nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒11‒15
eighteen papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Federal Policies and Innovation By Congressional Budget Office
  3. Technology Diffusion via Patent Collaborations: The Case of European Integration By Julien Berthoumieu
  4. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs By Lamiraud, Karine; Lhuillery, Stephane
  5. The Impact of Part-Time Work on Firm Total Factor Productivity: Evidence from Italy By Francesco Devicienti; Elena Grinza; Davide Vannoni
  6. A macroeconomic analysis of the returns to public R&D investments By Van Elk, Roel; Verspagen, Bart; Ter Weel, Bas; Van der Wiel, Karen; Wouterse, Bram
  7. Tolerance, Agglomeration and Enterprise Innovation Performance: A Multi-Level Analysis of Latin American Regions By Edward Lorenz; Jana Schmutzler
  8. Human Resources and Innovation: Total Factor Productivity and Foreign Human Capital. By Fassio, Claudio; Kalantaryan, Sona; Venturini, Alessandra
  9. Inventors' Mobility and Organizations' Productivity: Evidence from Japanese rare name inventors By SAITO Yukiko; YAMAUCHI Isamu
  10. High Growth Firms and Technological Knowledge: Do gazelles follow exploration or exploitation strategies? By Alessandra Colombelli; Jackie Krafft; Francesco Quatraro
  11. Coordination of Space and Industry Development of the Clusters: The Experience of Foreign Countries By Sorokina, Alla
  12. Portfolio Spillovers in Venture Capital: Evidence from Patent Litigation By Filippo Mezzanotti
  13. Enforcement of Merger Control : Theoretical insights for its Procedural Design By Andreea Cosnita-Langlais
  14. Punjab’s Agricultural Innovation Challenge By Singh, Nirvikar
  15. Patents and the market for technology in the early 19th century France By Gabriel Galvez-Behar
  16. Modeling Software Piracy Protection: Monopoly versus Duopoly By Kresimir Zigic; Jiri Strelicky; Michael Kunin
  17. Intellectual Property Protection and the Industrial Composition of Multinational Activity By Olena Ivus; Walter Park; Kamal Saggi
  18. The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity | National Trends By Fairlie, Robert

  1. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: The federal government influences innovation through two broad channels: spending and tax policies, and the legal and regulatory systems. Policymakers could spur additional innovation by increasing funding for federal programs that support research and development, increasing funding on education, providing greater tax incentives for R&D, increasing loans or loan guarantees for firms that produce innovative technologies, or making changes to immigration policies, the patent system, and the regulatory regime.
    JEL: E22 H54 O00
    Date: 2014–11–17
  2. By: Bradley, Sebastien (School of Economics); Dauchy, Estelle (New Economic School); Robinson, Leslie (Tuck School of Business)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the initial impacts of patent box regimes in light of their primary stated objectives: stimulating domestic innovation and retaining mobile patent income to limit base erosion. Despite their lack of nexus requirements, we find that patent box regimes yield a 3 percent increase in new patent applications for every percentage point reduction in the tax rate on patent income. We find no significant impact of these regimes on deterring outward cross-border attribution of patent ownership, or on attracting ownership of foreign inventions. Increased patenting activity hence appears focused on inventions involving co-located (domestic) patent owners and inventors.
    Keywords: patent box; tax policy; innovation; base erosion
    JEL: H25 H32 K34
    Date: 2015–10–01
  3. By: Julien Berthoumieu (Larefi - Laboratoire d'analyse et de recherche en économie et finance internationales - Université Montesquieu - Bordeaux 4)
    Abstract: This paper aims to study the impact of potential determinants for technology diffusion via patent collaborations between emerging and developed countries in Europe by implementing an econometric estimation with panel data. First, we use the probability of patent collaborations as the explained variable under LOGIT estimations. Then, we use the intensity of collaborations under both OLS/GLS and Poisson estimations. We especially study the impact of the European Union integration of Eastern Europe countries on such technological collaborations with European Western countries. We also analyze the impact of further explanatory variables such as common borders, geographic distance, Gross Domestic Products, populations, income inequalities, Research and Development expenditures, technological gap, technological distance public expenditures in education, bilateral trade and Foreign Direct Investments. The results show that the European integration of emerging countries does not significantly increase the probability of patent collaborations. But it does significantly increase the intensity of patent collaborations. Emerging countries’ exports to developed countries is the main determinant for both the probability and the number of patent collaborations. The impact is significant and positive.
    Keywords: Technology Diffusion, Patent Collaborations, Econometric Estimation, European Union Integration.
    Date: 2015–11–05
  4. By: Lamiraud, Karine (ESSEC et THEMA (Université de Cergy Pontoise)); Lhuillery, Stephane (BETA (UMR-CNRS 7522) and ICN Business School, Nancy, France)
    Abstract: Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare costs covered by basic health insurance while controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. Our results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare costs while increased availability of PTCA facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies which did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies.
    Keywords: healthcare costs; technology change; medical research
    JEL: D60 I10 O30
    Date: 2015–11–06
  5. By: Francesco Devicienti; Elena Grinza; Davide Vannoni
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the impact of part-time work on firm productivity. Using a large panel data set of Italian corporations' balance sheets for the period 2000- 2010, we first estimate the total factor productivity (TFP) of each firm for each year. We use different approaches aimed at solving input simultaneity, including a version of Ackerberg et al. [2006]'s control function approach, which accounts for firm fixed effects. We then match the TFP estimates with rich information on the firms' use of part-time work obtained from survey data and estimate the impact of part-time work on TFP at the firm level. We find that an increase of 1 standard deviation in the part- time share reduces TFP by 2.03%. The results suggest that this harmful effect stems from horizontal rather than vertical part-time arrangements. We also find that firms declaring that they use part-time work to accommodate workers' requests suffer the most. Moreover, we show that the so-called 'flexible' and 'elastic' clauses are successful in reducing the negative impact associated with part-time work.
    Keywords: Part-time work; Horizontal and vertical part-time contracts; Flexible and elastic clauses; Firm total factor productivity (TFP); Semiparametric estimation methods
    JEL: L23 L25 J23
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Van Elk, Roel; Verspagen, Bart (UNU-MERIT); Ter Weel, Bas; Van der Wiel, Karen; Wouterse, Bram
    Abstract: This paper analyses the economic returns to public R&D investments in 22 OECD countries. We exploit a dataset containing time series from 1963 to 2011 and estimate and compare the outcomes of different types of production function models. Robustness analyses are performed to test the sensitivity of the outcomes for particular model specifications, sample selections, assumptions with respect to the construction of R&D stocks, and variable definitions. Analyses based on Cobb-Douglas and translog production functions mostly yield statistically insignificant or negative returns. In these models we control for private and foreign R&D investments and the primary production factors. Models including additional controls, such as public capital, the stock of inward and outward foreign direct investment, and the shares of high-tech imports and exports, yield more positive returns. Our findings suggest that public R&D investments do not automatically foster GDP and TFP growth. The economic return to scientific research seems to depend on the specific national context.
    Keywords: science, knowledge, public R&D, economic growth, total factor productivity
    JEL: I23 O11 O40 O47
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Edward Lorenz (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France; GREDEG-CNRS); Jana Schmutzler (Universidad de Norte, Colombia; Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Germany)
    Keywords: human capital, tolerance, innovation, regional development, Latin America
    JEL: O30 R10 J24
    Date: 2015–11
  8. By: Fassio, Claudio; Kalantaryan, Sona; Venturini, Alessandra (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyse the role of migrants in innovation in Europe. We use Total Factor Productivity as a measure of innovation and focus on the three largest European countries – France, Germany and the United Kingdom – in the years 1994-2007. Unlike previous research, which mainly employs a regional approach, we analyse ù the link between migration and innovation at the sectoral level. This allows us to measure the direct contribution of migrants in the sector in which they are actually employed. Moreover, it allows a distinction between the real contribution of migrants to innovation from possible inter-sectoral complementarities, which might as well foster innovation. We control for the different components of human-capital, such as age, education and diversity of origin. To address the possible endogeneity of migration we draw on an instrumental variable strategy originally devised by Card (2001) and adapt it at the sector level The results show that overall migrants are relevant in all sectors, but some important differences emerge across sectors: highlyeducated migrants show a larger positive effect in the high-tech sectors, while middle- and loweducated ones are more relevant in manufacturing. The diversity of countries of origin contributes to innovation only in the services sectors, confirming that in empirical analyses at the regional or national level the diversity measure might capture the complementarity between sectors rather than the contribution of different national skills.
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: SAITO Yukiko; YAMAUCHI Isamu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between inventors' mobility and organizations' productivity by constructing a database of patent inventors. We focus on inventors with rare names in order to avoid the problem of identifying distinct inventors with the same name. Tracing the inventors' transfers between organizations, we find the following. First, mobile inventors are more productive than stable inventors who have never transferred. Second, inventors with higher ex ante productivity have a higher frequency of transfers, while the effect of transfers on their ex post productivity for productive inventors is the opposite compared with that of less productive inventors. Thus, ex ante productivity may explain a large part of the higher productivity of mobile inventors relative to stable inventors. Third, the productivity of stable inventors is higher in an organization where inventors have more experience in different organizations. These results suggest the existence of knowledge spillover from mobile inventors to stable inventors, which leads to organizations' high productivity.
    Date: 2015–11
  10. By: Alessandra Colombelli (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Jackie Krafft (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS); Francesco Quatraro (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - UNS - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis - CNRS, Department of Economics, University of Turin - University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the contribution of high-growth firms to the process of knowledge creation. We articulate a demand-pull innovation framework in which knowledge creation is driven by sales growth, and knowledge stems from creative recombination. Given the established literature on high growth firms and economic growth, we wonder whether gazelles follow patterns of knowledge creation mostly dominated by exploration or exploitation strategies. To this purpose, we derive indicators able to describe the structure of knowledge and qualify firms' innovation strategies. The empirical results suggest that the reality is richer than the interpretative frameworks. Increasing growth rates are indeed associated to exploration strategies, supporting the idea that high growth firms are key actors in the creation of new technological knowledge. But in the meantime, firms showing growth rates significantly higher than the average are able to command the exploration strategies by constraining them within the boundaries of familiar technological competences, suggesting that the exploration process is less random than anticipated. We end up with the result that high growth firms, and especially gazelles, follow predominantly an exploration strategy, but with the characteristics of an organized search which is often more observed in an exploitation strategy.
    Keywords: Gazelles,Recombinant Knowledge,Schumpeterian innovation patterns
    Date: 2014–04–01
  11. By: Sorokina, Alla (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This article provides a brief description of basic methods of coordination of industrial and spatial development in foreign countries. The analysis of economic development strategies shows that cluster approach helps countries to solve a very broad variety of economic problems – starting from innovation development and ending up investment attraction. So cluster initiatives seem as most promising way of simultaneous solving tasks of industrial and spatial development.
    Keywords: Territorial development, the cluster approach, objectives, industry, strategic planning
    JEL: C38
    Date: 2013–11–27
  12. By: Filippo Mezzanotti
    Date: 2015–11
  13. By: Andreea Cosnita-Langlais
    Abstract: This paper reviews the theoretical underpinnings of the main procedural choices for merger control enforcement. At each relevant stage we highlight the economic trade-offs behind the corresponding procedural choices: mandatory vs voluntary pre-merger notification, ex ante vs ex post merger review, and the type of decision eventually made, binary or not. The paper also identifies the missing debates that still need formal treatment. Our study provides insight for the optimal procedural design of merger control, and as such may be useful to understand the different choices made by the various jurisdictions for merger policy enforcement.
    Keywords: merger control, enforcement, procedural design.
    JEL: K21 L41 D82
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Singh, Nirvikar
    Abstract: Fifty years ago, Punjab embarked on its famous Green Revolution, leading the rest of India in that innovation, and becoming the country's breadbasket. Now its economy and society are struggling by relative, and sometimes even absolute, measures. Using the original Green Revolution as a benchmark, this paper discusses five areas of challenge and promise for a new round of agricultural innovation in Punjab. These are: complexity of the agricultural economy, complementary inputs such as infrastructure, switching costs (including risks), balancing frontier innovation and adaptation, and the relative roles of the public and private sectors.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Punjab, agriculture, innovation, switching costs, infrastructure
    Date: 2015–10–31
  15. By: Gabriel Galvez-Behar (IRHiS - Institut de Recherches Historiques du Septentrion - Université Charles-de-Gaulle Lille 3 - Sciences humaines et sociales - CNRS)
    Abstract: Since the Ancien Régime, the privileges for inventions could be sold in order to improve the connection between inventors and capitalists. The 1791 French patent laws recognized the inventor's rights as a property and allowed the patent holders to assign their rights. However, to be valid, such an assignment had to be made before a notary and be registred in the prefecture. From 1824 these records were published in the Bulletin des lois. This provision was extended by the 1844 patent law and was always implemented. Thanks to this legal requirement, we have the opportunity to analyze an uninterrupted source about all these transactions during the whole 19th century. Our paper focuses on the period 1824-1844. First, we review the legal framework of French patent system, particularly regarding assignments of patents. We. Secondly, we analyze the sales, which occurred during this period and we compare them with the data available about all patents issued during the early 19th century. Finally, we consider the notion of market for technology by considering complementary sources.
    Keywords: economic history,history of technology,patents,market for technology,histoire économique,histoire des techniques,brevets d'invention,marché des techniques,France
    Date: 2015–08–03
  16. By: Kresimir Zigic; Jiri Strelicky; Michael Kunin
    Abstract: The economic analyses of software piracy typically rely on the simplifying assumption that the product is o¤ered by a single producer. We argue that a realistic description of the software market and associated economic aspects of software piracy might be also captured by studying competition between software developers. Using an illegal version of software violates intellectual property rights (IPR) and, due to public protection (such as copyrights), is punishable when discovered. If a developer nonetheless considers the level of piracy to be high, he may introduce his own private protection. The focus of our analysis is on the interaction between public and private IPR protection in the two market structures under considerations. We show that, unlike in cases of monopolies, there is no conflict of interest between the regulator and producers in duopoly setup. Moreover, unlike in a monopoly, the optimal public IPR protection in duopoly does not affect the developers' choice of software quality.
    Keywords: software piracy; private and public IPR protection; quality and competition effects; vertically differentiated duopoly;
    JEL: D43 L11 L21 O25 O34
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Olena Ivus (Queen's University); Walter Park (American University); Kamal Saggi (Vanderbilt University)
    Abstract: In a North-South model with endogenous FDI, we examine the impact of Southern IPR protection on the mode and industrial composition of international technology transfer. A novel feature of the model is that, due to technological reasons, industries differ with respect to their susceptibility to imitation. In equilibrium, licensing occurs in industries where the risk of imitation is low and FDI where it is of intermediate magnitude. Stronger IPRs in the South (i) alter the industrial composition of multinational activity towards licensing at the expense of FDI; (ii) reduce local imitation; and (iii) increase licensing and, to a lesser extent, FDI.
    Keywords: trade, intellectual property rights, licensing, FDI, technology transfer
    JEL: F1 O3
    Date: 2015–11–06
  18. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: The Kauffman Index: Startup Activity is a novel early indicator of new business creation in the United States, integrating several high-quality sources of timely entrepreneurship information into one composite indicator of startup activity. The Index captures business activity in all industries, and is based on both a nationally representative sample size of more than a half million observations each year and on the universe of all employer businesses in the United States. This allows us to look at both entrepreneurs and the startups they create. Broad-based entrepreneurship in America appears to be slowly crawling its way out of the depths it has been stuck in since 2010. Startup activity rose in 2015, reversing a five-year downward trend in the United States, giving rise to hope for a revival of entrepreneurship. However, the return remains tepid and well below historical trends. A principle driver of this year’s uptick is the growth of male opportunity entrepreneurship, accompanied by the continued strength of immigrant entrepreneurship. Trends in entrepreneurship rates are analyzed for several additional demographic groups.
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, entrepreneurship, business, startups, self-employment
    Date: 2015–11–05

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