nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒12‒28
35 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. The role of geographical proximity for project performance - Evidence from the German "Leading-Edge Cluster Competition" By Uwe Cantner; Holger Graf; Susanne Hinzmann
  2. Global Collaborative Patents By Sari Pekkala Kerr; William R. Kerr
  3. Get With the Program: Software-Driven Innovation in Traditional Manufacturing By Lee G. Branstetter; Matej Drev; Namho Kwon
  4. Path dependence and induced innovation By Karsten Wasiluk
  5. Innovation Capabilities and Financing Constraints of Family Firms By Dorothea Schäfer; Andreas Stephan; Jenniffer Solórzano Mosquera
  6. Innovation Capabilities and Financing Constraints of Family Firms By Schäfer, Dorothea; Stephan, Andreas; Mosquera, Jenniffer Solórzano
  7. Structural dynamics of innovation networks in German Leading-Edge Clusters By Uwe Cantner; Holger Graf; Stefan Töpfer
  8. Social network and private provision of public goods By Bulat Sanditov; Saurabh Arora
  9. Patent Rights and Innovation by Small and Large Firms By Alberto Galasso; Mark Schankerman
  10. Causal Relations between Knowledge-Intensive Business Services and Regional Employment Growth By Thomas Brenner; Marco Capasso; Matthias Duschl; Koen Frenken; Tania Treibich
  11. Legal Issues Concerning Enforcement of FRAND-encumbered Standard Essential Patents (Japanese) By SUZUKI Masabumi
  12. Unions, Innovation and Cross-Country Wage Inequality By Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi
  13. The Effect of the Euro Competition Over Innovation Decisions and Labor Productivity By TESTA, Giuseppina
  14. Cost-reduction innovation under mixed economy By Nie, Pu-Yan; Yang, Yong-Cong
  15. Urban Networks: Connecting Markets, People, and Ideas By Edward L. Glaeser; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto; Yimei Zou
  16. WeKeyInnovation and Collaborative Business Model : Toward a framework proposal for a better inclusive participation of SMEs within the RIS3 (Research and Innovation Strategies for the Smart Specialisation) By Jérémie Faham; Iban Lizarralde; Jérémy Legardeur; Iñaki Garagorri; Christophe Marnat
  17. Armand Hatchuel et Benoit Weil La théorie C-K, un fondement formel aux théories de l'innovation By Pascal Le Masson; Chris Mcmahon
  18. Chasing After the Frontier in Agricultural Productivity By Jules-Daniel Wurlod; Derek Eaton
  19. Creativity and entrepreneurial efforts in an emerging economy By Quan Hoang Vuong; Nancy K. Napier; Thu Hang Do; Thu Trang Vuong
  20. E-Skills, Brains And Performance Of The Firms: ICT And Ability Of Firms To Conduct Successful Projects In Luxembourg By Anissa Chaibi; Adel Ben Youssef; Leila Peltier-Ben Aoun
  21. Green jobs, innovation and environmentally oriented strategies in European SMEs By Grazia Cecere; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  22. Knowledge Diffusion, Endogenous Growth, and the Costs of Global Climate Policy By Lucas Bretschger; Filippo Lechthaler; Sebastian Rausch; Lin Zhang
  23. New Firm Survival: The Interdependence between Regional Externalities and Innovativeness By Tobias Ebert; Thomas Brenner; Udo Brixy
  24. Industrial Policy for Industrial Clustering: Evaluation of the "Industrial Cluster Policy" in Japan in the 2000s (Japanese) By OKUBO Toshihiro; OKAZAKI Tetsuji
  25. Cluster Ambidexterity towards Exploration and Exploitation - Strategies and Cluster Management By Uwe Cantner; Holger Graf; Michael Rothgang; Tina Wolf
  26. The Globalization of Angel Investments: Evidence across Countries By Josh Lerner; Antoinette Schoar; Stanislav Sokolinski; Karen Wilson
  27. fixed broadband connections and economic growth: a dynamic oecd panel analysis By Angelo Castaldo; Alessandro Fiorini; Bernardo Maggi
  28. Where Has All The Skewness Gone? The Decline In High-Growth (Young) Firms In The U.S. By Ryan A. Decker; John Haltiwanger; Ron S. Jarmin; Javier Miranda
  29. Environmental regulation and sustainable competitiveness: Evaluating the role of firm-level green investments in the context of the Porter hypothesis By Stöver, Jana; Weche, John P.
  30. The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Knowledge Economy in Africa By Simplice Asongu; Vanessa Tchamyou
  31. Ökonomische Fundierung sozialer Innovationen: Eine vergleichende Analyse By Kleverbeck, Maria; Terstriep, Judith
  32. Experiments in Climate Governance. Lessons from a Systematic Review of Case Studies in Transition Research By Paula Kivimaa; Mikael Hildén; Dave Huitema; Andrew Jordan; Jens Newig
  33. Empirical studies on the impact of ICT usage on employment in Europe By Federico Biagi; Martin Falk
  34. Can the magic of Abenomics succeed? By Evelyne Dourille-Feer
  35. Learning Entrepreneurship From Other Entrepreneurs? By Luigi Guiso; Luigi Pistaferri; Fabiano Schivardi

  1. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Holger Graf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Susanne Hinzmann (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: The role of geographical proximity in fostering connections and knowledge flows between innovative actors ranks among the most controversial themes in the research of innovation systems, regional networks and new economic geography. While there is ample empirical evidence on the constituent force of co-location for the formation of research alliances, little attention has been paid to the actual consequences of geographical concentration of alliance partners for the subsequent performance of these linkages. In this paper we address this underexplored issue and aim to complement the rare examples of studies on the relevance of geographical proximity for research outputs. We utilize original and unique survey data from collaborative R&D projects that were funded within the "Leading-Edge Cluster Competition" - the main national cluster funding program in Germany in recent years. We find that the perception of the necessity of spatial proximity for project success is rather heterogeneous among the respondents of the funded projects. Moreover, the relationship between geographical distance and project success is by no means univocal and is mediated by various technological, organizational and institutional aspects. Our findings strongly support the assumption that the nature of knowledge involved determines the degree to which collaborators are reliant on being closely located to each other. The relevance of spatial proximity increases in exploration contexts when knowledge is novel and the innovation endeavor is more radical while this effect is less pronounced for projects with a stronger focus on basic research. Moreover, geographical proximity and project satisfaction foster cross- fertilization effects of LECC projects.
    Keywords: geographical proximity, collaboration, performance, innovation policy
    JEL: O3 O38 L14 R1
    Date: 2015–12–18
  2. By: Sari Pekkala Kerr; William R. Kerr
    Abstract: We study the prevalence and traits of global collaborative patents for U.S. public companies, where the inventor team is located both within and outside of the United States. Collaborative patents are frequently observed when a corporation is entering into a new foreign region for innovative work, especially in settings where intellectual property protection is weak. We also connect collaborative patents to the ethnic composition of the firm's U.S. inventors and cross-border mobility of inventors within the firm. The inventor team composition has important consequences for how the new knowledge is exploited within and outside of the firm.
    JEL: F02 F22 F23 J15 O19 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2015–11
  3. By: Lee G. Branstetter; Matej Drev; Namho Kwon
    Abstract: This paper documents the increasing importance of software for successful innovation in manufacturing sectors well beyond the traditional definition of electronics and information technology. Using panel data for 231 publicly listed firms from 17 countries across four manufacturing industries over the period 1981-2005, we find significant variation across firms in the software intensity of their innovative activity. Firms that exhibit a higher level of software intensity generate more patents per R&D dollar, and their investment in R&D is more highly valued by equity markets. We present evidence that geographic differences in the abundance of skilled software labor are an important factor in determining sample firms’ software intensity and performance.
    JEL: O14 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–11
  4. By: Karsten Wasiluk (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper presents an endogenous growth model that captures the origins of path dependence and technological lock-in and introduces a mechanism of induced innovation, which can trigger new research. Imperfect spillovers of secondary development can make the development of new technologies unattractive until research ceases in the long run. Changes in the relative supply of primary factors act as a stimulus for research as new technologies are better suited for the new environment. A simulation using changes of crude oil prices in the US shows the quantitative significance of the model's implications. The model is able to explain long waves of economic development where growth cycles are triggered by changes in the relative factor supply. It also provides a new rationale for governmental regulations such as Pigouvian taxes and pollution permits as they can stimulate innovation and provide the base for the development of "green" technologies.
    Keywords: Path Dependence, Induced Innovation, Directed Technological Change, Growth Cycles
    JEL: O30 O31 O33 O44
    Date: 2015–04–21
  5. By: Dorothea Schäfer; Andreas Stephan; Jenniffer Solórzano Mosquera
    Abstract: Using the 2007 Mannheim innovation survey, we investigate whether family firms are more financially constrained than other firms and how this affects both innovation input as well as innovation outcomes such as market and firm novelties or process innovations. Based on the CDM framework, estimation of the recursive system of equations shows that family businesses are more likely to be constrained and have, on average, lower innovation input. Surprisingly, however, this doesnot reduce their innovation outcomes as, on average, family firms have the same level of innovation outcomes as nonfamily firms.
    Keywords: Innovation, Capability, Financing Constraints, Family Firms, CDM
    JEL: G32 O32
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Schäfer, Dorothea (DIW Berlin and CeFEO at Jönköping International Business School); Stephan, Andreas (Jönköping International Business School and CESIS at KTH Stockholm); Mosquera, Jenniffer Solórzano (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Using the 2007 Mannheim innovation survey, we investigate whether family firms are more financially constrained than other firms and how this affects both innovation input as well as innovation outcomes such as market and firm novelties or process innovations. Based on the CDM framework, estimation of the recursive system of equations shows that family businesses are more likely to be constrained and have, on average, lower innovation input. Surprisingly, however, this does not reduce their innovation outcomes as, on average, family firms have the same level of innovation outcomes as nonfamily firms.
    Keywords: Innovation; Capability; Financing Constraints; Family Firms; CDM
    JEL: D30 G32 O32
    Date: 2015–12–18
  7. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, and University of Southern Denmark, Odense); Holger Graf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Stefan Töpfer (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: We study the effects of a German national cluster policy on the structure of collaboration networks. The empirical analysis is based on original data that was collected in fall 2011 and late summer 2013 with cluster actors (firms and public research organizations) who received government funding. Our results show that over time the program was effective in initiating new cooperation between cluster actors and in intensifying existing linkages. Newly formed linkages are to a substantial amount among actors who did not receive direct funding for a joint R&D project, which indicates an additional, mobilisation effect of the policy. Furthermore, we observe differential developments regarding clusters' spatial embeddedness. Some clusters tend to increase their localisation, whereas others increase their connectivity to international partners. The centrality of large firms increased over time, indicating their prominent role as preferred partners for R&D cooperation within the clusters while it is the opposite case for public actors.
    Keywords: Cluster, Innovation Policy, Evaluation, Social Network Analysis
    JEL: O38 L14 R10
    Date: 2015–12–21
  8. By: Bulat Sanditov (TELECOM Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-T´el´ecom, France); Saurabh Arora (Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: Using a simple model with interdependent utilities, we study how social networks influence individual voluntary contributions to the provision of a public good. Departing from the stan- dard model of public good provision, we assume that an agent’s utility has two terms: (a) ‘ego’-utility derived from the agent’s consumption of public and private goods, and (b) a so- cial utility which is the sum of utility spillovers from other agents with whom the agent has social relationships. We establish conditions for the existence of a unique interior Nash equi- librium and describe the equilibrium in terms of network characteristics. We show that social network always has a positive effect on the provision of the public good. We also find that, in networks with “small world”-like modular structures, ‘bridging’ ties connecting distant parts of social network play an important role inducing the agent’s contribution to public good. Assumptions and results of the model are discussed in relation to the role of social capital in community-level development projects and to the effect of innovation networks on firms’ R&D investments.
    Keywords: public goods, interrelated utilities, social capital, R&D networks
    JEL: H41 D85 O31
    Date: 2015–12
  9. By: Alberto Galasso; Mark Schankerman
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal impact of patents on subsequent innovation by the patent holder. The analysis is based on court invalidation of patents by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and exploits the random allocation of judges to control for the endogeneity of the judicial decision. Patent invalidation leads to a 50 percent decrease in patenting by the patent holder, on average, but the impact depends critically on characteristics of the patentee and the competitive environment. The effect is entirely driven by small innovative firms in technology fields where they face many large incumbents. Invalidation of patents held by large firms does not change the intensity of their innovation but shifts the technological direction of their subsequent patenting.
    JEL: K41 L24 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2015–12
  10. By: Thomas Brenner (Department of Geography, Philipps Universitaet Marburg); Marco Capasso (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Matthias Duschl (Department of Geography, Philipps Universitaet Marburg); Koen Frenken (Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University and CIRCLE, Lund University); Tania Treibich (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University and OFCE and Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna)
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge- Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural vector auto- regressive model in which the causal directions between KIBS and other sectors are examined including various time lags. One main finding holds that although regional growth has a negative short-term effect on KIBS, KIBS growth has a long-term posi- tive effect on the whole regional economy. This result confirms the claim that KIBS can play a key role in regional policies. Distinguishing between financial and non- financial KIBS, we find that financial KIBS have a procyclical effect on regional growth underlining the potential de-stabilizing effect of a large financial sector.
    Keywords: Employment Growth, growth spillovers, KIBS, industrial dynamics, financial geography
    JEL: C53 O33 R10
    Date: 2015–12–16
  11. By: SUZUKI Masabumi
    Abstract: In exercising patent rights related to inventions essential for setting technical standards (standard essential patents), particular consideration is required to ensure that problems such as holdups and royalty stacking do not arise while ensuring appropriate protection of patent rights. Standard setting organizations have taken certain steps to address patent-related issues, including making fair, reasonable, and non-discriminatory (FRAND) declarations obligatory, but many legal issues remain entrusted to the legal interpretation and operation by the courts and administrative agencies (competition authorities, etc.). Concrete examples of this include the legal nature of the FRAND declaration, the standards for granting civil remedies such as injunctions, and the amount of license fees under FRAND conditions. In this article, based on trends in the United States, Europe, China, Korea, and some other countries, I will review the characteristics of Japan's precedents and the issues that need to be resolved. In conclusion, Japan's precedents (decisions of the Intellectual Property High Court) can be evaluated as reasonable judgments passed in line with international trends, as they generally deny the claim for injunctions based on FRAND-encumbered standard essential patents and for damages exceeding the FRAND license fees. However, the following issues are considered to be outstanding and need to be resolved in the future: (1) concretization of the recognition standards for willing licensees; (2) treatment in the case of transfer of standard essential patents; and (3) the establishment of appropriate dispute resolution means, including the calculation of FRAND license fees.
    Date: 2015–12
  12. By: Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi
    Abstract: This study explores the macroeconomic effects of labor unions in a two-country R&D-based growth model in which the market size of each country determines the incentives for innovation. We find that an increase in the bargaining power of a wage-oriented union leads to a decrease in employment in the domestic economy. This result has two important implications on innovation. First, it reduces the rates of innovation and economic growth. Second, it causes innovation to be directed to the foreign economy, which in turn causes a negative effect on domestic wages relative to foreign wages in the long run. We also derive welfare implications and calibrate our model to data in the US and the UK to quantify the effects of labor unions on social welfare and wage inequality across countries. Our calibrated model is able to explain about half of the decrease in relative wage between the US and the UK from 1980 to 2007. Furthermore, the decrease in unions' bargaining power leads to quantitatively significant welfare gains in the two countries.
    Keywords: economic growth; R&D; labor unions; wage inequality
    JEL: E24 J51 O30 O43
    Date: 2015–12
  13. By: TESTA, Giuseppina (CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno - Italy)
    Abstract: The growing competition from the euro, the Eastern enlargement, and the BRIC nations has attracted increasing attention by governments in Europe like in Italy. In this paper we have investigated the effects that such scenario has on innovation decision of Italian manufacturing firms. Using data from UniCredit Surveys conducted in Italy over the period 1995-2006 we explore the influence of the euro competition on innovation decisions controlling for a set of variables, ranging from export behaviour, family management and size. We find the euro competition to significantly affect innovation decisions. Such effects are different for high-tech firms and low-tech firms and for family-managed and non-family-managed firms.
    Keywords: Euro; Innovation; Italian manufacturing
    JEL: L25 L60 O32
    Date: 2015–12–14
  14. By: Nie, Pu-Yan; Yang, Yong-Cong
    Abstract: Industries with mixed oligopoly are exceedingly popular all over the world, especially in developing countries, such as China. This paper highlights the innovation strategies of mixed duopoly with a (semi-) public firm and another private firm, and the effects of mixed oligopoly on innovation are captured. Firstly, the (semi-) public firm innovates more and produces more than the private firm. Secondly, the degree of the public ownership stimulates the output and innovation. Finally, the price difference and the price dispersion all increase with the degree of the public ownership under independent goods.
    Keywords: innovation,industrial organization,mixed duopoly,game theory
    JEL: C61 C72 D43 L13
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Edward L. Glaeser; Giacomo A. M. Ponzetto; Yimei Zou
    Abstract: Should China build mega-cities or a network of linked middle-sized metropolises? Can Europe’s mid-sized cities compete with global agglomeration by forging stronger inter-urban links? This paper examines these questions within a model of recombinant growth and endogenous local amenities. Three primary factors determine the trade-off between networks and big cities: local returns to scale in innovation, the elasticity of housing supply, and the importance of local amenities. Even if there are global increasing returns, the returns to local scale in innovation may be decreasing, and that makes networks more appealing than mega-cities. Inelastic housing supply makes it harder to supply more space in dense confines, which perhaps explains why networks are more popular in regulated Europe than in the American Sunbelt. Larger cities can dominate networks because of amenities, as long as the benefits of scale overwhelm the downsides of density. In our framework, the skilled are more likely to prefer mega-cities than the less skilled, and the long-run benefits of either mega-cities or networks may be quite different from the short-run benefits.
    JEL: F15 O18 R10 R58
    Date: 2015–12
  16. By: Jérémie Faham (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA), IMS - Laboratoire de l'intégration, du matériau au système - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux 1 - Institut Polytechnique de Bordeaux - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Iban Lizarralde (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Jérémy Legardeur (ESTIA Recherche - Ecole Supérieure des Technologies Industrielles Avancées (ESTIA)); Iñaki Garagorri (Universidad de Deusto); Christophe Marnat (UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée, Universidad del Pais Vasco- Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea)
    Abstract: In the actual context, characterized by economic, environmental and societal challenges, the stimulation of creativity and the support to sustainable innovation are central issues for the competitiveness of enterprises. This topic is of great relevance for European Union which aims to stimulate a smart, sustainable and inclusive growth in each of its region to come out of the actual crisis with the launch of a new set of territorial policies: the “Research and regional Innovation Strategies for the Smart Specialization”. This work deals with the inclusion of SMEs when implementing those RIS3. We present several contributions to enhance a true involvement of SMEs within the RIS3 dynamic. We highlight first the potentialities of the Collaborative Business Model dynamics as a suitable approach to support the collective participation of networks of SMEs in the definition of the RIS3 orientations. Secondly we present the design of a collaborative platform called WeKeyInnovation (WKI), accessible online to share information about innovation tools or devices and which is progressively enriched by all the regional “entrepreneurs”. By collecting qualified empirical data WKI is designed to be a dynamic observatory of innovation processes within regional enterprises. This collaborative platform is settled to be the regional online community which will support the knowledge sharing of actors dedicated to the innovation at regional level. By being also a catalyst of regional “entrepreneurs” interactions, WKI facilitates the identification of potential partners and boost their adequate matching before to collectively engage in CBM processes. The final goal is to implement WKI as a transversal toolkit supporting a new framework of innovation at regional level which will be useful both for the collaboration of SMEs within networks and for institutional actors to help them in the launch of the RIS3 insuring the full inclusion of regional SMES.
    Keywords: Innovation, Smart Specialisation Strategy, SME, Collaborative Business Model, Business Matching
    Date: 2015–11–01
  17. By: Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Chris Mcmahon (University of Bristol (UNITED KINGDOM) - University of Bristol (United Kingdom))
    Abstract: Présentation des travaux d'Armand Hatchuel et Benoit Weil sur les théories de la conception - position de ces travaux pionniers par rapport à l'état de l'art dans les années 90, apports majeurs de la théorie C-K, conséquences et recherches ultérieures.
    Keywords: théorie de la conception , innovation , connaissance , théorie C-K
    Date: 2016
  18. By: Jules-Daniel Wurlod; Derek Eaton
    Abstract: This paper explores international productivity patterns in agriculture. We test whether countries higher productivity growth has been experienced by countries that were initially further from the technological frontier. Based on a panel of 84 countries at various levels of development, we find support for convergence among OECD countries but divergence in our sample at large over the period 1960-2010. We then test whether technological catch-up is conditional on absorptive capacities and domestic investments in R&D. While agricultural research intensity has a significant effect on labor productivity growth, the size of this effect decreases the further the country is from the frontier. We calculate a threshold level for the effectiveness of research intensity: increased R&D contributes to catching up to the frontier for those countries with a distance to the frontier less than 22. We also test for additional factors affecting productivity growth, and find that secondary education plays a strong role in less developed countries, while trade openness appears to have had a positive effect on productivity in middle income countries. On the other hand, there is little evidence of much effect, either positive or negative from IPR protection. Of perhaps greater interest is the apparent impact of economic growth outside of agriculture in driving agricultural productivity improvements.
    JEL: O13 O33 Q11 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2015–11
  19. By: Quan Hoang Vuong; Nancy K. Napier; Thu Hang Do; Thu Trang Vuong
    Abstract: While much research has focused on entrepreneurship and creativity in developed economies, the notions of both topics are still embryonic in many emerging economies. This paper focuses on entrepreneurs in one such economy, Vietnam, to understand the perceptions of entrepreneurs about the role that innovation and creativity may play in their own entrepreneurial ventures and success. This is important because before reaping benefits from entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs need to decide when and on what conditions they start based on their calculations of required resources and predictions of likely outcomes. The research also sought to understand how "creativity," broadly applied ("innovation" and "creative performance") affects the ways that entrepreneurs think about and anticipate their own success and decisions. In essence, the study suggests that the higher the entrepreur’s creativity is, the more likely she or he is to start a new business and believe success will result. Future research could examine whether history, industry and geographic location matter in entrepreneurs’ perceptions as well as whether transition/emerging economies like Vietnam may have different views altogether about the two key concepts.
    Keywords: Creativity/innovation; entrepreneurship; economic conditions; emerging economy; Vietnam
    JEL: M13 O33 P21 P27
    Date: 2015–12–21
  20. By: Anissa Chaibi (IPAG Business School, Paris - GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Adel Ben Youssef (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Leila Peltier-Ben Aoun (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper provides original empirical evidence on the causal links between e-skills, usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) and firm's performance using a sample of Luxembourgian manufacturing and services firms. Firm performance is measured in terms of innovation (success of new projects settled). Our main findings are: (i) there's no relationship between the absorptive technology capacity of the firm (measured by ICT staff and Training) and the probability of the implementation of successful ICT projects, (ii) there is a positive effect of e-applications usage (ICT usage) on the probability of the implementation of successful new projects, and (iii) there is an asymmetric effect of usage of e-commerce and e-administration confirming findings of the recent literature
    Keywords: Innovative projects,Ordered models,Innovation,Usage of ICT,Depth of ICT adoption
    Date: 2015–05–01
  21. By: Grazia Cecere (Telecom Ecole de Management, Institut Mines-Telecom, Paris, France.); Massimiliano Mazzanti
    Abstract: Green jobs are a key aim of societal efforts to provide concrete contents to the long run effort to reconcile sustainability and development. The present article analyses the extent to which future growth of green jobs is influenced by microeconomic and sector/macro level factors. We carry out econometric analyses on European SME firms to assess the factors affecting the creation of green jobs in small and medium firms. We find that green product and service innovation is primarily relevant to support the creation of green jobs. This suggests that producing green products and services is an important factor affecting green jobs. The environmental management system is also positively related to job creation: the reorganization of a firm’s activities imposed by Environmental Management System implementation requires the organizational structure as a whole to be reshaped, eventually including skills and competences. Innovations aimed at enhancing resource efficiency also augment the expected creation of green jobs. Sector factors and turnover/demand effects appear less relevant than specific eco innovation elements of the firm with the exception of the waste sector which supports the creation of green jobs. The study lays the foundations for future research on the development of green skills, competences and jobs in firms as a reaction to market and policy levers.
    Keywords: green jobs, innovation, labour demand, sectors, product innovation, techno-organisational innovations
    Date: 2015–12
  22. By: Lucas Bretschger (ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Filippo Lechthaler (ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Sebastian Rausch (ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Lin Zhang (ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of knowledge diffusion on growth and costs of climate policy. We develop a general equilibrium model with endogenous growth which represents knowledge diffusion between sectors and regions. Knowledge diffusion depends on accessibility and absorptive capacity which we estimate econometrically using patent and citation data. Knowledge diffusion leads to a “greening” of economies boosting productivity of “clean” carbon-extensive sectors. Knowledge diffusion lowers the costs of global climate policy by about 90% for emerging countries (China) and 20% for developed regions (Europe and USA), depending on the substitutability between different knowledge types.
    Keywords: Technological Change: Choices and Consequences, Environment and Growth,Technological Innovation, Computable General Equilibrium Models
    JEL: O33 O44 Q55 C68
    Date: 2015–12
  23. By: Tobias Ebert (Philipps-University of Marburg, Economic Geography and Location Analysis, Deutschhausstrasse 10, 35032 Marburg, Germany); Thomas Brenner (Philipps-University of Marburg, Economic Geography and Location Analysis, Deutschhausstrasse 10, 35032 Marburg, Germany); Udo Brixy (Institute of Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg, Germany and Department of Geography, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that the effect of agglomeration externalities on survival is moderated by the start-up’s innovative behavior. It is shown that localization externalities are prevalent particularly in non-high-tech environments and unfold a positive influence on survival for less innovative companies, while their highly innovative counterparts do not benefit or even suffer from spatial concentration. On the contrary, highly innovative high-tech start-ups benefit from a diverse economic structure which enhances their likelihood for survival by fostering the emergence of beneficial inter-industry spill-overs.
    Keywords: Firm survival, Innovation, Externalities
    JEL: D22 L26 O33 R11
    Date: 2015–12–16
  24. By: OKUBO Toshihiro; OKAZAKI Tetsuji
    Abstract: In 2001, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) launched the Industrial Cluster Policy, which aimed at promoting innovations and vitalizing regional economies by creating firm networks. The model envisioned by METI in drawing up this policy was the Silicon Valley in the United States. For that purpose, METI designated 19 industrial clusters and their members, including local small and medium-sized firms and universities, and supported the network creation of the members. In this paper, we identified the member firms from the original information provided by METI and matched it with the Tokyo Shoko Research (TSR) database. We used the dataset to evaluate how participation in the industrial cluster affected the transaction network, sales, and employment of each member firm.It was revealed that participation in the industrial cluster has a positive impact on the extent of transaction networks, especially that with firms in Tokyo. Also, participation in the industrial cluster increases the sales and employment of each member firm. It is remarkable that the cluster policy contributes to expanding the extensive margin of the local firms with transactions with firms in Tokyo. This extensive margin effect is larger for firms whose main banks are the first-tier regional banks.
    Date: 2015–12
  25. By: Uwe Cantner (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, and University of Southern Denmark, Odense); Holger Graf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena); Michael Rothgang (Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Essen); Tina Wolf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: Cluster studies have shown that innovation can be understood as the result of an inter-organizational process, where a division of labor with regard to exploration and exploitation exists among the actors inside the cluster. A cluster is ambidextrous if it manages to balance innovative activities that exploit existing competencies and is open to novel technological approaches by means of exploration. In this context we are interested in the supportive role of cluster management, assuming that a cluster organization can only persist sustainably if exploitation and exploration are pursued in an appropriate balance. Our analysis is based on surveys that have been conducted between 2011 and 2012 with 10 cluster managements and their respective cluster firms of the first two rounds of the German Leading Edge Cluster Competition. Our results indicate that the demand for services offered by the cluster management depends on companies' strategies with respect to exploration, exploitation and ambidexterity. In turn, the priorities set by the cluster management can be explained by the firm' needs. Accordingly, we argue that the cluster management acts as a service provider helping the cluster companies to become ambidextrous which in turn makes the cluster as a whole ambidextrous.
    Keywords: Cluster, Ambidexterity, Cluster Management, Exploration, Exploitation
    JEL: O30 O32 O38 R11
    Date: 2015–12–18
  26. By: Josh Lerner; Antoinette Schoar; Stanislav Sokolinski; Karen Wilson
    Abstract: This paper examines investments made by 13 angel groups across 21 countries. We compare applicants just above and below the funding cut-off and find that these angel investors have a positive impact on the growth, performance, and survival of firms as well as their follow-on fundraising. The positive impact of angel financing is independent of the level of venture activity and entrepreneur friendliness in the country. But we find that the development stage and maturity of start ups that apply for angel funding (and those that are ultimately funded) is inversely correlated with the entrepreneurship friendliness of the country, which may reflect self-censoring by very early stage firms who do not expect to receive funding in these environments.
    JEL: G24 O31
    Date: 2015–12
  27. By: Angelo Castaldo; Alessandro Fiorini; Bernardo Maggi (Università Sapienza di Roma - Dipartimento di Studi Giuridici, Filosofici ed Economici)
    Abstract: Technological innovation is viewed as a major stimulus for economic growth. High-speed internet access via broadband infrastructure has been experiencing a prompt development since the end of 90s, thanks to the deployment of both fix and mobile technologies. The present study investigates on the behavior of broadband diffusion as a technological determinant of economic growth in the main OECD countries. The estimations performed allowed to control and interpret the time evolution of the phenomenon according to the achievable target of growth, as resulting from the promotion of broadband internet connections. Our main goal is to provide evidence of a relevant - in quantitative term - relation between broadband diffusion and economic dynamics in the short, medium and long run.
    Keywords: Fixed broadband access, economic growth, technology diffusion, dynamic panel
    JEL: L96 O47 O33 H54
    Date: 2015–12
  28. By: Ryan A. Decker; John Haltiwanger; Ron S. Jarmin; Javier Miranda
    Abstract: The pace of business dynamism and entrepreneurship in the U.S. has declined over recent decades. We show that the character of that decline changed around 2000. Since 2000 the decline in dynamism and entrepreneurship has been accompanied by a decline in high-growth young firms. Prior research has shown that the sustained contribution of business startups to job creation stems from a relatively small fraction of high-growth young firms. The presence of these high-growth young firms contributes to a highly (positively) skewed firm growth rate distribution. In 1999, a firm at the 90th percentile of the employment growth rate distribution grew about 31 percent faster than the median firm. Moreover, the 90-50 differential was 16 percent larger than the 50-10 differential reflecting the positive skewness of the employment growth rate distribution. We show that the shape of the firm employment growth distribution changes substantially in the post-2000 period. By 2007, the 90-50 differential was only 4 percent larger than the 50-10, and it continued to exhibit a trend decline through 2011. The reflects a sharp drop in the 90th percentile of the growth rate distribution accounted for by the declining share of young firms and the declining propensity for young firms to be high-growth firms.
    JEL: E24 J63 L26
    Date: 2015–12
  29. By: Stöver, Jana; Weche, John P.
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of environmental regulation on firm performance and Investment behavior. Exploiting the case of a German water withdrawal regulation that is managed on the state level, we analyze firms' reactions to an increase in the water tax using a regression-adjusted difference-in-differences approach. We analyze the individual firm's response to a change in environmental regulation, distinguishing between add-on and integrated environmental investments. This allows us to include intra-firm innovations into our analysis, which are likely to be of importance for increasing resource-efficiency. Our results show that the regulation in question shows no sign of affecting firms' overall competitiveness. The results imply that the predicted negative impact of the regulation on firms' economic Performance that was brought up before the introduction of the tax, does not seem to weigh heavily in this case. Nevertheless, when placed into a sustainable competitiveness context, the Regulation considered does not qualify as an appropriate policy tool for fostering green growth.
    Keywords: environmental regulation,DID,green growth,green investment,Porter hypoth- esis,sustainable competitiveness,water withdrawal regulation
    JEL: L60 O31 O32 Q58 Q55
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun); Vanessa Tchamyou (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: Purpose - The paper assesses how entrepreneurship affects knowledge economy (KE) in Africa. Design/methodology/approach – Entrepreneurship is measured by indicators of starting, doing and ending business. The four dimensions of the World Bank’s index of KE are employed. Instrumental variable panel fixed effects are applied on a sampled of 53 African countries for the period 1996-2010. Findings –The following are some findings. First, creating an enabling environment for starting business can substantially boost most dimensions of KE. Second, doing business through mechanisms of trade globalisation has positive effects from sectors that are not ICT and High-tech oriented. Third, the time required to end business has negative effects on KE. Practical implications – Our findings confirm the narrative that the technology in African countries at the moment may be more imitative and adaptive for reverse-engineering in ICTs and high-tech products. Given the massive consumption of ICT and high-tech commodities in Africa, the continent has to start thinking of how to participate in the global value chain of producing what it consumes. Originality/value – This paper has a twofold motivation. First, given the ambitions of African countries of moving towards knowledge based economies, the line of inquiry is timely. Second, investigating the nexus may have substantial poverty mitigation and sustainable development implications. These entail inter alia: the development of technology with value-added services; enhancement of existing agricultural practices; promotion of conditions that are essential for competitiveness and adjustment of globalization challenges.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Knowledge Economy; Development; Africa
    JEL: L59 O10 O30 O20 O55
    Date: 2015–10
  31. By: Kleverbeck, Maria; Terstriep, Judith
    Abstract: Die Thematik der sozialen Innovationen ist von der europäischen Kommission aktuell auf die politische Agenda gesetzt worden. Die Erwartungen sind vielfältig: Soziale Innovationen sollen zur Lösung der großen gesellschaftlichen Herausforderungen beitragen, sie sollen die öffentlichen Haushalte entlasten und sie sollen die zivilgesellschaftlichen Akteure stärker in den politischen Prozess einbinden. Das europäische Forschungsprojekt "SIMPACT" widmet sich diesen Herausforderungen und untersucht die ökonomische Fundierung sozialer Innovationen. Eine vergleichende Analyse sozialer Innovationen liefert dabei einen Beitrag zum Verständnis der Dynamiken sozialer Innovationsprozesse. Die vergleichende Analyse baut auf einem theoretischen Modell auf, welches das Zusammenspiel von ökonomischen Komponenten, Zielen und Prinzipien widerspiegelt. Die Ergebnisse geben Aufschluss über Akteurskonstellationen, Geschäftsmodelle und institutionelle Rahmenbedingungen.
    Date: 2015
  32. By: Paula Kivimaa (Science Policy Research Unit SPRU, University of Sussex, Jubilee Building, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9SL, UK.; Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, 00260 Helsinki, Finland.); Mikael Hildén (Finnish Environment Institute, P.O. Box 140, 00260 Helsinki, Finland.); Dave Huitema (IVM Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1087 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.; Department of Science, Netherlands Open University, Valkenburgerweg 177, 6419 AT Heerlen, The Netherlands.); Andrew Jordan (Tyndall Centre, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.); Jens Newig (Leuphana University Lüneburg, Germany.)
    Abstract: Experimentation has been proposed as one of the ways in which public policy can drive sus-tainability transitions, notably by creating or delimiting space for experimenting with innova-tive solutions to sustainability challenges. In this paper we report on a systematic review of articles published between 2009 and 2015 that have addressed experiments aiming either at understanding decarbonisation transitions or enhancing climate resilience. Using the case survey method, we find few empirical descriptions of real-world experiments in climate and energy contexts in the scholarly literature, being observed in only 25 articles containing 29 experiments. We discuss the objectives, outputs and outcomes of these experiments noting that explicit experimenting with climate policies could be identified only in 12 cases. Based on the results we suggest a definition of climate policy experiments and a typology of experi-ments for sustainability transitions that can be used to better understand the role of and learn more effectively from experiments in sustainability transitions.
    Keywords: policy innovation; experiment; experimentation; sustainability transitions; climate policy
    Date: 2015–12
  33. By: Federico Biagi (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Martin Falk (Austrian Institute of Economic Research (WIFO))
    Abstract: This report has three sections and a key feature of our empirical analysis is the use of several types of advanced ICT activities such as enterprise resource planning systems, mobile internet access and e-commerce practices. The first section presents new empirical evidence regarding the impact of ICT/E-commerce activities on industry performance in Europe measured as employment and labour productivity growth. The data consists of multi-country industry level data for 14 European countries for the period 2002-2010. The main result of this section is that the increase in ICT/e-commerce activities over time has not lead to a decline in jobs. This holds true for both manufacturing and service industries. In contrast, the different types of ICT activities are significantly related to labour productivity. However, the sign and significance of the relationships vary across different types of ICT activities and also vary over time with lower magnitude for the more recent period. The second section looks at the relationship between several indicators of ICT usage and digitalisation, and the relative demand for highly skilled workers. The data is based on two-digit industry data for seven European countries for the period 2002-2010. For manufacturing industries, our estimates show that broadband connected employees, diffusion of mobile internet, use of enterprise resource planning systems and electronic invoicing are all significantly positively related to the industries’ skill intensity. For service industries only mobile internet usage is significant. These estimates indicate that the increase in ERP systems during the period studied accounts for 25% of the increase in the share of workers with a tertiary degree across manufacturing industries and countries. The results are robust with respect to the estimation method and when accounting for endogeneity of ICT. The third section investigates the relationship between technological and organisational innovations, and ICT usage/e-commerce and internet technologies. The data is based on disaggregated data by firm size/industry for 12 European countries for the period 2002-2010. The empirical results show that the sales share of new market products is significantly positively related with both the percentage of workers with mobile internet access and e-procurement activities. Sharing electronic data also contributes to product innovations. We also find that organisational change and enterprise resource planning
    Keywords: Labour Demand, Technological Change, ICT, employment
    JEL: J23 J24 O33 L86
    Date: 2015
  34. By: Evelyne Dourille-Feer
    Abstract: Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s pro-growth economic policy, dubbed Abenomics, combines monetary policy and fiscal policy as well as growth reforms. It has attracted much attention worldwide because it combines short and mid to long term policies, and supply and demand programmes. The quest for growth is explained by its ballooning public debt and the increasing social cost of its fast population aging. Exiting deflation has been prioritized by Shinzo Abe to energize growth. Abenomics raises the central question of why the quest for growth in a context of shrinking population and a quite high standard of living? However, this eagerness for growth, which translates into higher fiscal revenues, is explained by its ballooning public debt, and the increasing social cost of its fast population aging. The Abe government has set the ambitious goal of an annual 2% real GDP growth rate. The first two arrows (expansionary monetary and fiscal policies) were successful in 2013. But, in the 2014 fiscal year, the coincidence of a VAT increase, a steep fall in energy prices and a smaller supplementary budget generally drove down the CPI index (excluding consumption tax) and led to zero growth of real GDP and, in the 2015 fiscal year, the developments of CPI and growth were disappointing. In order not to fall back into deflation, demand must be boosted. Shinzo Abe is betting on institutional and technological innovations to foster economic growth in the long run. Abenomics will work its magic if Shinzo Abe has sufficient time and sufficient political strength to fully implement his third policy arrow.
    Keywords: Growth;Macroeconomic policy;Deflation;innovation
    JEL: O40 E61 E31 O38
    Date: 2015–12
  35. By: Luigi Guiso; Luigi Pistaferri; Fabiano Schivardi
    Abstract: We document that individuals who grew up in areas with high density of firms are more likely, as adults, to become entrepreneurs, controlling for the density of firms in their current location. Conditional on becoming entrepreneurs, the same individuals are also more likely to be successful entrepreneurs, as measured by business income or firm productivity. Strikingly, firm density at entrepreneur’s young age is more important than current firm density for business performance. These results are not driven by better access to external finance or intergenerational occupation choices. They are instead consistent with entrepreneurial capabilities being at least partly learnable through social contacts. In keeping with this interpretation, we find that entrepreneurs who at the age of 18 lived in areas with a higher firm density tend to adopt better managerial practices (enhancing productivity) later in life.
    JEL: J24 M13 R11
    Date: 2015–12

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