of job contents across countries, being computer adoption at work a key significant driver of such differences. In particular, ICT use at work explains 13.4% (6.3%) of the cross-country unconditional (conditional) differences in de-routinization of job contents. Regarding the impact of adoption technology on wage inequality, our results indicate that although differences in ICT adoption explain an important and significant part of wage differentials, the effect is homogeneous for all the wage distribution, implying that we cannot find a significant association between wage inequality and technology adoption.
    Keywords: routine-biased technological change, de-routinization, polarization, PIACC, RIF-Regressions, wage decomposition
    JEL: J24 J31 O33
    Date: 2016–02
  34. By: Annalisa Caloffi (University of Padova); Marco Mariani (IRPET); Alessandro Sterlacchini (Marche Polytechnic University)
    Abstract: This paper presents a meta-regression analysis of recent micro-econometric evaluations of enterprise and innovation policies implemented in Italy. We categorise 478 programme impacts from 43 studies, all obtained using methods that are appropriate for causal inference in observational settings, and analyse which programme, study and estimate characteristics are associated with higher probability of success net of unobserved heterogeneity at the study level. We find that several types of programmes yield non-negligible probability of success and that the outcome variable used to measure programme impact matters. If there exist any differential in probability of success between the government levels that may deliver the programmes, this differential is favourable to regional governments.
    Keywords: Enterprise policy, Innovation policy, Programme evaluation, Meta-analysis
    JEL: H53 L52 L53
    Date: 2016
  35. By: Matei, Ani; Savulescu, Carmen; Antonovici, Corina Georgiana
    Abstract: Social innovation could be understood as “new ideas (products, service and models) that, simultaneously meet needs and create new social relationships or collaboration” (Murray et al., 2010). For the local public sector, the social innovation gains endemic characteristics, connected to better use of local resources and human resources, as well as those concerning interregional or even cross-regional cooperation. For the time being, Romania undergoes a complex process of shifting to regional organization, which essentially involves important changes with genuine characteristics of social innovation. The most obvious aspects of social innovation are expressed by administrative innovation or systemic innovation. Of course, the innovation in the public services or processes for public service delivery becomes visible through citizen orientation, involvement of new material and financial resources. In this context, the current paper aims to emphasise the main characteristics of social innovation, determined by regionalization and administrative re-organizations. The cross-regional approach comprises interregional comparative studies and it highlights the instruments for evaluation of social innovation and their application in view to substantiate the comparative studies concerning the impact of social innovation. The research methodology comprises bibliographic syntheses, comparative studies as well as socio-innovative empirical researches.
    Keywords: social innovation, regional development, local public sector.
    Date: 2015–12–10
  36. By: Schulte, Patrick
    Abstract: This paper studies the question whether skill-biased technical change diffuses internationally and that way contributes to the increasing relative skill demand in other countries. So far, the role of skill-biased technology diffusion has hardly been studied empirically. Using new sectoral data for a panel of 40 emerging and developed countries, 30 industries (covering manufacturing and service industries) and 13 years (1995-2007), the analysis shows that skill-biased technology diffusion is statistically and economically important in explaining skill-biased technical change. Countries further away from the skill-specific technological frontier subsequently show higher skill-specific productivity growth. For that, the bilateral distance between two countries proves to be an important mediating factor, whereas intersectoral trade linkages, so far, explain only a small part of it. The main results hold for both, developed and emerging countries.
    Keywords: skill-biased technical change,technology diffusion,distance,inputoutput linkages,industry-level data,emerging and developed countries
    JEL: F16 J24 O14 O33 C67
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Karlson, Nils (The Ratio institute); Fergin, Elina (The Ratio institute)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between competence and virtue. We argue that virtues <p> should be regarded as a kind of competencies, which are essential in an entrepreneurial <p> society, both for individual development and for the sustainability of such a society. Such <p> competencies, or virtues, are essential not only for entrepreneurial success, but they may also <p> be regarded as the informal norms, the rules of fair conduct, necessary to uphold an open <p> market system. Moreover, to a certain degree virtues are learnt through the practice of <p> entrepreneurship. Due to their importance, though, this may not be enough. Formal education <p> should be complemented with situated learning, reflection and dialogue on moral and ethical <p> issues, particularly in the context of management and entrepreneurial praxis.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; competence; skills; business ethics; education
    JEL: D01 I25 I29 L26 M53
    Date: 2014–12–31
  38. By: Houpis, George; Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Ovington, Thomas; Serdarevic, Goran
    Abstract: In 2000, there were as many countries served by a single mobile network as by network competition. Today, only 30 countries, representing less than 3% of the world’s population, are served by a single network. There has been considerable discussion about the optimal number of network operators in the mobile industry. More recently, some regulators and governments have considered implementing a single wholesale network to deliver next generation mobile services due to concerns around low coverage, inefficient duplication of costs and lack of competition. To date, the authors are not aware of such single wholesale networks fully implemented in mobile industry. What is clear is that single wholesale networks represent a U-turn with respect the way in which the mobile industry has developed worldwide. Therefore, it is important to carefully examine the available evidence on the performance of mobile markets in countries with a single mobile networks, as this is could shed some light on the expected performance of single wholesale networks. The key result is that countries with network competition have higher coverage, higher take-up and greater innovation than countries with a single mobile network, controlling for other relevant factors. This paper represents a significant contribution to the literature, as the authors are not aware of any other papers that have considered the impact of network competition compared to single networks on outcomes such as coverage. The results of the paper have significant policy implications, as they imply that moving away from the network competition model into the world of single wholesale networks could cause considerable consumer harm, which may be difficult to reverse once there has been a move away from network competition.
    Keywords: regulation,single mobile network,competition,mobile telecommunications
    Date: 2015

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