nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒12‒08
thirty-one papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Patents Rights and Innovation by Small and Large Firms By Galasso, Alberto; Schankerman, Mark
  2. What is the causal effect of R&D on patenting activity in a professor’s privilege country? Evidence from Sweden By Ejermo , Olof; Källström , John
  3. Moving people with ideas - innovation inter-regional mobility and firm heterogeneity By Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
  4. R & D Sector Outsourcing, Human Capital Formation and Growth in the Context of Developed versus Developing Economies By Sujata Basu
  5. Intellectual Property and Innovation in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) By Stefano Comino; Fabio Maria Manenti
  6. Making low-carbon technology support smarter By Georg Zachmann
  7. International R&D Spillovers and Asset Prices By Gavazzoni, Federico; Santacreu, Ana Maria
  8. Subsidies, financial constraints and firm innovative activities in developing economies By Simona Mateut
  9. Measuring regional innovation in one dimension: More lost than gained? By Matthias Siller; Christoph Hauser; Janette Walde; Gottfried Tappeiner
  10. Patent Protection and the Industrial Composition of Multinational Activity: Evidence from U.S. Multinational Firms By Olena Ivus; Walter Park; Kamal Saggi
  11. Explaining Variation in Medical Innovation: The Case of Vaccines, and the HIV AIDS effort By Ohid Yaqub
  12. Innovation, Product-Cycle Trade, and the Cross-Country Distribution of Income By Scott French
  13. Intergenerational Mobility, Human Capital Composition and Distance to Technological Frontier By Sujata Basu
  14. Innovation across cities By Kwok Tong Soo
  15. The Useful Application of Knowledge: An Introduction. By Antonelli, Cristiano; David, Paul
  16. The Role of Clusters and Public Policy in New Regional Economic Path Development By Asheim , Bjørn T.; Isaksen , Arne; Martin , Roman; Trippl , Michaela
  17. Endogenous Capital- and Labor-Augmenting Technical Change in the Neoclassical Growth Model By Andreas Irmen; Amer Tabakovic
  18. Leadership, communication and innovation By Bel, Roland; Smirnov, Vladimir; Wait, Andrew
  19. Research and Technology Organisations and Smart Specialisation By David CHARLES; Katerina CIAMPI STANCOVA
  20. Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan By David Atkin; Azam Chaudhry; Shamyla Chaudry; Amit Kumar Khandelwal; Eric Verhoogen
  21. Departure and Promotion of U.S. Patent Examiners: Do Patent Characteristics Matter? By Langinier, Corinne; Lluis, Stéphanie
  22. Does green corporate investment really crowd out other business investment? By John P. Weche
  23. Explaining differences in electric vehicle policies across countries: innovation vs. environmental policy rationale By Wesseling , Joeri H.
  24. ‘Shaken, but not stirred’: six decades defining social innovation By Edwards-Schachter,Mónica; Wallace,Matthew
  25. Dynamic conditional score patent count panel data models By Szabolcs Blazsek; Ãlvaro Escribano
  26. Risk governance and performance of the Italian banks: an empirical analysis By Simone Marsiglio; Marco Tolotti
  27. Cultural Economics and Intellectual Property: Tensions and Challenges for the Region By Miranda Forsyth
  28. Access to finance for innovative SMEs since the financial crisis By Neil Lee; Hiba Sameen; Marc Cowling
  29. Science Research and Knowledge Creation in Indian Universities: Theoretical Perspectives and Econometric Evidence By Sabyasachi Saha; Amit Shovon Ray
  30. Employment and technological change: on the geography of labour market adjustments By Luisa Gagliardi
  31. Cross-Country Analysis of Composition of Human Capital and Total Factor Productivity Growth depending on its Distance to Frontier By Sujata Basu

  1. By: Galasso, Alberto; Schankerman, Mark
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal impact of patents on subsequent innovation by the patent holder. The analysis is based on court invalidation of patents by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, and exploits the random allocation of judges to control for the endogeneity of the judicial decision. Patent invalidation leads to a 50 percent decrease in patenting by the patent holder, on average, but the impact depends critically on characteristics of the patentee and the competitive environment. The effect is entirely driven by small innovative firms in technology fields where they face many large incumbents. Invalidation of patents held by large firms does not change the intensity of their innovation but shifts the technological direction of their subsequent patenting.
    Keywords: courts; innovation; patents
    JEL: K41 L24 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Ejermo , Olof (CIRCLE, Lund University); Källström , John (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: We investigate the responsiveness of academic patenting to research and development (R&D) on the subject level at Swedish universities in panel data regressions. The general responsiveness to R&D is found to be higher than corresponding estimates found in US studies, especially when we adopt instrumental variable techniques that address endogeneity in the studied R&D-to-patent relationship. We also find that this responsiveness is not associated with lower quality of patents measured in terms of citations. A higher responsiveness from R&D to patenting is found in “Information technologies”, “Chemistry (science)”, “Electrical engineering, electronics & photonics” and “Chemical engineering”, “Medicine” and in “Microbiology” than in other common patenting fields. Our main result, that academia in Sweden contributes well to inventive activity support the view that the professor’s privilege may be a contributing factor.
    Keywords: research and development; patenting; academia; knowledge production functions; the professor’s privilege; Sweden
    JEL: C25 C26 I23 I28 O31 O32 O34 O38
    Date: 2015–12–01
  3. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
    Abstract: This paper looks at the link between inter-regional mobility, innovation and firms’ behavioural heterogeneity in their reliance on localised external sources of knowledge. By linking patent data (capturing inventors’ inter-regional mobility) with firm-level data (providing information on firms’ innovation inputs and behaviour) a robust identification strategy makes it possible to shed new light on the geographical mobility-innovation nexus. The analysis of English firms suggests that firm-level heterogeneity – largely overlooked in previous studies - is the key to explain the innovation impact of inter-regional mobility over and above learning-by-hiring mechanisms. A causal link between inflows of new inventors into the local labour market and innovation emerges only for firms that make the use of external knowledge sources an integral part of their innovation strategies.
    Keywords: innovation; labour mobility; inter-regional migration; spillovers
    JEL: J61 O15 O31 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Sujata Basu (Centre for International Trade and Development,Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: A skill-biased endogenous growth has model has been considered where Research and Development (R & D) producer of the advanced economy outsource its R & D activity to a relatively technologically backward economy. R & D producer of the advanced economy endogenously determines the equilibrium proportion of R & D activity which takes an intermediate value. An advanced economy relies on the innovation activity for its technology improvement. Whereas a backward economy depends on both the imitation and the innovation activities - innovation being more skilled-intensive than imitation. This paper theoretically examines the impact of R & D outsourcing from an economy which is in the innovation-only regime to an economy which is in the imitation-innovation regime. It shows that dependence on the imitation activities rises and as a consequence of which proportion of skilled human capital falls and both skilled and unskilled human capital shift away from the innovation to the imitation activities in the backward economy. This also leads to a higher wage rate of both skilled and unskilled human capital in the backward economy. As a result proportion of outsourcing from advanced economy to backward economy falls. However, growth rate of the backward economy initially rises and eventually declines as time progresses. In the long run backward economy will get into a low equilibrium trap and gap from the world technology frontier widens.
  5. By: Stefano Comino (University of Udine); Fabio Maria Manenti (University of Padua)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is to provide a structured review of the role of IPR in fostering innovation and economic growth in the European ICT sector. Typically IPR analysis of industries focuses on patents. In practice, however, IPR strategies are developed combining the use of different IP rights. The scope of analysis considers this and looks at the joint use of patents, trademarks and industrial designs, each protecting a different type of knowledge-based asset. Based on these characteristics, the focus of the research is to provide an overview of the mechanisms typically employed in order to appropriate the returns from R&D investments. For each formal IPR, we briefly review the main contributions to the economic literature, both theoretical and empirical, on the rationale for its existence and the effects it generates on firms’ behaviour and market outcomes. We then highlight the most important emerging issues. In the final section of the study, we focus on the software industry.
    Keywords: Patents, copyright, trademarks, information and communication technologies, patent thickets, open source, software, mobile applications
    JEL: L11 L24 L96 O25 O31 O32 O34 O38 O52
    Date: 2015–11
  6. By: Georg Zachmann
    Abstract: The issue Combating climate change on the global level will be much easier when abundant low-carbon technologies that are competitive in their cost and capabilities are available. But private companies underinvest in low-carbon innovation because they cannot capture the climate benefits. There are three policies to address this issue - pricing carbon, supporting deployment of as-yet uncompetitive technologies and supporting research and development. Policy challenge Funding all possible low-carbon technologies with all types of support instruments is not a sensible or viable option. Finite budgets need to be allocated to different technologies, but not all innovation policies are equally efficient. However, the combination of the three support policies and their coordination at European level can improve results and reduce costs. To make low-carbon technology support smarter the European Union should (1) improve carbon pricing, especially provide more long-term visibility for the carbon price; (2) enhance European cooperation, both in terms of deployment and R&D support; (3) balance support for deployment and RD&D; and (4) develop a more methodological approach to technology selection. Source - Bruegel. This Policy Brief summarises previous papers that have benefited from funding under the Simpatic project (http -// Research assistance by Burak Turkoglu and Augustin Lagarde is acknowledged. References can be found in the PDF version of the Policy Brief which is available for download at the bottom of this page. While the specific effects of increasing concentrations of greenhouse-gases in the atmosphere on the climate system cannot be accurately predicted, there is a non-trivial risk that beyond some ex-ante unknown tipping points – in terms of greenhouse- gas concentration and/or global temperature – irreversible and highly expensive events might unfold. This calls for quick action to reduce the probability that such tipping points will be passed. Annual greenhouse gas emissions will have to be reduced dramatically before 2050. In order to stabilise carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere at about 450 parts per million (ppm)1 by 2050, global emissions would have to decline by about 40-70 percent by 2050. Such aggressive global decarbonisation requires an international agreement. Otherwise, fossil fuels not used in some countries will be used in others2. But an agreement is only feasible and stable if the benefit for each country exceeds the cost, which depends on the cost of low-carbon technologies. Consequently, reducing the cost of these technologies in Europe would not only allow cheaper domestic decarbonisation and for a competitive edge to be gained in selling these technologies overseas, but most importantly it would be a major contribution to an international agreement. In this Policy Brief, we describe the interaction between three approaches that are effective in driving innovation in low-carbon technologies. Based on that, we provide four recommendations for making low-carbon technology support smarter - (1) improve carbon pricing; (2) improve European cooperation; (3) combine deployment and research, development and demonstration (RD&D) support; and (4) take a more methodological approach to technology selection. Key strategies to drive low-carbon innovation This is also true for low-carbon innovation, but supporting lowcarbon innovation involves the particular challenge of targeting innovation that brings down the decarbonisation cost. For this, there are three main policies - (i) a price on carbon, (ii) directly support public and private RD&D investment in the targeted lowcarbon technologies, and (iii) create demand for technologies to foster private innovation.Numerous policy instruments support innovation, ranging from patent protection to public research funding and public procurement, to subsidies for private investment in innovation3, but there is no consensus on a single best practise4. There are, however, conventional ‘dos and don’ts’. For example, do regularly conduct independent evaluations of innovation policies, do avoid excessive risk aversion in project selection and do determine clear triggers for cutting support5. Pricing carbon If companies know that they or their (potential) customers will be faced with high carbon prices in the future, they will have every incentive to invest in development of low-carbon alternatives. Calel and Dechezleprêtre (2012) provide evidence that carbon pricing in the EU has increased low-carbon patenting both by companies directly covered by the EU emissions trading system (ETS) and by companies that do not fall under the ETS6 (Figure 1). Creating the expectation of a high future carbon price has one big advantage over all other innovation policies (such as predictably tightening fuel standards) – it is completely technology neutral. At the same time, carbon pricing incentivises investment in lowcarbon power technologies (eg solar photovoltaic), energy-efficient appliances, carbon capture and storage or more resource-efficient processes (eg recycling of aluminium).
    Date: 2015–08
  7. By: Gavazzoni, Federico (INSEAD); Santacreu, Ana Maria (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
    Abstract: We provide new empirical evidence of a relationship between asset prices and trade- Induced international R&D spillovers; in particular, we find that pairs of countries that share more research and development exhibit more highly correlated stock market returns and less volatile exchange rates. We develop an endogenous growth model of innovation and international technology diffusion that accounts for these empirical findings. A calibrated version of the model matches several important asset pricing and quantity moments, which helps explain some of the classical quantity–price puzzles highlighted in the literature on international macroeconomics.
    Keywords: Innovation; international diffusion; trade; asset prices; recursive preferences
    JEL: F3 F4 O3
    Date: 2015–12–02
  8. By: Simona Mateut
    Abstract: This paper extends the investigation on the relationship between public subsidies and innovation to firms in developing economies. The analysis merges the innovation subsidy literature with the stream focusing on financial constraints for innovation. Innovation is defined broadly to include the introduction of new products or services and the upgrade of existing ones, which is relevant for developing economies. The results obtained using a range of econometric techniques and alternative measures of financial constraints suggest a positive correlation between public subsidies and the innovative activities of 11,998 firms across thirty Eastern Europe and Central Asia countries.
    Keywords: innovation, subsidies, financial constraints
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Matthias Siller; Christoph Hauser; Janette Walde; Gottfried Tappeiner
    Abstract: In both academic literature and political discussions the concept of innovation is recognized as an essential ingredient in economic development and competitiveness for firms, regions, and nations. Innovation also ranks at the top of policy agendas in the field of regional policy. Therefore, the attractiveness of an appropriate innovation index for ranking regions and further developing them along a more or less objective measurement scale is evident. However, whether such rankings help convey a better understanding of innovation and its drivers, or whether they are merely a special type of ‘beauty contest’ with little substance is the focus of our analyses. To deny the latter, the innovation output indicators used for the composite index have to be appropriate representatives of the underlying innovation concept and each indicator has to be driven by the same impact factors. If this is not the case, interpretation of the index inevitably gives rise to partly inappropriate policy recommendations. In order to demonstrate this claim we elaborate a set of innovation indicators at the regional level based on the theoretical concept of the OECD document ‘The Measurement of Scientific and Technological Activities, Proposed Guidelines for Collecting and Interpreting Technological Innovation Data’ known as the ‘Oslo Manual’ (OECD, 2005) and their empirical implementation in the Community Innovation Survey. Additionally, innovation drivers well established in the literature are collected to estimate their impact on each innovation indicator as well as on the composite index derived from the innovation indicators. The question whether innovation should be measured as a multidimensional concept and investigated using various indicators or whether simplifying innovation to a one-dimensional concept is appropriate is clearly answered in favor of the multidimensional approach. Surprisingly, this is not due to the multidimensionality of the indicators themselves (all statistical measures indicate that the considered variables are sufficiently represented by one component), but to our first evidence that the innovation output indicators are driven by various impact factors and can therefore be influenced by various political strategies. According to these findings any type of innovation ranking is of very limited use.
    Keywords: Regional innovation, Innovation dimensions, Patent applications, Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: R11 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–11
  10. By: Olena Ivus (Queen's University); Walter Park (American University); Kamal Saggi (Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: Using data on U.S. firms' technology licensing to local agents in developing countries, this paper examines the impact of patent protection on internal and arms-length technology transfer. The effects of protection vary across products according to their complexity. Consistent with theories of internalization, we find that patent reforms enable local firms to attract more arms-length technology transfer, especially of simple products which are relatively easy to imitate. Affiliated licensing also rises among simple products, but falls among complex products. The results withstand several robustness checks, including controlling for endogeneity by using colonial origin as an instrument, and are equally strong whether patent protection is measured by its intensity or by the timing of reforms. The results have significance for patent policy in the developing world, where access to knowledge is critical. Through arms-length technology contracts, proprietary knowledge diffuses beyond firm boundaries, enabling local agents to access not only the protected technology but also know-how.
    Keywords: International Technology Transfer, Licensing, Developing Countries, Product Complexity, Intellectual Property Rights, and Imitation Risk
    JEL: O3 F2
    Date: 2015–12–02
  11. By: Ohid Yaqub (SPRU — Science Policy Research Unit, University of Sussex, Brighton, UK)
    Abstract: This paper highlights two variables, neglected by economists, that I argue are important in explaining patterns of innovation seen in vaccines and perhaps in other parts of medicine too. They are: firstly, the extent to which it is safe to experiment on humans; and secondly, whether good animal models can be identified and used, with the latter especially important if there are strong constraints on experimenting with humans. To consider the argument, the paper discusses the case of vaccines, where the political economy of R&D appears to explain only part of the observed variation. I focus on HIV vaccine development and find that, together, these two variables not only make up a large part of how I would characterize ‘difficulty’ in the HIV R&D process, but they also seem to go a long way towards explaining why 31 other diseases have – or have not had vaccines developed for them. In characterizing these variables, I discuss what might happen if we choose to persist in difficult R&D domains, finding that development may be forced into trajectories that yield lower quality products. Counter intuitively, such lower quality products are typically more expensive because they are harder to pass through clinical trials. Implications for theory and policy are discussed, chief of which are that the technical difficulty of R&D is not fixed and can be shifted by policy, and that difficult R&D trajectories need not be pursued when alternative trajectories can be developed.
    Date: 2015–11
  12. By: Scott French (University of New South Wales)
    Abstract: This paper develops a quantitative, multi-country model of endogenous growth, international trade, and international knowledge flows in order to understand how access to both foreign products and technologies, together, influences innovation incentives and the world distribution of income. An endogenous product cycle arises in equilibrium, in which innovative countries engage in both horizontal and vertical research, while others far from the technological frontier specialize in learning about and applying research previously conducted abroad. The effect of trade barriers on the level and dispersion of income across countries is found to be larger than would be predicted by a static trade model, and the effect of access to international knowledge flows is also quantitatively important and dependent on trade flows. For instance, halving the cost of learning reduces income dispersion by 23%, while doing so after eliminating asymmetric international trade barriers reduces income dispersion by only 10%.
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Sujata Basu (Centre for International Trade and Development,Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: An endogenous skilled biased growth model has been considered to show that along the growth path wage gap widened and both upward and downward mobility fall. This implies that education becomes more correlated with initial conditions and less related with the cognitive ability. Growth occurs through the twin channels of technology - imitating from the world technology frontier and innovating on its own technology level - innovation being more skilled-intensive than imitation. An imperfect capital market has been considered where individual's education decision depends on the cognitive ability as well as on the parental income. Moreover, it is shown that growth enhancing education policy leads to absolute convergence of all the economies to the world technology frontier. In the imitation-innovation regime, life time utility gap within skilled as well as unskilled human capital rise due to parental income differences. Furthermore, life time utility gap within skilled human capital rises due to cognitive ability differences.
  14. By: Kwok Tong Soo
    Abstract: This paper examines the distribution of patenting activity across cities in the OECD, using a sample of 218 cities from 2000 to 2008. We obtain three main results. First, patenting activity is more concentrated than population and GDP. Second, patenting activity is less persistent than population and GDP. Third, patenting exhibits mean-reversion, and is positively associated with GDP, the fragmentation of local government, and population density. Our results suggest that policymakers can influence the amount of innovative activity through the use of appropriate policies.
    Keywords: Patents, Zipf’s Law, transition probability, dynamic panel data
    JEL: R1 O3
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Antonelli, Cristiano; David, Paul (University of Turin)
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Asheim , Bjørn T. (UiS Business School/Centre for Innovation Research, University of Stavanger; CIRCLE, Lund University; BI-Norwegian Business School); Isaksen , Arne (University of Agder, Norway); Martin , Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University); Trippl , Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This chapter deals with the role of clusters and public policy in new regional economic path development. New path development is analysed from an institutional perspective by focussing on changes in the wider regional innovation system (RIS), including firms, universities and governmental agencies, and by placing emphasis on the role that public policy can play. We argue that new regional economic path development requires a broad-based policy approach that stimulates cross-fertilizing effects between different industrial activities within and beyond the region. While cluster policies are well suited to support the growth and sustainment of existing industries, policies for new path development should aim at regional diversification and variety creation, preferably based on existing strengths and expertise in the region. These ideas are central to the Constructing Regional Advantage (CRA) approach. Empirically, the chapter draws on case study research on two new regional economic growth paths in Sweden and Norway, namely the new media cluster in Southern Sweden and the Oslo Cancer cluster. While the first is an example of path renewal through combining knowledge bases, the latter is an example for new path creation based on scientific knowledge. The empirical analysis underlines the role that public policy can play in facilitating new regional economic path development.
    Keywords: new path development; cluster evolution; regional innovation policy; constructing regional advantage; Oslo Cancer Cluster; New Media
    JEL: O18 O20 O38 R11
    Date: 2015–12–02
  17. By: Andreas Irmen (CREA, Université de Luxembourg); Amer Tabakovic (CREA, Université de Luxembourg)
    Abstract: The determinants of the direction of technical change and their implications for economic growth and economic policy are studied in the one-sector neoclassical growth model of Ramsey, Cass, and Koopmans extended to allow for endogenous capital- and labor-augmenting technical change. We develop a novel micro-foundation for the competitive production sector that rests on the idea that the fabrication of output requires tasks to be performed by capital and labor. Firms may engage in innovation investments that increase the productivity of capital and labor in the performance of their respective tasks. These investments are associated with new technological knowledge that accumulates over time and sustains long-run growth. We show that the equilibrium allocation is not Pareto-efficient since both forms of technical change give rise to an inter-temporal knowledge externality. An appropriate policy of investment subsidies may implement
    Keywords: the efficient allocation.
    JEL: O31 O33 O41
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Bel, Roland; Smirnov, Vladimir; Wait, Andrew
    Abstract: We study the interplay between communication, leadership attributes and the probability of successful innovation. Although a firm requires both strong leadership and sufficient communication to overcome inertia, we posit that frequent communication – particularly amongst strong managers and in larger firms – can cause leaders to pull the firm in different directions, resulting in disagreement and a failure to successfully innovate. Using a uniquely detailed establishment-level data set we find that, on their own, firm size, regular communication and result-oriented leadership are all positively associated with innovation. However, as predicted by our model, the use of frequent communication in successfully innovating firms is moderated: (i) when leaders tend to be strongly focussed on results; and (ii) in larger firms.
    Keywords: Innovation; Communication; Leadership: Inertia
    Date: 2015–12
  19. By: David CHARLES (University of Lincoln); Katerina CIAMPI STANCOVA (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: Research and Technology Organisations (RTOs) have developed in many European countries at both national and regional levels to assist in the support of local industry, often around specific industrial technologies or sectors. With a core responsibility for technological upgrading they play a key role in regional and national innovation systems. Yet there is great variety in the form and mission of such RTOs, especially in terms of the degree of regional alignment, and whilst some regions are relatively well endowed with multiple RTOs, others are reliant on national RTOs in other regions or even other countries. These geographical challenges are also compounded by changes in the funding of RTOs with a shift to greater reliance on non-government funding and the search for funds from international sources such as global firms or Horizon 2020 projects. So whilst regions may see RTOs as critical regional assets, the RTOs may have a more nuanced attitude as their client base extends beyond national boundaries and they search for new sources of revenue. RTOs have an important role to play in smart specialisation (S3) though and three specific roles have been identified here. First, many RTOs have a policy role and have capabilities to identify industry needs and technological opportunities as a key input into the entrepreneurial discovery process. Second, RTOs, as increasingly international organisations, can facilitate the access to global knowledge for regional firms through their networks and research collaborations. Third RTOs often have a central role in the development of particular cluster groupings through their specialisation around core technologies, and as such can be a central player in the development of such clusters. But all three of these roles involve potential challenges and difficulties as the interests of the RTOs do not necessarily align with the needs of the region. The case studies in this report on RTOs in Spain, Finland, Italy, and the UK illustrate the variety of RTOs and the complexities of their relationships with regional hosts, but also some of the initiatives that are developing to support smart specialisation.
    Keywords: smart specialisation, research and technology organisations, regional innovation, research and innovation
    Date: 2015–11
  20. By: David Atkin (Department of Economics, MIT, USA); Azam Chaudhry (Department of Economics, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan); Shamyla Chaudry (Department of Economics, Lahore School of Economics, Pakistan; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy); Amit Kumar Khandelwal (Columbia Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, USA); Eric Verhoogen (Department of Economics, Columbia University, USA; The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper studies technology adoption in a cluster of soccer-ball producers in Sialkot, Pakistan. We invented a new cutting technology that reduces waste of the primary raw material and gave the technology to a random subset of producers. Despite the arguably unambiguous net benefits of the technology for nearly all firms, after 15 months take-up remained puzzling low. We hypothesize that an important reason for the lack of adoption is a misalignment of incentives within firms: the key employees (cutters and printers) are typically paid piece rates, with no incentive to reduce waste, and the new technology slows them down, at least initially. Fearing reductions in their effective wage, employees resist adoption in various ways, including by misinforming owners about the value of the technology. To investigate this hypothesis, we implemented a second experiment among the firms that originally received the technology: we offered one cutter and one printer per firm a lump-sum payment, approximately equal to a monthly wage, conditional on them demonstrating competence in using the technology in the presence of the owner. This incentive payment, small from the point of view of the firm, had a significant positive effect on adoption. We interpret the results as supportive of the hypothesis that misalignment of incentives within firms is an important barrier to technology adoption in our setting.
    Date: 2015–07
  21. By: Langinier, Corinne (University of Alberta, Department of Economics); Lluis, Stéphanie (University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: Using data from patent examiners at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, we ask whether, and if so how, examiners career outcomes relate to aspects of the patent review process. Exploiting longitudinal information about all the patents granted by a group of examiners between 1976 and 2006 and their yearly mobility outcomes (departure and promotion) between 1992 and 2006, we find consistent evidence from static, dynamic and duration models of the importance of patent characteristics, granting experience in specific technological fields, repeated interactions with the same inventor and self-citations in predicting an examiners departure or promotion.
    Keywords: Patents; Examiners; Promotion; Turnover
    JEL: J60 O34
    Date: 2015–12–04
  22. By: John P. Weche (Monopolies Commission and Leuphana University Luneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: Empirical studies on the link between green investment and other business investment at the firm level either focus on innovation specific types of investment or fail to consider the simultaneity of investment decisions. The analysis to be presented here offers a broad focus on different types of environmental protection investment and explicitly considers simultaneity issues, using newly created panel data for German manufacturing firms. Germany is an ideal case for testing the crowding-out hypothesis, due to its high level of environmental regulation and a significant presence of command-and-control style measures, which are especially under debate as a source of crowding-out. The estimation of a behavioral investment model supports a crowdingout of other business investment through environmental protection investment in general as well as its subcategories of add-on measures and investments in renewable energy. However, only the latter subcategory causes a crowding-out at the industry level.
    Keywords: green investment; business investment; renewable energy; crowding-out; manufacturing; Germany
    JEL: O32 O33 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2015–11
  23. By: Wesseling , Joeri H. (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Transition studies’ understanding of differences in public policy is limited due to its tendency to focus on single-country cases. This paper assesses differences in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policies expenditures, comprising RD&D subsidies, infrastructure investments and sales incentives, across 13 countries over the period 2008-2014. I explore three conditions that may influence these policy expenditures. <p>Content and statistical analyses show that national PEV policies differed drastically across countries in intensity and orientation, ranging from a focus on supply-side innovation policy to a focus on demand-side environmental policy. The government’s role across national political economies only explain differences in PEV infrastructure investments, while the government’s EV diffusion targets for 2020 surprisingly do not correlate with any PEV policy. Economic interest in the car industry shows and explains why car countries focus their policy on technology development, and non-car countries on technology diffusion. These findings enhance the understanding of national policies in transitions.
    Keywords: innovation policy; demand-side policy; geography of transition; industry support; varieties of capitalism; 2020 target
    JEL: H23 H31 O25 O38 Q58
    Date: 2015–12–01
  24. By: Edwards-Schachter,Mónica; Wallace,Matthew
    Abstract: This paper examines the evolution in the conceptualization of Social Innovation (SI) under the assumption of SI as a trans-disciplinary construct which comprises a diversity of discourses from different fields and actors. We performed a comprehensive and systematic literature review along six decades (1950-2014), extracting definitions of SI through a search of 2,339 documents in various languages retrieved from Web of Science, SCOPUS and Google scholar. To guide the inductive analysis of pluri-vocal discourses we assume innovation to be a learning-based process, introducing the notion of social practice linked to its intertwined institutional and socio-cultural dimensions. We applied mixed qualitative methodologies, combining content analysis based on a social constructionist/interpretivist ontology with cognitive mapping techniques. Our findings identify some core and secondary elements underpinning two complementary perspectives (transformative and instrumental) of SI as scientific construct. They also point to a number of promising avenues for research towards the advancement of a socio-technical theory of innovation.
    Keywords: social innovation, innovation process, collective learning, social practice, social change, technological innovation
    JEL: O17 O30
    Date: 2015–12–04
  25. By: Szabolcs Blazsek; Ãlvaro Escribano
    Abstract: We propose a new class of dynamic patent count panel data models that is based on dynamic conditional score (DCS) models. We estimate multiplicative and additive DCS models, MDCS and ADCS respectively, with quasi-ARMA (QARMA) dynamics, and compare them with the finite distributed lag, exponential feedback and linear feedback models. We use a large panel of 4,476 United States (US) firms for period 1979 to 2000. Related to the statistical inference, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of alternative estimation methods: maximum likelihood estimator (MLE), pooled negative binomial quasi-MLE (QMLE) and generalized method of moments (GMM). For the count panel data models of this paper, the strict exogeneity of explanatory variables assumption of MLE fails and GMM is not feasible. However, interesting results are obtained for pooled negative binomial QMLE. The empirical evidence shows that the new class of MDCS models with QARMA dynamics outperforms all other models considered.
    Keywords: patent count panel data models , dynamic conditional score models , quasi-ARMA model , research and development , patent applications
    JEL: C33 C35 C51 C52 O3
    Date: 2015–11
  26. By: Simone Marsiglio (School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, University of Wollongong); Marco Tolotti (Dept. of Management, Università Ca' Foscari Venice)
    Abstract: We analyze the implications of innovation and social interactions on economic growth in a stylized endogenous growth model with heterogenous research firms. A large number of research firms decide whether to innovate or not, by taking into account what competitors (i.e., other firms) do. This is due to the fact that their profits partly depend on an externality related to the share of firms which actively engage in research activities. Such a share of innovative firms also determines the evolution of technology in the macroeconomy, which ultimately drives economic growth. We show that when the externality effect is strong enough multiple BGP equilibria may exist. In such a framework, the economy may face a low growth trap suggesting that it may end up in a situation of slow long run growth; however, such an outcome may be fully solved by government intervention. We also show that whenever multiple BGP exist, the economy may cyclically fluctuate between the low and high BGP as a result of shocks affecting the individual behavior of research firms.
    Keywords: Economic Growth, Innovation; Firms Interaction; Low Growth Trap; Fluctuations
    JEL: C60 D70 O40
    Date: 2015–11
  27. By: Miranda Forsyth
    Abstract: The Pacific islands region is currently experiencing an intensification of interest in culture as an enabler, rather than an inhibitor, of development. The emerging field of cultural economics seeks to chart ways in which culture can lead to both economic development and also to other goals, such as positive social relationships, community cohesion and maintenance and enjoyment of cultural heritage. However, bringing together these different range of goals at times involves tensions, often manifested in differences between individual autonomy and family and community obligations, generational focus and clashes of cultural logics. This paper investigates these tensions through the lens of intellectual property, an area where competing ideologies and perspectives of entitlement often come head to head. It identifies and reflects upon four areas of tension that will have to be navigated as the region experiments with both global models of intellectual property and national and local regulatory mechanisms.
    Keywords: cultural economics;intellectual property;traditional knowledge;Pacific islands
    Date: 2015–03–28
  28. By: Neil Lee; Hiba Sameen; Marc Cowling
    Abstract: In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, there has been increased focus on access to finance for small and medium sized firms. Some evidence from before the crisis suggested that it was harder for innovative firms to access finance. Yet no research has considered the differential effect of the crisis on innovative firms. This paper addresses this gap using a dataset of over 10,000 UK SME employers. We find that innovative firms are more likely to be turned down for finance than other firms, and this worsened significantly in the crisis. However, regressions controlling for a host of firm characteristics show that the worsening in general credit conditions has been more pronounced for non-innovative firms with the exception of absolute credit rationing which still remains more severe for innovative firms. The results suggest that there are two issues in the financial system. First, we find evidence of a structural problem which restricts access to finance for innovative firms. Second, we show a cyclical problem has been caused by the financial crisis and impacted relatively more severely on non-innovative firms.
    Keywords: Finance; SME; Entrepreneurship; Recession; Innovation
    JEL: G21 G32 L2 O31
    Date: 2015–03
  29. By: Sabyasachi Saha (Research and Information System for Developing Countries, Delhi); Amit Shovon Ray (Centre for International Trade and Development,Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we present an economic analysis of science research and knowledge creation in Indian universities. We posit that faculty’s research effort is an outcome of her optimum time allocation decision, which in turn shapes knowledge creation in universities. Accordingly, the present paper has a two-fold objective: (1) to develop a theoretical model of research effort by academic scientists in India, and (2) to estimate the research production function that transforms research effort into knowledge outputs controlling for various other factors, using tools of applied econometrics. We establish, theoretically as well as empirically, that contrary to the fairly well accepted proposition of declining research effort/productivity over a scientist’s life cycle in the western world, Indian academic scientists, ceteris paribus, tend to devote a larger share of their time to research and produce larger volumes of research output over their lifetime.
  30. By: Luisa Gagliardi
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of technological change on local labour market outcomes in Britain. Using a newly assembled panel database for the period 2000-2007 and a directly observed measure of technological change based on patent records, the analysis suggests that employment levels are relatively lower in places that are more exposed to technological shocks depending on their existing industrial specialization. Results also suggest that the magnitude of the impact varies across locations and typologies of workers. The negative impact on employment is particularly evident in areas characterized by weaker agglomeration economies and specialization in mature industries and for intermediate skilled individuals employed in “routinary” activities
    Keywords: local labour market; employment; technological change; skills
    JEL: J24 O33 R12 R21 R23
    Date: 2014–10
  31. By: Sujata Basu (Centre for International Trade and Development,Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: This paper empirically examines human capital's contribution to economy-wide technological progress and also on technical efficiency gain depending on its distance to frontier in a panel of 75 countries over the period 1970 - 2010. This study illustrates that only advanced economies rely on technological change while dependence on technical efficiency gain is high for middle and poor income countries. Using stochastic frontier analysis and system generalized method of moments (GMM), it is shown that skilled human capital is important for technical efficiency gain for rich income countries whereas middle and poor income countries rely on semi-skilled human capital for technical efficiency gain. This study also analyzes the impact of skilled-unskilled human capital on total factor productivity growth for both aggregate and multiple outputs. For aggregate output, the production function has been estimated with fixed effect panel regression. It shows that elasticity of capital is higher for rich income countries than middle or poor income countries whereas ranking of coefficient associated with labor is reverse. After that, the total factor productivity would be estimated by Solow residual. In the second stage, using system GMM, it is shown that skilled human capital is important for total factor productivity growth for rich and middle income countries and unskilled human capital is growth enhancing for poor income countries. For multiple outputs, the production function has been estimated by data envelopment analysis. In the second stage by using system GMM, same findings would be revealed as in the aggregate output for total factor productivity growth.

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