nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
89 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Role of SMEs in regional innovation systems in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
  2. Determinants of machinery firms´ innovation activity - case study from the Czech Republic By Viktor Prokop; Jan Stejskal
  3. Patent collateral, investor commitment, and the market for venture lending By Rosemarie Ziedonis; Carlos Serrano; Yael Hochberg
  4. Technological diversity and the impact of regional innovation: evidence for the EU By Andrea Morescalchi; Sjoerd Hardeman
  5. Looking beyond the R&D effects on innovation: The contribution of non-R&D activities to total factor productivity growth in the EU_x0003_ By jesus lopez-rodriguez; Diego Martinez
  6. An analysis of the characteristics of firms and universities in shaping geographical distance of university-industry linkages By Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
  7. Market Frictions in Entrepreneurial Innovation: Theory and Evidence By Angela Cipollone; Paolo E. Giordani
  8. Knowledge spillovers from foreign direct invesments ? Czech case study By Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
  9. Innovation Bureaucracy: Does the organization of government matter when promoting innovation? By Karo , Erkki; Kattel , Rainer
  10. Quantifying the Effects of Patent Protection on Innovation, Imitation, Growth, and Aggregate Productivity By Pedro Bento
  11. Roadblock to Innovation: The Role of Patent Litigation in Corporate R&D By Filippo Mezzanotti
  12. Cultural Values as Predictors of Positive or Negative Attitude Towards Innovation Among Representatives of Various Generations of Russian People By Vera A. Fedotova
  13. The least innovative regions in Poland and in France in the process of smart specialisation By Anna Golejewska; Dorota Czy¿ewska
  14. Prizes versus Contracts as Incentives for Innovation By Yeon-Koo Che; Elisabetta Iossa; Patrick Rey
  16. Environmental Development of Rural Russia: Innovative Projects and Social Environment By Kurakin, Alexander; Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich; Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna
  17. Economic crisis and innovation: Do regions matter? By Adelheid Holl; Ruth Rama
  18. Determinants of new business formation in China: Regional evidence from a panel data model By Martin Borowiecki; Karl-Heinz Leitner
  19. Wealth, tastes, and entrepreneurial choice By Hurst, Erik; Pugsley, Benjamin
  20. R&D efficiency of Mexican regions ? an output DEA approach- By Igone Porto Gomez; Jose Ramón Otegi; José Ricardo Lopez Robles
  21. Features of the European Maritime Clusters By Regina Salvador; Abel Simões; Carlos Guedes Soares
  22. The effects of knowledge and innovation on regional growth: Nonparametric evidence By Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
  23. Twenty Challenges for Innovation Studies By Ben R. Martin
  24. Social Entrepreneurship: Does Institutional Environment Make a Difference? By José Cadima Ribeiro; José Freitas Santos; Susana Bernardino
  25. Agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance By Balázs Páger; Éva Komlósi
  26. Industry Structure, Entrepreneurship, and Culture: An Empirical Analysis Using Historical Coalfields By Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Audretsch, David B.; Wyrwich, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Coombes, Mike; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max
  27. Digitization of Heritage Collections as Indicator of Innovation By Karol J. Borowiecki; Trilce Navarrete
  28. Innovation and Top Income Inequality By Ufuk Akcigit; Richard Blundell; David Hemous; Antonin Bergeaud; Philippe Aghion
  29. Policy Learning and Smart Specialization Balancing Policy Change and Policy Stability for New Regional Industrial Path Development By Moodysson , Jerker; Trippl, Michaela; Zukauskaite, Elena
  30. The firm's evaluation of local research institutes and universities - an empirical analysis for Germany By Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
  31. From Plan to Process: Exploring the Leadership Implications of RIS3 By James R. Wilson; Mari Jose Aranguren; Mikel Navarro
  32. The late turn-out of the Slovak star-up factories: locational and institutional factors By Oto Hudec; Marek Lavcak
  33. Agricultural Technology Adoption and Market Participation under Learning Externality: Impact Evaluation on Small-scale Agriculture from Rural Ethiopia By Tigist Mekonnen Melesse
  34. Public policies of science, technology and innovation: an empirical research of Brazilian innovation act By Patricia Guimaraes; Yanko Xavier; Lucas do Monte Silva
  35. Science and Innovation in Scotland: a Study on the Impact of Enhanced Autonomy By Alessandro Rosiello; Dave Wield; Omid Omidvar; Michele Mastroeni; Joyce Tait
  36. The world city network: national versus global perspective By Stefan Lüthi; Alain Thierstein; Michael Hoyler
  37. Knowledge economy formation in Russian regions in 2000th By Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
  38. Endogenous Technology Adoption and Medical Costs By Karine Lamiraud; Stephane Lhuillery
  39. Industrial policy under Neo-Schumpeterian concept of structural technological dynamics: Case of Ukraine By BAZHAL, IURII
  40. Impact of Agricultural innovation on improved livelihood and productivity outcomes among smallholder farmers in Rural Nigeria By Ogunniyi Adebayo; Kehinde Olagunju
  41. Barriers to cross-region research and development collaborations in Europe. Evidence from the fi_x000C_fth European Framework Programme By Aurélien Fichet de Clairfontaine; Manfred M. Fischer; Rafael Lata; Manfred Paier
  42. University spin-off firms? internationalization: Importance of skills By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
  43. Rural entrepreneurship and Innovation: some successful women?s initiatives By Lúcia Pato
  44. Mapping innovation in the global photovoltaic industry: a bibliometric approach to cluster identification and analysis By Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
  45. Qualitative Performance Indicators of Latvia’s Technology Transfer Offices By Just V
  46. The Effects of Interlocal Collaboration on Local Economic Performance: Investigation of Korean Cases By Eunok Im
  47. SME?s cluster identification in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
  48. Strategic Alliances: An Introductory Framework By Link, Albert N.; Antonelli, Cristiano
  49. The impact of firm financing constraints on R&D over the business cycle By Kadri Männasoo; Jaanika Meriküll
  50. Formation conditions and criteria of regional innovation systems in Ukraine By Olena Slozko
  52. Vertical organization of production and firm growth behavior By Fabio Pieri
  53. Offshoring, Employment and Wages By Alessandro Bramucci
  54. Kartellrecht und Wettbewerbspolitik für Online-Plattformen By Hamelmann, Lisa; Haucap, Justus
  55. Crisis and conversion of industrial port complex: the case of Gdansk (Poland) By Maria Lorek
  57. Ex Post Inequality of Opportunity Comparisons By Marc Fleurbaey; Vito Peragine; Xavier Ramos
  58. Firm Performance in the Periphery: On the Relation between Firm-Internal Knowledge and Local Knowledge Spillovers By Grillitsch, Markus; Nilsson, Magnus
  59. Computer technology and probable job destructions in Japan: an evaluation By Benjamin David
  60. Causal Relations between Knowledge-Intensive Business Services and Regional Employment Growth By Thomas Brenner; Marco Capasso; Matthias Duschl; Koen Frenken; Tania Treibich
  62. Regional dynamics of growth in the European Union: To what extent spatial spillovers matter? By Selin Ozyurt; Stephane Dees
  63. Regional Distribution of Creative and Cultural Industries in Indonesia By Fikri Zul Fahmi
  64. Asymmetric information as a barrier to knowledge spillovers in expert markets By Feser, Daniel; Proeger, Till
  65. Regional Convergence and R&D Investment: Applied investigation in Portugal By Gertrudes Guerreiro; António Guerreiro
  66. Long-lasting Labour Market Consequences of German Unification By Joachim Möller; Uwe Blien; Phan thi Hong Van; Stephan Brunow
  67. The Green Entrepreneurial State By Mariana Mazzucato
  68. Essays in International Trade and Political Economy By Tommaso Aquilante
  69. The gap between potential entrepreneurship and actual entrepreneurship: an inter-continental comparative analysis By Óscar Rodil; Diana Morales
  70. Geography of Regional Imbalance: The Role of Higher Education Institutions in Brazil By Mauricio Serra; Louise Kempton; Paul Vallance; Ana Paula Bastos; Cassio Rolim
  71. Formal entrepreneurial networks as communities of practice: a longitudinal case study By Vincent Lefebvre; Miruna Radu Lefebvre; Eric Simon
  72. Entrepreneurship and transition in the European transition countries By László Szerb; William Trumbull
  73. Radar scanning the world production frontier By Krüger, Jens J.
  74. Research Assessment in the UK and Italy: Costly and Difficult, But Probably Worth it (At Least For a While) By Aldo Geuna; Matteo Piolatto
  75. A few notes on the spatial development of the tourism industry in Madeira By António Almeida
  76. What happened to entrepreneurial economies after the financial crisis? An empirical study of OECD countries By Jean Bonnet; Rafik Abdesselam; Patricia Renou-Maissant; Mathilde Aubry
  77. Territorial clusters of economic cooperation: a new attempt to build entrepreneurial and institutional partnerships within a social economy? By Myriam Matray; Jacques Poisat
  78. Entrepreneurship Education in Ethiopian universities: Institutional assessment Synthesis Report By Huub Mudde; Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
  79. The knowledge economy and the economic crisis in Germany. Regional development, structural change and labor market regions By Michael Bentlage; Matthias Dorner; Alain Thierstein
  80. Potential for growth of productive areas ecologically equipped (APEA) adhering to FICEI By Sandro Turina; Giuseppe Confessore; Maurizio Turina; Ilaria Barbante
  81. Knowledge economy infrastructure formation in the northern regions of the Russian Federation By Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
  82. The Importance of State Support in Entrepreneurship : A Sample of Konya Province By Mehmet Emin Demir; Mehmet Akif Çini
  83. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Socio-Spatial Resilience based on Sectoral Changes in Kayseri City Region By Arzu Taylan; Elif Gunduz; Mehmet Akif Sag; Kubra Karkin
  84. Development of Organizational and Economic Grounds of Investment and Entrepreneurial Projects for Innovative Development of the Healthcare in the Medium Term Perspective By Gabueva, Larisa; Pirogov, M.
  86. The Causality Between Entrepreneurial Activities and Regional Economic Growth: Case of Turkey By Semiha Turgut; Aliye Ahu Akgun
  87. Essays on the Export Performance of Vietnam/Essais sur la Performance à l'Exportation du Vietnam By Hanh Vu Thi
  88. Women entrepreneurship. Changes in access to credit and business results (2003-2013) By Antonio Garcia-Tabuenca; Federico Pablo-Martí; Fernando Crecente-Romero
  89. The role of SMEs in sustainable regional development and local business integration: The case of Lublin region (Poland) By Anna Arent; Matylda Bojar; Nelson Duarte; Francisco Diniz

  1. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
    Abstract: SMEs play an important role in the development of regional innovative systems because of their potential to accept new technologies and show fast growing rates. There is an interdependence between emergence of fast growing SMEs (?gazelles?) and innovative development of regions. High level of regional innovative development creates a fertile environment for increasing the number of fast growing companies, while we assume that large number of ?gazelles? creates a favourable environment for the dissemination of innovations in regions via spillover effect (NESTA Business growth and innovation, 2009). Fast-growing companies may contribute more than 50% to GDP growth (Europe INNOVA Gazelles Innovation Panel, 2008). There are several works, that explain growth of firms as a stochastic phenomenon (Gibrat, 1929), or as a combination of endogenous (Penrose, 1955) and exogenous factors (Delmar, Davidsson, Gartner, 2003). In our work we assume that regional innovation performance (as a share of RnD personnel in employment, share RnD expenditures in gross regional product, etc.) may be a significant factor because of knowledge spillover effects (Audretsch, Feldman, 2004), affecting more competitive firms. There were no works on Russian regional data that could prove it. The article analyses a variety of endogenous (intra-firm) and exogenous (regional) factors, which determine the share of fast-growing firms in Russian regions. The analysed firms were fast-growing manufacturing SMEs during post-crisis period (2009-2012), the main focus was on the determinants of the companies? share in total number of manufacturing firms in a region. The dataset was collected from SPARK (Professional market and company analysis system), and consists of information about income, owners, location, industry and several financial indicators. Regional factors, according to Russian Federal State Statistical service, include research and development indicators (such as RnD expenditures, RnD employees, etc.), urbanization rate, human capital, investment climate, etc. There are 419 manufacturing fast-growing companies (?gazelles?) from 9220 companies in database, which is approximately 5%. Econometric analyses demonstrates a strong correlation between the share of high-growth companies in regions and indicators of regional innovation performance: number of researchers per 10 000 people, the number of PCT applications per economically active population, the share of employees with higher education in the total number of population in economically active age, and the number of applications for inventions submitted to the Russian Patent Bureau by national applicants per the economically active population. Determined factors could be used for elaborating recommendations for implementation of industrial policy in Russia.
    Keywords: SME; Russian regions; regional innovation systems
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Viktor Prokop; Jan Stejskal
    Abstract: Innovative activities have been considered mandatory for surviving in a dynamic market environment, inter alia in the machinery industry. Nothing has received as much attention as innovation, which has been pinpointed as the fundamental driving force for economic growth and welfare as well as a key factor in competitiveness. Therefore, innovation growth is seen as a mechanism to influence economic growth, and therefore firms capable of increasing their innovation potential benefit from further increasing competitive advantage and economic growth. However, innovations do not arise within one company in isolation. Today, in the so-called knowledge economy, innovation ? more than most other economic activities ? depends on new economic knowledge, which is perceived to be the basic ingredient of the innovative process. It follows that the increased complexity of knowledge processes influences firms, because organizations need to be able to respond to the growing demand for improved innovation, mainly in the mentioned machinery industry which is trapped by cost and innovation pressure. Thus, innovative units as well as local institutions and individuals have to interact with each other and with their external environment because collaboration with suppliers, customers and competitors enables a firm to deepen its existing technological competence. Moreover, collaboration with research organizations helps a firm broaden its technological knowledge and firms can acquire new scientific knowledge to benefit their product or process innovations by interacting formally and informally with universities and research institutes. The aim of this paper is the identification and evaluation of specific important determinants of innovative activities that influence the economic growth of enterprises in the machinery industry in the Czech Republic by using own multiple regression models. Selected determinants of innovative activities are (i) total turnover, (ii) R&D expenditures, acquisition of external knowledge and total innovation expenditure, (iii) significant market, (iv) membership of a group of enterprises, (v) implementation of innovated goods, (vi) public financial support. For the data analysis we used a harmonized questionnaire of EU Member States from the Community Innovation Survey that was carried out in the Czech Republic for the period 2010 ? 2012. In total, the analysis was performed on data of 284 Czech enterprises from the machinery industry with at least 10 employees. We can say that the greatest influence on the dependent variable was analyzed in determinants of the market supported by the government, and support by EU funds. Results show that there are large numbers of factors that affect the innovation activity, but their significance are marginal.
    Keywords: innovation; innovative collaboration; knowledge economy; machinery industry
    JEL: D83 O32 R11 R59
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Rosemarie Ziedonis (University of Oregon); Carlos Serrano (Pompeu Fabra University); Yael Hochberg (MIT Sloan School of Management)
    Abstract: The use of debt to finance risky entrepreneurial-firm projects is rife with informational and contracting problems. Nonetheless, we document widespread lending to startups in three innovation-intensive sectors and in early stages of development. At odds with claims that the secondary patent market is too illiquid to shape debt financing, we find that intensified patent trading increases the annual rate of startup lending, particularly for startups with more redeployable (less firm-specific) patent assets. Exploiting differences in venture capital (VC) fundraising cycles and a negative capital-supply shock in early 2000, we also find that the credibility of VC commitments to refinance and grow fledgling companies is vital for such lending. Our study illuminates friction-reducing mechanisms in the market for venture lending, a surprisingly active but opaque arena for innovation financing, and tests central tenets of contract theory.
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Andrea Morescalchi; Sjoerd Hardeman
    Abstract: Diversity is considered key to research, innovation and growth. However, throughout the literature, the exact meaning of the notion of diversity is often left in the midst. What is more, whilst the relation between diversity and productivity growth by now has been extensively addressed, still few empirical studies exist that address the relationship between diversity and innovation directly. To fill in this gap in the literature, this paper offers an empirical analysis of the relationship between technological diversity and the impact of innovation at the EU regional level whilst including different measures of diversity oriented at different levels of technological detail. Using EPO patent data, first, a set of different measures related to diversity is created exploiting the hierarchical structure of patent classes of the International Patent Classification (IPC). Second, the impact of innovation is captured by two citation-based indicators. Whilst the count of (field-normalized) citations is used to proxy the quality of innovation in terms of average impact, the number of highly cited patents is used as a proxy for top-quality innovation in terms of research excellence. Concerning the average impact of innovation, we clearly observe an advantage of specializing in innovation activities in few and related technological sectors. Localization economies can operate not only at low levels of aggregation, but also at a very high level, depending on the classification scheme. Results for research excellence are similar, with two main differences though. First, the impact of evenness on research excellence is non-monotonic in the level of aggregation and can be significant also for a very high level of aggregation. Second, while localization has positive impact on research excellence at the lowest level of aggregation similarly to average quality, a negative impact is found for all the other levels. The main conclusion of this paper holds that related specialization (conceived in terms of either similarity or related variety) and localization have a positive effect on the impact of EU regional innovation the more technological detail is taken into account. Our results then first and foremost stress the importance of taking into account (i) the relations among different technologies and (ii) the appropriate level of technological detail along which relations among technologies play out. As related specialization has a positive effect on technological impact, policymakers could consider either one of two policy options in order to boost the impact of innovation in Europe. One option concerns steering related specialization and localization at a coarse-grained technological level further as to increase the impact of innovation. If related diversification and not related specialization is considered to be a viable policy option in Europe, then the reward system of innovation should be drastically revised.
    Keywords: Specialization; related variety; unrelated variety; regional innovation systems
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: jesus lopez-rodriguez; Diego Martinez
    Abstract: Although non-R&D innovation activities account for a significant portion of innovation efforts carried out across very heterogeneous economies in Europe, how to incorporate them in to economic models is not always straightforward. For instance, the traditional macro approach to estimating the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP) does not handle them well. To counter these problems, this paper proposes applying an augmented macro-theoretical model to estimate the determinants of TFP by jointly considering the effects of R&D and the impact of non-R&D innova- tion activities on the productivity levels of ?firms. Estimations from a model of a sample of EU-26 countries covering the period 2004-2008 show that the distinction between R&D and non-R&D e¤ects is significant for a number of diffffrent issues. First, the results show a sizable impact on TFP growth, as the impact of R&D is twice that of non-R&D. Second, absorptive capacity is only linked to R&D endowments. And third, the two types of endowments cannot strictly been seen as complementary, at least for the case of countries with high R&D intensities or high non-R&D intensities.
    Keywords: TFP; R&D; non-R&D expenditures; EU countries.
    JEL: O0 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–10
  6. By: Garcia Renato; Araujo Veneziano; Mascarini Suelene; Santos Emerson; Costa Ariana
    Abstract: University has being playing an increasing role in supporting innovation. In this way, university-industry linkages has become a growing subject in the literature, in order to understand how these relationships are shaped on space. Recent issue is about the role of geographical distribution of these relations, since geographical proximity can provide important benefits for firms in accessing these sources of information and new knowledge. The aim of this paper is to examine the main factors that affect geographical distance of university-industry linkages, by analysing both sides of collaboration, the characteristics of firms and universities. Several studies show that there are important benefits related to the co-location of firms? R&D staff and academic researchers (Jaffe, 1989; Audrescht & Feldman, 1996; Arundel & Geuna, 2004; D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). However, recent analyses show that, several times, firms prefer to collaborate with geographically distant universities, since there are some factors that stimulate firms to go far to interact with university (D?Este & Iamarino, 2010; Laursen et al, 2011; Muscio, 2013). Hence, the main question that the literature are trying to answer is why firms go far to interact with university. General results points to two main drivers. First, firms look for distant universities when they cannot find local high-performance academic research. Second, firms must have high absorptive capacity in order to be able to search for universities that are able to solve their innovative problems. Previous studies show important evidence to this debate. However, they left an important gap that requires deeper analysis, since evidence presented in previous studies are based only on information about the university (D?Este & Iammarino, 2010; Muscio, 2013) or only of the firm (Laursen et al, 2011; De Fuentes & Dutrenit, 2014). Linked to this issue, this paper aims to contribute to this debate not only by presenting new evidence on the main drivers of the pattern of geographical distance of university-industry linkages, but also by presenting a comprehensive analysis of the collaboration by using complete information of both universities and firms. To do that, a wide-ranging database of interactions between university and industry was used in the scientific fields of Engineering and Agrarian Sciences in Brazil. Main results of the empirical analysis show that bigger firms with higher absorptive capacity tend to interact with more distant research groups, which shows the importance of the skills of the firm to find universities, local or distant, that are able to solve their innovative problems. On the side of the university, larger research groups and those who perform higher quality academic research presents higher average geographical distance of interactions, which shows that they are able to attract more distant firms to collaborate.
    Keywords: O18
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Angela Cipollone (CeLEG (Center for Labor and Economic Growth)); Paolo E. Giordani (LUISS "Guido Carli" University)
    Abstract: This paper proposes a model of entrepreneurial innovation that explains its pronounced pattern of boom and bust. In the model, a successful entrepreneurial project is the result of a search and matching process between entrepreneurs looking for funds and capitalists looking for new ideas to finance. The resulting strategic complementarity between them gives rise to a multiplier effect, whereby any exogenous shock has a magnified effect on the process of innovation. Hand-collecting data on the venture capital market of 21 developed countries for the period 2004-2012, we show that, at the country level, a complementarity exists between the size of the venture capital sector and the number of innovative entrepreneurs. This evidence suggests the existence of a thick market externality in the financial market for innovation.
    Keywords: Financing of innovation, search and matching, strategic complementarities, venture capital.
    JEL: C78 L26
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Jan Stejskal; Abdelwalid Rouag
    Abstract: The foreign direct investments (FDI) spillovers are probably the most extensively analyzed channel of knowledge spillovers (the most important channel for the transfer of knowledge and technology to firms of the host country). Scholars as well as policy makers increasingly treat FDI spillovers as very or the most important development effect for host country. However, whether this knowledge and technology are hypothesized to spill over depends on the absorptive capacity of the host country which stems from well-equipped human resources such as scientists and cumulative expenditure in research and development (R&D). In this paper, we examine for the single time the extent of knowledge spillovers and the absorptive capacity of the Czech Republic regions. Our empirical analysis is based on two main sources. First, the confidential micro-data derived from an annual census of R&D collected by the Czech statistical office with the collaboration of the Czech industrial property office. The data measures inputs in R&D such as the financial means and human resources in the entire entities that carry out R&D and their primary and secondary activities. The mico-data includes also indicators about the R&D outputs in the form of new knowledge used in several practical applications such as patents and utility models. The second source of Data consists on the inflow of FDI at the regional level. The data is collected and published by the Czech National bank according to the international standards adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and development (OECD), European commission and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) data compilation of balance of payments. The paper finds that there is a significant knowledge inflow from the FDI to local firms. Our results state that coefficient of FDI inflows is always positive for both models so that the empirical evidence supports that FDI generates spillover effects on the domestic regional innovation capability of the Czech Republic. As advised by the literature, the spillover effects occur through the absorptive capacity such as the skilled labor turnovers and the R&D expenditure in both entrepreneurial and public sector. In this context, our two models suggest a positive impact of labor in private sector and even significant in both models for the public sector which highlights the important role played by universities, scientific institutes and NGO´s. On the other hand, the correlation matrix of both patents application and utility models show a negative relation between two independent variables; FDI inflows and R&D government expenditure that fosters the assumption that the government expenditure in R&D crowds out the FDI inflow and hinder the beneficial effects of the latter.
    Keywords: foreign Direct Investment; knowledge spillovers; absorptive capacity; patent app
    JEL: D83 D92 O11
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Karo , Erkki (Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology); Kattel , Rainer (Ragnar Nurkse School of Innovation and Governance, Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: Current research on how to organize the role of government in innovation – both how governments support innovation in markets and how governments achieve innovations within public organizations for improving its market supporting activities – converges around a rather simplified single-organization explanations: innovations are driven by either (Weberian) elite expert organizations or (Schumpeterian) fluid peripheral organizations. We show that looking at history of innovation bureaucracy, a more complex picture emerges: historically we find a rich organizational variety for implementing diverse innovation policy goals. We show that historically the organizational variety is, first, driven by highly diverse public-private relationships; and second, the variety itself is an important factor in success and failure of innovation policies. Combining analytical lenses created by Weber and Mintzberg we build analytical framework based on routines and capacities to analyze organizational variety in innovation bureaucracy. We show how different kinds of public organizations are successful at delivering different kinds of innovation policy goals and impacts. Particularly important is the distinction between organizations capable of innovations in policies (instrumental performance) vs organizations supporting innovations in private sector (substantive performance). We finish with discussing the importance of organizational variety for the concept of entrepreneurial state.
    Keywords: innovation policy; Weberian bureaucracy; organizational varieties; policy capacities
    JEL: B15 B52 O20 O25 O30 O38 P11
    Date: 2015–10–22
  10. By: Pedro Bento (Texas A&M University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: I develop a general equilibrium model in which patent protection affects sequential innovation, original innovation, and imitation. Protection increases the cost of working around existing patents, but imposes costs disproportionately for innovators and imitators. Depending on these relative costs, protection can in theory increase or decrease markups, imitation, long-run growth, and aggregate productivity. Using data from several different sources, I calibrate the model and quantitatively assess the effects of patent protection in practice. I find that weakening protection in the U.S. would lead to no change in markups and imitation, no change in long-run growth, a more than doubling of the number of firms, and an increase in aggregate productivity of 11 percent.
    Keywords: patent protection, firm size, productivity, innovation, imitation, competition
    JEL: O1 O3 O4
    Date: 2015–08–01
  11. By: Filippo Mezzanotti
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Vera A. Fedotova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In the course of the last few years, the Russian society has been going through a stage of political, cultural and economic transformations that bring changes into the lifestyle, attitudes, and worldview of Russian citizens. The process of development has embraced not only science and technology, but also the social and cultural aspects of life. The contemporary image of Russia is in many ways defined by its younger generation that grew up within new economic, social and political standards. Young people’s values, attitudes and aspirations differ from those of the adult generation of Russians, since the last years have been marked by transformations inside the country, as well as by some global changes. The paper demonstrates the results of a study which aimed to identify the relationship between individual values and attitude towards innovation. 380 respondents, young and adult representatives of the Russian population, took part in the research. The respondents belonged to the younger generation (under 25 years old) or to the adult generation (over 45 years old). The principal instrument used was the method of questionnaires. The methodic inventory consists of three main blocks oriented to the study of the following constructs: the PVQ-R method of measuring individual values (Schwartz et al., 2011) and the method of “Self-assessment of innovative qualities of a personality” (Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2009).The goal of the research is to reveal the age differences in values and attitudes towards innovation, and to find out which values determine positive or negative attitude towards innovations among representatives of different generations of Russians. The younger generation values " Self-Direction Thought", "Stimulation", "Achievement", " Power Dominance" stimulate the adoption of innovations.
    Keywords: cultural values, values of individual level, innovation, attitude towards innovative
    JEL: A13
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Anna Golejewska; Dorota Czy¿ewska
    Abstract: The notion of smart specialisation is an important framework in the structural funding period 2014-2020. Although the original academic concept of this policy was sectorally oriented and focused on the productivity gap between the EU and the US, it is increasingly applied to regional innovation context [OECD 2013; Foray, David, Hall 2009; McCann, Ortega-Argiles 2013; Camagni, Capello 2013]. Regions are recognized as a relevant level of innovation policies given the weight of agglomeration economies. Smart policies build the knowledge-based development potential of any region, strong or weak, high-tech or low-tech. According to smart specialisation approach, those regions which are not leaders in any of the major science and technology areas, should follow the rule: not to do everything in science, technology and innovation and to promote actions making their knowledge base unique and superior to others. The progress of identifying regional smart specialisations is diverse in selected Polish and French regions. The empirical analysis has shown that there is not great difference in the selection methods of smart specialisations implemented by catching-up regions in Poland and the best performing developed regions in France [Czy¿ewska, Golejewska 2014]. The main objective of the paper is to assess the advancement of the least innovative Polish and French regions in the process of smart specialisation. In order to achieve the main objective of the paper, the following detailed objectives are expected to be met: - presentation of the economic fundamentals of smart specialisation; - presentation of literature review of challenges for the least developed regions in Europe; - selection of the least innovative Polish and French regions on the basis of four indicators: GDP per capita, population aged 25-64 with tertiary education attainment, R&D expenditure and patent applications to the EPO. - assessment of the advancement of the smart specialisation process in selected regions with reference to their economic, social and innovation potential. As research methods, the authors used descriptive analysis, analysis of strategic documents, case studies analysis and statistical analysis. The statistical analysis is based on Eurostat Regional Statistics. The lack of actual and comparable regional data for the whole group of regions caused the choice of the year 2011, as the reference year. In case of patent applications the last analyzed year was the year 2010. It is expected that the research results concerning the advancement of the smart specialisation process in selected regions under analysis will give recommendations for regional authorities of Polish and French regions in terms of the smart specialisation elaboration and monitoring.
    Keywords: national and regional smart specialisation; innovation policy; France; Poland
    JEL: R58 L52
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: Yeon-Koo Che (Department of Economics, Columbia University); Elisabetta Iossa (DEF and CEIS,University of Rome Tor Vergata, CEPR, IEFE-Bocconi and EIEF); Patrick Rey (Toulouse School of Economics, GREMAQ, IDEI and CEPR)
    Abstract: The procurement of an innovation involves motivating a research effort to generate a new idea and then implementing that idea efficiently. If research efforts are unverifiable and implementation costs are private information, a trade-off arises between the two objectives. The optimal mechanism resolves the tradeoff via two instruments: a monetary prize and a contract to implement the project. The optimal mechanism favors the innovator in contract allocation when the value of innovation is above a certain threshold, and handicaps the innovator in contract allocation when the value of innovation is below that threshold. A monetary prize is employed as an additional incentive but only when the value of innovation is sufficiently high.
    Keywords: Contract rights, Inducement Prizes, Innovation, Procurement and R&D.
    JEL: D44 H57 D82 O31 O38 O39
    Date: 2015–10–22
  15. By: Komlan Gbongli (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Peng Yi (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China); Owusu Ackah (University of Electronic Science and Technology of China)
    Abstract: Industrial clusters over the years has being the engine for growth in most economies accounting for most of national manufacturing sector. This sector turns to be the source of innovation and competitive advantage. It is further responsible for the establishing of new startups and social poverty alleviation in most countries especially in South East Asia but this happens not to be the case in sub-Saharan Africa. Indigenous cluster turns to be less innovative as compared with others in developing countries such as China and others. Therefore this study examines the current state of innovation capabilities of SME cluster and propose a conceptual framework that can aid in how information and technology is diffused. It further investigate the influence of both interaction of various stakeholders and the clustering environment on innovation performance. In addition this study provides a platform for government and major stakeholders to implement and evaluate cluster strategy.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  16. By: Kurakin, Alexander (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich (Independent); Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In the first chapter are indicated the general logic and history of innovation in Russian agriculture, namely: agrotechnical ensure agricultural activity at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Soviet experience in implementing agroinnovatsy and objective conditions of innovative development of agrarian and industrial complex in the post-Soviet period. The second presents the results of empirical research conducted by the Center for Agricultural Research in the three districts of the Altai Territory. In conclusion summarizes the basic provisions and the findings of the work carried out.
    Keywords: innovations, agriculture
    Date: 2014–08–11
  17. By: Adelheid Holl; Ruth Rama
    Abstract: There is broad agreement among economists and policy makers that economic growth is nowadays largely driven by the capacity of firms to innovate. The financial and economic crisis that started in late 2007 has had a far reaching impact on countries around the world. Spain has been one of the countries worst affected. As a result, the government has reduced public funding in R&D. At the same time, the continued credit crunch has dramatically worsened the possibilities for financing new ideas and projects. One of the consequences of the economic crisis is that many companies have reduced their innovation-related activities; however, some firms have been more resilient than others and recent studies also show that there are important differences across countries regarding the degree to which the economic crisis has affected firms? innovation investment. It has been argued that national institutional settings and the structural characteristics of national innovation systems have played an important role in shaping how firms have responded to the crisis. However, within a country, regions may also matter. Learning processes underlying innovation are localised and locally embedded, and regional innovation systems (hereafter, RISs) may play a role too. Spain provides an interesting setting for analysing the role of regions, as it is a country with a highly decentralized unitary state with a unique framework of territorial administration. Spanish regions have very diverse economies and also different degrees of fiscal and political autonomy. They vary greatly in terms of their innovation performance as well as regarding their regional innovation and technology policies. Moreover, their responses to the economic crisis in terms of regional policies have not been the same. A focus on regional difference can contribute to a better understanding of the innovation strategies employed by firms during the crisis. To date, we still know very little about regional differences and the degree to which regions have shaped firms' innovation behaviour in response to the economic crisis. Our analysis contributes to this literature by drawing on a large national sample of micro-data for Spanish manufacturing and service sector firms. Our results show that the crisis has discouraged a significant number of firms from engaging in innovation. These have been mainly small firms and occasional R&D performers. Significant regional differences are also found in the degree to which the crisis has affected firms? innovation expenditures, even after controlling for sectoral differences and firms? structural characteristics. The Basque Country stands out in our analysis. Firms with R&D employment in this region show a significantly lower probability of having abandoned innovation activities and a somewhat higher probability of even having increased their innovation effort. This regional effect has been especially important for small and medium sized companies.
    Keywords: innovation investment; economic crisis; resilience
    JEL: R1 O3
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Martin Borowiecki; Karl-Heinz Leitner
    Abstract: Using a panel data model, we study the effects of regional and industry-level traits on new business formation (NBF) for 164 industries across 266 Chinese prefectures between 1998 and 2007. The objective is to provide empirical estimates on effects of prefecture traits on entry rates, and in particular on effects of prefecture knowledge capital stocks on R&D-intensive new business formation. In line with literature on knowledge spillovers, we find extensive evidence of a positive prefecture knowledge capital stock effect on R&D-intensive NBF rates, whereas knowledge capital stocks do not predict non R&D-intensive entry rates. Among regional and industry-level characteristics, we find that prefecture supplier and customer market strength are strongly linked to higher business entry rates. Our results for China contrast with recent findings on the effects of regional traits on firm entry rates in India and the US, indicating distinct regional patterns of Chinese entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; knowledge spillovers; agglomeration; development; China
    JEL: L26 L60 M13 O10 O14 O33 R00 R10 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  19. By: Hurst, Erik (University of Chicago); Pugsley, Benjamin (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: The nonpecuniary benefits of managing a small business are a first order consideration for many nascent entrepreneurs, yet the preference for business ownership is mostly ignored in models of entrepreneurship and occupational choice. In this paper, we study a population with varying entrepreneurial tastes and wealth in a simple general equilibrium model of occupational choice. This choice yields several important results: (1) entrepreneurship can be thought of as a normal good, generating wealth effects independent of any financing constraints; (2) nonpecuniary entrepreneurs select into small-scale firms; and (3) subsidies designed to stimulate more business entry can have regressive distributional effects. Despite abstracting from other important considerations such as risk, financing constraints, and innovation, we show that nonpecuniary compensation is particularly relevant in discussions of small businesses.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; non-pecuniary benefits
    JEL: J01 L20 L26
    Date: 2015–10–01
  20. By: Igone Porto Gomez; Jose Ramón Otegi; José Ricardo Lopez Robles
    Abstract: Introduction: Performance of regions is commonly based on the comparison of economic indicators. This may help to understand particular situations and identify optimization alternatives. In order to adopt the most effective technological research, development and innovation policies there is a need to measure the results that firms obtain and the impact of performed projects in regional economy. The results of R&D projects of the productive subsystem impact the productive subsystem itself and also other stakeholders in the region, including the knowledge subsystem. This paper contributes to the debate on how to measure regional R&D performance. Different research lines argue about choosing global regions´ measures or firms´ ones. In this analysis, we compare both alternatives. Methods: The study applies a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to the evaluation of the Innovation, Research and Development efficiency of regions, by comparing the innovation results of the firms, with the economic results of the regions they are located in. A 2 stages analysis is proposed, focusing firstly on the productive subsystems´ efficiency and then on the comparison between the efficiency of the regions. The analysis is performed for Mexico federal regions, considering the ESIDET 2011 survey. This survey measures the behavior of Mexico as a whole, in R&D projects. The 2010 and 2011 edition of the survey include the results obtain in each region. Taking into account the variables analyzed in other R&D DEA studies, and keeping in mind the available indicators of the ESIDET survey, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) will be performed, in order to identify the significant variables, which will turn into the DEA Input and Output variables. The objective of the analysis is to identify the most efficient federal region, according to the maximization or augmentation of the obtained benefits. The output DEA orientation aims to identify the factors that maximize the benefits of the R&D and innovation projects for the regions. Results: The main conclusion is that the most R&D involved regions - more R&D dedicated firms, higher R&D profits ? are not the more R&D efficient regions. Less R&D devoted regions result in more efficient ones eventually due to a better use of R&D resources by the few R&D firms located in those regions. Particular region analysis allow to identify how regions could maximize their results.
    Keywords: Efficiency; Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA); region; Innovation; R&D
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  21. By: Regina Salvador; Abel Simões; Carlos Guedes Soares
    Abstract: The paper analyses the national and regional European maritime clusters according to the sea basin division proposed by the European Union Integrated Maritime Policy: Atlantic and Arctic oceans; Baltic, Black, Mediterranean and North seas. Besides the identification of all maritime sectors by country ? be it at national and/or regional level - a statistical database is established per each and every of the above referred sea basins, in order that a comparative analysis can be developed. Also in line with Wijnolst, Jensen & Sødal (2003) that propose a maritime sector benchmarking - the ?Global Maritime Benchmarking? ? which should allow evaluating the maritime clusters evolution and strength - the paper estimates nine indicators: structural indicators (no. of clusters, no. of companies; no. of employees; no. of sectors; technological level; location); economic indicators (Gross Added Value, production; productivity; profit and rentability rates), internationalization (exports and imports, major clients and suppliers, international average prices, EU and third countries markets shares); critical mass (agglomerations and scale economies by maritime sector) and leader firms; level playing-field (free-competition, monopolistic, oligopolistic markets); innovation (major universities and R&D centers, no. patents, regional innovation systems); institutional framework (governance, connection with regional and national governments)and business networks; labour market (unemployment rate, average wages) and education (major schools and courses by different grades, training centers); and image and communication. Particular attention is attributed to the Atlantic basin strategy - the largest of all the EU Integrated Maritime Policy Basins ? where besides the Blue growth concerns the authors, develop the result of a group of interviews to experts on Blue Geopolitics and Geostrategic. The above comparison between sea basins will allow characterizing ?maritime Europe?, identifying the location of the main excellence centres and the major beneficiaries of the Integrated Maritime Policy decisions. The paper also suggest public strategies that would support clusters development ? or ?cluster enablers? ? that include, among others, the definition of an industrial policy, strengthening of demand pull sectors or the promotion of innovation, R&D and leader firms. The needed conditions in order that Europe could organise itself has a ?vast continental maritime cluster? are also under scrutiny.
    Keywords: Maritime Clusters; Maritime Economy; EU Sea Basin Strategies
    JEL: E20 F43 R10
    Date: 2015–10
  22. By: Marcos Sanso-Navarro; Maria Vera-Cabello
    Abstract: This paper deals with the relationship between knowledge, innovation and regional growth. The study is carried out through the application of nonparametric estimation methods to European data at NUTS2 level. We provide evidence that the share of innovative ...firms plays a more relevant role in explaining regional growth than R&D expenditures. Further, inward FDI turns out to be a robust growth determinant. Our results also suggest that the effects induced by these variables are of a heterogeneous nature. As a byproduct of the analysis, we show that the estimation results from a local-linear kernel regression can be used for the identi...cation of spatial patterns. In this respect, we ...find a cluster of innovation-driven labour productivity growth in Germany.
    Keywords: Regional growth; knowledge; innovation; nonparametric methods; nonlinearities
    JEL: C14 C20 O18 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  23. By: Ben R. Martin (SPRU (Science Policy Research Unit), School of Business, Management and Economics, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: With the field of innovation studies now half a century old, the occasion has been marked by several studies looking back to identify the main advances made over its lifetime. Starting from a list of 20 advances over the field’s history, this discussion paper sets out 20 challenges for coming decades. The intention is to prompt a debate within the innovation studies community on what are, or should be, the key challenges for us to take up, and more generally on what sort of field we aspire to be. It is argued that the empirical focus of our studies has failed to keep pace with the fast changing world and economy, especially the shift from manufacturing to services and the increasingly urgent need for sustainability. Moreover, the very way we conceptualise, define, operationalise and analyse ‘innovation’ seems somewhat rooted in the past, leaving us less able to grapple with other less visible or ‘dark’ forms of innovation.
    Keywords: innovation studies; science policy; research challenges; dark innovation
    JEL: O30 O32 O38 Q55
    Date: 2015–10
  24. By: José Cadima Ribeiro; José Freitas Santos; Susana Bernardino
    Abstract: Social entrepreneurship has been recognized as a helpful instrument of social and economic policy. The European Commission, namely, has recognized very early the importance of social organizations on economic growth and social innovation, through their contribution for the development of societies endowed with better levels of democracy, activism and social cohesion. Having that in mind, the purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the link between social entrepreneurship and institutional environment in Portugal. A quantitative approach is used in the study, and primary data were collected through an online survey. A questionnaire was emailed to, both, Portuguese Non-Governmental Organizations and projects available on the Portuguese Social Stock Exchange. In the analysis of the data we used descriptive statistics, factorial analysis and t-student tests to validate (or not) the research hypotheses. The results show that a favorable institutional environment (social, institutional) seems to have a low influence on the decision-making process related to the creation of new social entrepreneurial initiatives. Conversely, the sense individuals hold about the skills required to develop the new venture and the previous knowledge that their action will produce a desirable outcome have a significant weight on their decision. This conclusion supports the idea that many social entrepreneurs can emerge even in developing regions where the institutional environment is weak. Therefore, social entrepreneurship could be an instrument of regional development and contribute to attenuate the social and economic differences among Portuguese regions.
    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship;Social and Solidarity Economy; Regional Development.
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2015–10
  25. By: Balázs Páger; Éva Komlósi
    Abstract: This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating together of people and firms across different industries. It has recently become an axiom that the better performance of global cities, as important nodes of innovation and creativity, is derived from agglomeration effects. This general assumption follows that the more concentrated an urban system of a country, the more competitive and better its entrepreneurial performance. Even though this notion has gained quick and ardent acceptance from practitioners, the related literature shows contradictory results and it has induced a heated debate in academic circles, because it has raised serious doubts about the "bigger is better" theory. We hope to contribute to this debate with our detailed analysis. In order to test our hypothesis empirically, we selected 70 countries and calculated the so called ROXY Index measuring the degree of agglomeration or deglomeration in their urban system. To exemplify country level competitiveness we applied the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), while the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI) was used to demonstrate country level entrepreneurial performance. Our results affirmed that high concentration of population is only one important factor of competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance while other effects may exist. On the other hand, over- or under-concentration of the population within an urban system does not necessary result in a better outcome.
    Keywords: urbanization economies; entrepreneurship; competitiveness; spatial cycles
    JEL: O18 L26
    Date: 2015–10
  26. By: Stuetzer, Michael; Obschonka, Martin; Audretsch, David B.; Wyrwich, Michael; Rentfrow, Peter J.; Coombes, Mike; Shaw-Taylor, Leigh; Satchell, Max
    Abstract: There is mounting evidence demonstrating that entrepreneurship is spatially clustered and that these spatial differences are quite persistent over long periods of time. However, especially the sources of that persistence are not yet well-understood, and it is largely unclear whether persistent differences in entrepreneurship are reflected in differences in entrepreneurship culture across space as it is often argued in the literature. We approach the cluster phenomenon by theorizing that a historically high regional presence of large-scale firms negatively affects entrepreneurship, due to low levels of human capital and entrepreneurial skills, fewer opportunities for entry and entrepreneurship inhibiting formal and informal institutions. These effects can become self-perpetuating over time, ultimately resulting in persistent low levels of entrepreneurship activity and entrepreneurship culture. Using data from Great Britain, we analyze this long-term imprinting effect by using the distance to coalfields as an exogenous instrument for the regional presence of large-scale industries. IV regressions show that British regions with high employment shares of large-scale industries in the 19th century, due to spatial proximity to coalfields, have lower entrepreneurship rates and weaker entrepreneurship culture today. We control for an array of competing hypotheses like agglomeration forces, the regional knowledge stock, climate, and soil quality. Our main results are robust with respect to inclusion of these control variables and various other modifications which demonstrates the credibility of our empirical identification strategy. A mediation analysis reveals that a substantial part of the impact of large-scale industries on entrepreneurship is through human capital.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship culture; Industrial Revolution; industry structure; personality
    JEL: L26 L64 N13 N53 N94
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Karol J. Borowiecki (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense,Denmark); Trilce Navarrete (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense,Denmark)
    Abstract: Heritage institutions house cultural and research content, which is the key source to stimulate innovation. Despite the potential, heritage collections are mostly inaccessible via digital mediums. We analyze the macro, meso and micro conditions of heritage organizations across Europe to identify the key determinants that foster innovation as reflected by the share of collection digitization and online publication. We find that organizations respond positively to an environment of high consumer digital literacy and sustainable resource allocation that enables slack, skilled staff and long-term strategic planning. Innovation is thus, in fact, enhanced by digital literacy from both producers as well as consumers.
    Keywords: innovation; digitization; heritage collections; cultural institution
    JEL: O3 Z1
    Date: 2015–09
  28. By: Ufuk Akcigit (University of Pennsylvania); Richard Blundell (University College London); David Hemous (INSEAD); Antonin Bergeaud (Banque de France and Ecole polytechnique); Philippe Aghion (Harvard University)
    Abstract: In this paper we use cross-state panel data to show a positive and significant correlation between innovativeness and top income inequality in the United States over the past decades. Our instrumentation at cross-state level suggests that this correlation (partly) reflects a causality from innovativeness to top income inequality. Next, using cross commuting zones (CZ) data, we show that innovativeness is positively and significantly correlated with social mobility, and that this correlation is driven mainly by entrant innovators and less so by incumbent innovators. In addition, the positive effects of innovation on the top 1% income share and on social mobility are both dampened in states with higher lobbying intensity. Overall, our findings are in line with the Schumpeterian view whereby the rise in top income shares in developed countries and particularly in the US over the past decades, is at least partly related to innovation-led growth, where innovation itself fosters social mobility at the top through the process of creative destruction.
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University); Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University); Zukauskaite, Elena (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to explain what policy approaches and policy measures are best suited for promoting economic diversification of regions and what needs and possibilities there are for such policy to change and adapt to new conditions in order to remain efficient. The paper departs from the notion of Smart Specialization, which has become a popular strategy among policy makers recently. We discuss how regional smart specialization strategies influence new regional industrial growth paths (path renewal and path creation) and how they are related to and aligned with policy strategies implemented at other territorial scales (local, regional, national, supranational). We distinguish between different levels of policy learning and types of change in relation to path renewal and new path creation. Our main argument is that new regional industrial growth paths require both stability and change within the support structure of the innovation system. Apart from being adaptive and tailor made to the specific preconditions of the regional economy, the regional system must also be resilient and predictable on certain dimensions. Unless smart specialization strategies are able to combine such adaptation and stability, they fail to promote path renewal and new path creation. Our arguments are illustrated with empirical findings from the regional innovation system of Scania, South Sweden.
    Keywords: smart specialization; innovation policy; policy learning; new regional industrial path development
    JEL: O30 O38 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10–23
  30. By: Alexander Cordes; Ulrich Schasse
    Abstract: Spatial proximity facilitates transfer of knowledge and technology between research institutes or universities (RIU) and firms. Against this background the location of research institutions and universities is often seen as an instrument of regional policy to promote knowledge flows and R&D activity of firms. One major practical challenge is, however, to bring together both actors. The matching process is often hindered by prejudices and lacking information about the capabilities and requirements on both sides. This study contributes to the spare empirical literature on this topic by analyzing the firms? attitudes towards proximate RIU. We make use of differentiated data on firm characteristics and their evaluation of certain location factors in the years 2006 and 2009 provided by the IAB establishment panel. Several research questions are investigated by applying ordered probit regression models. How are non-innovating firms or firms with low R&D activities rating their local RIU? Are there important differences between urban and rural regions or between large firms and SMEs? Do objective information such as size and specialization of the local universities affect the firm?s evaluation? How far is ?local? (distinguishing data at the NUTS3 and NUTS2 level)? Does a successful participation of local universities in the German ?Excellence Initiative? change the firms? attitude? The results indicate that firms which are expected to be open to collaboration with RIU (in terms of R&D, human capital, knowledge-intensive industries) are rating their local RIU higher than other firms. We suppose that firms are already self-selected to places where they find their suitable collaboration partners. Objective information about the universities such as specialization on STEM fields positively affects the evaluation of proximate RIU. Especially the universities? focus on mathematics and natural sciences (slightly surprisingly rather than engineering) makes them better off from the perspective of the individual firm. Furthermore, information about universities in the remaining NUTS 2 region exhibit larger effects than information on the NUTS 3 region. This indicates that firms have a larger distance in mind when thinking of their ?location? and ?proximity to RIU?. Another finding is that the announcement of the winning universities in the ?Excellence Initiative? which additionally funds scientifically excellent concepts does not affect the firms? view on the local RIU.
    Keywords: proximity; university-industry linkages; universities of excellence; location fa
    JEL: I23 I28 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  31. By: James R. Wilson (Orkestra - Basque Institute of Competitiveness); Mari Jose Aranguren (Orkestra - Basque Institute of Competitiveness); Mikel Navarro (Orkestra - Basque Institute of Competitiveness)
    Abstract: Regional innovation strategies for smart specialisation (RIS3) are currently receiving much attention in the face of the European Commission’s requirement that all regions develop smart specialisation strategies in order to receive structural funds linked to innovation. Yet the entrepreneurial discovery process that is at the core of the smart specialisation concept remains a black box. The paper looks inside this black box through an exploration of leadership requirements. A review of literature on place leadership and territorial strategy identifies three key considerations for leadership if RIS3 are to result in coherent and successful place-based strategies for STI investment: a dualism in reference frame; a mix and rotation of leaderships; and the likely different sources of leaders. These are brought together with analysis of the distinct RIS3 processes in two neighbouring Spanish regions – the Basque Country and Navarre – to highlight a series of implications in terms of the context in which RIS3 develop, the required shift from plans to processes, and the required leadership mix.
    Date: 2015–01–26
  32. By: Oto Hudec; Marek Lavcak
    Abstract: In recent years, start-ups and creative industries economy have recorded an extraordinary expansion. The geography of start-up and creative industries is often coincident with the factors of agglomeration economies and networking assets together with talent inherence and managerial culture, which are supposed to be similar for both appearances.In Slovakia, the government has recognized its interest in the agenda of start-ups and creative industries only recently (2013), but the private and non-profit sector has predicted this trend three years before, when in Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia, the first major co-working spaces with an integrated approach to education and support of innovative business emerged. A support in the second largest city Ko?ice started institutionally only in 2014, in the premises of its Technical University. The start-up ecosystems in both cities have different focus, size, evolutionary qualities and culture, as their birth and fast growth was influenced by existing different regional innovation system and attracted rather different groups of young people. The comparison of both start-up and art scenes in its early phase, only marginally touched by the public incentives, gives a possibility to study the start-up ecosystems in their uncontaminated form, based mostly on the interviews of the start-up owners, gurus, venture capitalists, enthusiasts and observers.
    Keywords: start-up; creative industries; regional diversity; development; entrepreneurship
    JEL: O R
    Date: 2015–10
  33. By: Tigist Mekonnen Melesse (PhD fellow, UNU-MERIT, Maastricht)
    Abstract: Adoption of improved agricultural technologies is central to transformation of farm- ing system and a path out of poverty in developing countries. The aim of the current study is to provide empirical evidence on the impact of improved agricultural technolo- gies (HYVs and chemical fertilizer) on smallholders' output market participation. The analysis is based on Farmer Innovation Fund (FIF) impact evaluation survey data cov- ering around 2,675 households collected by the World Bank in 2010-2013 in Ethiopia. Endogenous treatment eect and sample selection models are employed to account for the self-selection bias in technology adoption and market participation. Regressions based on matching techniques are employed for robustness check. The main results shows that adoption of improved high-yielding varieties (HYVs) and chemical fertilizer is found to have a positive and robust eect on smallholders' marketed surplus. We found evidence that adoption of improved HYVs increases surplus crop production by 757 kg, whereas adoption of chemical fertilizer increases surplus by 285 kg. When the two technologies are adopted jointly, marketed surplus is found to increases by 635 kg, which establishes the complementarity of the two technologies. The result also shows that farmers' surplus crop production and market participation is deter- mined by access to modern inputs, cereal crop price, farm size, availability of labor, and infrastructure facility. Access to credit and training fosters technology adoption, however, we are unable to witness learning externality from neighbors on smallholders marketed surplus. Therefore, agriculture and rural development policy needs to focus on supporting agricultural technology adoption.
    Keywords: Smallholders, market participation, technologies, treatment eect model
    JEL: D04 O12 Q13
    Date: 2015–09
  34. By: Patricia Guimaraes; Yanko Xavier; Lucas do Monte Silva
    Abstract: This paper aims to analyze, from a legal perspective, the public policies of Science, Technology and Innovation offered by the Brazilian government, more specifically, the Innovation Act (Lei de Inovação), in order to verify the effectiveness and impact of this measure for development, in the Brazilian entrepreneurial scene. Through empirical research and comparative method, this research seeks to answer, preliminarily, the following questions: a) What is innovation? b) The State should act in the innovation process?; c) What is the relationship beetween  innovation and development?; d) What are the aspects of public policies of Science, Technology and Innovation offered by the Brazilian government made available to entrepreneurs in the Innovation Law? What is the effectiveness and impact of this measure in the Brazilian entrepreneurial scenario? The questioning of the article was analyzed based on the premise that innovation is essential to the development of a society and its economy. Innovation is not only limited to radical ruptures, such as the introduction of smart watches or autonomous cars, but it also covers moderate advances, such as new product specific production methods, new ways of customer service or (re)configuration of bureaucratic procedures in order to speed them up. Thus, innovation is presented from the need to solve problems that citizens, whether entrepreneurs or not, appears in any given moment. An innovative society tends to have a higher quality of life, higher productivity and, consequently, the factors for the nation?s economic growth in which it resides. It turns out that in developing countries, the private sector, that is, entrepreneurs, don't always have the resources, opportunity, know-how and structure to take the risk of investments in Research, Development and Innovation (RD&I) as assumed initially by Schumpeter. These entrepreneurs prefer to license technology from foreign nations or larger companies, which have been tested and proven, rather than take the risk of spending millions of dollars on products, services, innovative processes that do not have the expected profit, or even, doesn't go beyond a mere prototype. Thus, as highlighted by neo-schumpeterians economists, the State presents itself as a key player in these countries, since it has conditions, financial and technical, to stimulate, either through direct measurements, either through indirect measures, innovation. We concluded that Brazil presents advances in this sector and most of public policies managed to have efficacy for entrepreneurs, but it is also necessary institutional changes in the process of receiving these incentives and in its supervision, improving them, so that companies incubated may have the same competitivety of foreign companies.
    Keywords: institutionalism;law and development;innovation
    JEL: L5 N46 O1
    Date: 2015–10
  35. By: Alessandro Rosiello; Dave Wield; Omid Omidvar; Michele Mastroeni; Joyce Tait
    Abstract: The Scottish Referendum of September 2014 was the setting for arguments regarding Scotland?s strengths and weaknesses, and projections of what could happen in different scenarios. Areas of debate included those on Scotland?s scientific performance and how to harness innovation to increase its competitiveness in the global economy. It encouraged a high degree of public engagement and prompted the three main political parties in London to promise enhanced devolution of powers and fiscal autonomy if Scotland decided to stay part of the UK. This paper outlines the perception of Scotland as a strong scientific and innovative society, and will outline the images of Scotland as a region and nation both distinct from England in culture and attitude, and as a participant in the knowledge economy. It will summarise the strengths and weaknesses perceived and measured in its science and innovation systems, briefly recount policy initiatives to improve them, and outline the main arguments made by the Scottish Government in 2014 regarding how enhanced autonomy could lead to a more innovative and prosperous Scotland. The science system has been strengthened during the 2000s as devolution brought a set of new and expanded funding streams in conjunction with existing UK-based institutions. There are questions, however, about the relationship between the science base and Scotland?s innovation system, and the lack of coherent policy to address that ?disconnect?. The questions are related to the impact that enhanced autonomy may have on the absorptive and innovation capacities of Scottish business, with a particular focus on the potential impact of increased autonomy on: (i) absorbtive capacity, (ii) the organisations that support Scottish businesses in their innovative activities, R&D, technology transfer, commercialisation and finance, and (iii) on Scotland?s economy in terms of diversity of industry, specialisation and resilience. Beginning with the concept of imagined community, the paper first traces key background elements of the Scottish science system, and the relationship between science and innovation. Then, it details the present situation regarding Scotland?s science base, mapping the institutions that exist to integrate Scottish science policy. It shows that the science system already operates with some autonomy from the rest of the UK. This is followed by an analysis of the tenuous level of connection between science and innovation. The paper will outline the different concerns and opinions of the business and policy communities regarding Scotland?s innovation system, and it will summarise the questions being posed by different stakeholders regarding proposed independence and its possible impact on the Scottish Innovation System. Finally, it presents a summary of the future prospects for science and innovation and an evidenced argument for a less science-led policy led by a focus on new and transformed industrial sectors.
    Keywords: Science; Industrial Innovation; Enhanced Autonomy; Scotland
    JEL: O33 O25
    Date: 2015–10
  36. By: Stefan Lüthi; Alain Thierstein; Michael Hoyler
    Abstract: World cities are important nodes in the global networks of knowledge-based economies. As a result of the growing complexity of knowledge creation, firms increasingly organise their activities in business networks that operate across different spatial scales. On the global scale, new information and communication technologies enable the control of business processes across multiple locations. On the regional scale, the advantage of geographical proximity plays an important role. Collective learning processes require a common cognitive, social and cultural context as well as regular face-to-face contacts. Short distances bring people together, thereby stimulating information spillovers and the creation of new ideas. These places of intensive interaction are no longer exclusively located in the traditional inner cities. Rather, they are increasingly found in new urban centres, edge cities, airports or at the stations of high-speed rail networks. The result is a highly polycentric metropolitan system, characterised by accelerated growth in and around smaller cities and towns within the wider metropolitan orbit of one or several big cities. The growth of the knowledge economy has led to new forms of business networks linking cities and towns across different spatial scales. Various attempts have been made to analyse these networks empirically using the interlocking network model of the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) research network. Two approaches can be distinguished from a spatial perspective: a global approach that studies the world city network from the perspective of the largest advanced producer service firms, and a national approach that starts with the most important knowledge-intensive firms located within specific territorial boundaries. This paper compares the methodological implications and empirical outcomes of both approaches with reference to recent case studies of the German space economy. Both approaches pursue similar objectives: to investigate external relations of German cities, both transnationally and on the national scale. Furthermore, both approaches use the same analytical instrument: the interlocking network model of GaWC. Differences exist in the theoretical argumentation: the global approach is grounded in world city research; the national approach, on the other hand, is anchored in debates in regional science, economic geography and spatial planning. In this paper, we argue for the need of scale-sensitive interpretations of connectivity patterns built by the interlocking network model and conclude with some tentative recommendations for the methodological direction of future research in world city network studies.
    Keywords: world city network; Germany; mega-city region; knowledge economy
    JEL: R12 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  37. By: Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
    Abstract: ?Knowledge economy? as a concept describes a stage of socio-economic development, when knowledge become a major growth factor. In modern economy, it can be associated with processes of knowledge acquiring, creation and dissemination; its main agents are educational, scientific organizations and innovative business. In conditions of oil prices falling and sanctions, it is important to identify the Russian regions, where knowledge economy is forming, as new areas of growth. Another aim was to estimate whether economic growth of 2000s promote knowledge economy formation. We used methodology of World Bank with some modifications according to available statistics. The Russian knowledge economy index (RKEI) consisted of four blocks: the level of economic development (GRP growth rate and GRP per capita), education and human capital (number of students per capita and the average number of education years for employees), science and innovation (number of researchers and PCT-applications per capita) and information infrastructure (number of cell phones and computers with Internet access per capita). Since the performance of education and science are relatively stable for the Russian regions, characteristics of GRP and information infrastructure, which grew throughout the 2000s, hold the largest share in the variation of the RKEI. We used calculation of the average rank index (measured from to 10), according to the formula: Ri = 10*(Rlow / R), where Ri is a desired figure, Rlow is a number of regions with a lower rank, R is the total number of regions. The calculation was carried out for the whole period from 1998 to 2012 to review the dynamics. The highest level of the RKEI in 1998 (in descending order) was observed in Moscow (6.5) and St. Petersburg (5.9), Tomsk (4.5), Moscow (4.5), Samara (3.6), Khabarovsk (3.48), Primorsky (3.4) and Novosibirsk (3.3) regions; in 2012 the leaders were St. Petersburg (8.8), Moscow (8.7), Tomsk (8.3), Samara (8.1) regions, Tatarstan (8) and Novosibirsk (7.95) region. The areas with the most diversified economy are among the leaders; monospecialized regions (agriculture, mining) are among the laggards. The RKEI increased for all regions during the period, especially for low rank regions (<4: the North Caucasus and the Far East). Voronezh and Tyumen regions, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan have the highest RKEI growth rates (2012/1998) among high rank regions (>5). These regions established more innovative infrastructure and form a better investment climate. All regions have experienced the negative effects of the crisis in 2009, especially Moscow agglomeration. As a result, Moscow gave the leadership in the RKEI to St. Petersburg in 2010 and Moscow region left the top ten leading regions in 2011. The methodology allows us to track the RKEI framework for every region via the radar chart to identify problem areas and competitive advantages.
    Keywords: knowledge economy; index; Russian regions; education; human capital; information
    JEL: O31 O47 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  38. By: Karine Lamiraud (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - Université de Cergy Pontoise - CNRS, ESSEC - Economics Department - Essec Business School); Stephane Lhuillery (BETA - Bureau d'économie théorique et appliquée - CNRS - Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I, ICN Business School - Université de Nancy)
    Abstract: Despite the claim that technology has been one of the most important drivers of healthcare spending growth over the past decades, technology variables are rarely introduced explicitly in cost equations. Furthermore, technology is often considered exogenous. Using 1996-2007 panel data on Swiss geographical areas, we assessed the impact of technology availability on per capita healthcare costs covered by basic health insurance while controlling for the endogeneity of health technology availability variables. Our results suggest that medical research, patent intensity and the density of employees working in the medical device industry are influential factors for the adoption of technology and can be used as instruments for technology availability variables in the cost equation. Our results are similar to previous findings: CT and PET scanner adoption is associated with increased healthcare costs while increased availability of PTCA facilities is associated with reductions in per capita spending. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the magnitude of these relationships is much greater in absolute value than that suggested by previous studies which did not control for the possible endogeneity of the availability of technologies.
    Keywords: medical research, technology change,healthcare costs
    Date: 2015–10
    Abstract: In nowadays the conception of “Industrial Modernization” has become a popular in many countries, especial amongst those that have weaknesses of the innovation development potential. In Ukraine also many experts suggest to build a strategy of economic development on a base of supporting the traditional industrial enterprises through their modernization. This point of view has limitation due to the modern traditional industrial markets become mature very quickly, and their profitability decreasing. The current economic crisis has confirmed this finding. In controversy to “Industrial Modernization” approach this paper examines the Neo-Schumpeterian “Technological Paradigms” concept according to which the wealth growth of country or region depends first of all on development of a new high technology sectors. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles to ensure economic development and sets new requirements to the state economic policy. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles of economic policy where the evaluation the structure of national economy is measured by proportion of sectors that belong to the different technological paradigms. Neo-Schumpeterian approach has been used to calculate indicators of the corresponding structural dynamics of Ukrainian industrial sectors for the country and regions. It is proposed the classification of statistics indicators in order to estimate the industrial structure by technological levels of different sectors according to "technological paradigms" concept. The corresponding policy recommendations are offered.
    Keywords: Neo-Schumpeterian concept; technological paradigms; innovation development; industrial structural policy; economy of Ukraine
    JEL: O14 O33 O38 O57
    Date: 2014–10–01
  40. By: Ogunniyi Adebayo (Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Ibadan, Nigeria); Kehinde Olagunju (Szent Istvan University, Institute of Regional Economics and Rural Development, Gödöllő, Hungary)
    Abstract: Agricultural research programs that are driven by Agricultural Innovation System concepts usually target to change the way in which low income rural agrarian households in a nation like Nigeria communicate with the market and the decision making strategies pertaining to development of their agri-business and the scarce resources which are at their disposal. As a result there has been a shift in the research paradigm in many African countries like Nigeria; from top down research systems to nonlinear dynamic systems that aim to enhance end users capacity to obtain and utilize knowledge and research outputs. The aim of this paper was therefore to assess the extent to which the use of these innovative agricultural research interventions impact upon the livelihood and productivity outcomes of rural smallholder farmers in Nigeria using a case study from the South west region of Nigeria. Using propensity score matching as a means of establishing a valid counterfactual and single differencing to measure impact, the study establishes that rural incomes and output are significantly impacted upon by agricultural research interventions that are driven by agricultural innovation systems concepts. The study however further finds that although participating households had better livelihood and productivity outcomes and more diversified income portfolios during the implementation of the innovative research intervention as a result of greater linkages to markets and capacity building opportunities; phasing out of the research program reduced the diversity of income portfolios and lead to the erosion of livelihoods. The study therefore concluded that agricultural research interventions that are driven by agricultural innovation system concepts have the potential to positively impact upon the livelihood outcomes of rural smallholder farmers in Nigeria however there is need for greater capacity building of local extension agents and increased budgetary support to ensure understanding and application of agricultural innovation system concepts by local level public agricultural extension agents to sustain positive livelihood and productivity outcomes. In addition agricultural innovation system concepts should be mainstreamed in all public agricultural extension and research programs to ensure sustained rural innovation and robust livelihood and improved productivity outcomes.
    Keywords: Agricultural Innovation Systems, Livelihoods, Productivity, Smallholder‟s farmers
    Date: 2015–09
  41. By: Aurélien Fichet de Clairfontaine; Manfred M. Fischer; Rafael Lata; Manfred Paier
    Abstract: The focus of this paper is on cross-region R&D collaboration funded by the 5th EU Framework Programme (FP5). The objective is to measure distance, institutional, language and technological barrier effects that may hamper collaborative activities between European regions. Particular emphasis is laid on measuring discrepancies between two types of collaborative R&D activities, those generating output in terms of scientific publications and those that do not. The study area is composed of 255 NUTS-2 regions that cover the pre-2007 member states of the European Union (excluding Malta and Cyprus) as well as Norway and Switzerland. We employ a negative binomial spatial interaction model specification to address the research question, along with an eigenvector spatial filtering technique suggested by Fischer and Griffith (2008) to account for the presence of network autocorrelation in the origin-destination cooperation data. The study provides evidence that the role of geographic distance as collaborative deterrent is significantly lower if collaborations generate scientific output. Institutional barriers do not play a significant role for collaborations with scientific output. Language and technological barriers are smaller but the estimates indicate no significant discrepancies between the two types of collaborative R&D activities that are in focus of this study.
    Keywords: research collaboration; eu framework programme; _x0001_european regions
    JEL: C31 O39 R15
    Date: 2015–10
  42. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Qing Ye; Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira
    Abstract: Technical and industrial competences are increasingly dispersed across the globe, urging young high-technology firms in Europe to increase distances in their knowledge relations. However, establishment and maintenance of such relationships tend to be hampered by many barriers following from short in capabilities, particularly various missing skills in the management team. In this paper, we examine the role of capability factors and particular skills among a specific category of firms, university spin-offs, in building knowledge networks abroad, specially, the spatial reach involved. Such a study is not new for (innovative) SMEs, but it is new for university spin-off firms. We use two samples of university spin-off firms (each about 100 cases) in various European countries in order to identify the importance of capabilities and certain skills in internationalization of knowledge collaboration, and to this purpose we apply various regression models. The sampled firms are of different age and find themselves in different stages of born-global development. We observe that 60 to 70 per cent of the firms employ knowledge relationships abroad, almost 35 per cent of them outside of Europe. The main underlying capability factors are a high education level (PhD), participation in market/business-related training, and a larger firm size. Another factor is a relatively low level of innovation, indicating a support structure from practical application and customer relations in an established market position of the firm abroad. Examples of such support structure are found in civil engineering works and consultancy concerning transportation infrastructure, land use/protection and the oil and gas industry. Furthermore, one set of missing skills in the management team stands out in limiting larger distances in knowledge collaboration, and these are internationalization skills, for example, skills in presentation of the firm and negotiation of important agreements with a partner abroad, dealing with uncertainty in certification issues and patent protection, and skills in branding the product abroad. Most missing skills are of the conceptual and relational type. Due to different stages in born-global development, the differentiation in missing skills is remarkably large, indicating that training to improve skills requires a multi-faceted and customized approach, without a one-size-fits-all solution. The paper concludes with a summary and some ideas for improving training.
    Keywords: global knowledge collaboration; capabilities; skills; university spin-off firms
    JEL: D03 M13 O32
    Date: 2015–10
  43. By: Lúcia Pato
    Abstract: Although rural entrepreneurship is an emergent field of study and has emerged as one of the most noticeable ways to promote rural development, the few studies concerning the theme are still incipient. Moreover, a lot of studies focus on farmers and rural entrepreneurs as a whole and little research emphasises women?s entrepreneurship, particularly in Portugal. Thus, this study explores entrepreneurial initiatives conducted by women in one of the most peripheral areas of Portugal - Montemuro (municipality of Castro Daire), where subsistence agriculture continues to be the main economic activity. These women have been stimulated to develop entrepreneurial activity in the countryside, taking advantage of local and endogenous materials (flax and wool) and traditional knowledge that through for generations mothers passed orally to daughters. Indeed, these women who have continually been working this type of materials in their homes, putting into practise what they have learnt from their grandmothers and mothers, began to create innovative and fashionable products. The aim of this study, therefore, is to explore women´s entrepreneurship in rural communities of Montemuro region, raise awareness of the role that these women play in rural development and identify some strategic considerations towards the development of their work. Concerning methodological procedures, in addition to the collection of data and news from newspapers and visits on internet pages about these women?s work, this paper is based on exploratory visits in the study communities of the Montemuro region and in the technique of observation. Apart from this, an interview was conducted in one of the organizations of women. The results of the study point out that the women of Montemuro try to not only create their own work, but also keep the culture and local traditions alive, therefore contributing to rural development. However several difficulties in the development of these entrepreneurial initiatives persist and further progress must be made. According to this, rural and local resources should be seen as valuable and entrepreneurial actions must be continually supported in order to contribute towards a process of rural development. Governmental and other institutional support should be directed to these women entrepreneurs in areas which they have lack of knowledge and expertise and conduct to the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship in the local context. Moreover, the success of entrepreneurship actions depends on the cooperation and creation of networks among the different actors that live in the rural communities. In terms of limitations we emphasize the exploratory nature of the study. Thus in order to understand behaviours and attitudes of these women entrepreneurs, limitations and opportunities of their entrepreneurial actions, an in-depth study will be interesting, maybe in the form of a study case.
    Keywords: Rural entrepreneurship; Innovation; Woman; Rural development
    JEL: L26 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  44. By: Marina Van Geenhuizen; Pieter Stek
    Abstract: The photovoltaic industry acts as a key force in the transition toward a sustainable energy production model. Only a niche market a few years ago, photovoltaic panels and installations are now becoming a mainstream electricity provider. As a highly dynamic, multi-technology and globally distributed industry it is a challenge to identify and quantify its appearance in regional clusters. This challenge is even greater for its critically important innovation activities, including reaching higher efficiency of the cells, and increasing (other) functional and design qualities, like flexibility and color, as well as developing cheaper production methods. Yet because of the industry?s important role in securing a sustainable energy supply and in contributing to the regional economies in which it is established, a deeper understanding of the its global presence and activities is of significant scientific importance and policy relevance. This research follows the approach of 'paper trail' of the industry's innovation process as revealed in patents and scientific publications. By using these documents as sources from which to extract indicators for innovative activity, inputs, outputs and collaboration networks, a detailed picture of the photovoltaic industry innovation and its constituent regional clusters is constructed. This allows not only for the identification and analysis of major regional changes and global shifts of the industry and variation in cluster types, but also enables the estimation of models to identify at least some of the critical factors in photovoltaic clusters' innovation growth pattern, in so far as they can be revealed by bibliometric indicators. In order to select the relevant documents, we first determine which technologies are involved in the photovoltaic industry, like concerning the materials of the cells and shape of the panels, and derive this from expert opinion. We use the USPTO patent database and the Scopus database to retrieve relevant data published between 2005 and 2014. This data is used to carry out a multiple regression model estimation. Providing an understanding of the global location changes and growth and underlying factors in photovoltaic cluster's innovation development is new. The analysis exemplifies the currently increasing scientific attention to the role of cities and regions in transitions of socio-technical systems towards higher levels of sustainability, while referring to local seedbed conditions, including knowledge spillovers, and to networking power of technology actors like multinational companies and universities. The results offer insights to policy makers who aim to avoid barriers to innovation arising from global shifts.
    Keywords: photovoltaic industry; global shift; clusters; innovation; bibliometric approach
    JEL: F23 O14 O33 Q42
    Date: 2015–10
  45. By: Just V (R)
    Abstract: In Latvia Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) are comparatively new support units for the development of economics. As it has been indicated in a number of reports, a support programme for the establishment of TTO was commenced in 2005 in Latvian universities in order to improve technology transfer system for the improvement of cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs and ensuring more efficient introduction of research results in production. Establishment of six TTO was supported within an open competition.The year of 2008 marks further TTO development, when eight TTO commenced / continued operation in Latvian universities. Between 2008 and 2013 performance of TTO was ensured within the operational programme “Entrepreneurship and Innovation” (financed by the European Regional Development Fund) and aimed at supporting and promoting activities regarding knowledge and technology transfer. Performance of TTO was assessed quantitatively within the project. However, qualitative performance indicators of TTO must be identified in order to characterize TTO contribution to the technology transfer system.Objectives of the research are as follows: identification of the qualitative performance indicators of TTO by singling out benefits gained by the parties involved in technology transfer process. Research included both secondary and primary data. Primary data were obtained by the qualitative method of data collection: semi-structured interview with the heads and specialists of Latvian TTO.All the above mentioned resulted in identification of the qualitative performance indicators of TTO and benefits of the parties involved in technology transfer process (scientists, management of a universities, entrepreneurs). Majority of the heads and specialists of TTO admitted – it was important to establish and strengthen cooperation of the university with representatives of the sector to achieve quantitative indicators, therefore, firstly, establishment of the scientists’ contacts with the industry was considered. The contacts obtained by scientists should be assessed as one of the most significant qualitative achievements of TTO. Secondly, understanding of scientists regarding their role and benefits within the process of provision of research services and commercialization of scientific developments was formed.The majority of TTO staff indicates that the management of university view systematic establishment of internal processes related to registration procedure of intellectual property rights, process of commercialization of scientific developments and licensing procedure as a benefit. The party involved in the technology transfer – entrepreneurs – has admitted the following benefits to the heads and specialists from TTO: existence of a unified information centre in scientific institutions, as well as decrease of bureaucratic burden.
    Keywords: Technology transfer, TTO
    JEL: I20 L26 O32
  46. By: Eunok Im
    Abstract: Collaboration among regional/local governments becomes more important for successful local economic development. It has emerged as an alternative to traditional competition-based strategies for local economic development. This study explores the degree of collaboration among local governments in the partnership and its impacts on local economic performance, using nation-wide survey results of 112 local government partnerships for economic development in Korea. Factor analysis identifies three key factors for the degree of interlocal collaboration: (1) commitment to mutual relationships and goals, (2) the quality of communication to build consensus among participants, and (3) the effectiveness of formal joint meetings, as a sub-dimension of communication. The multivariate regressions of three factors on contextual attributes (resource dependence on partners and geographical proximity), relational attributes (social/political similarity, perceived competitive relation, and trust in partners), and institutional attribute (the level of institutionalization) report interesting findings. Trust in partners and the level of institutionalization for the partnership turn out to be the most important factors affecting the level of commitment and the quality of communication in collaboration processes. On the other hand, resource dependence on partners and geographical proximity positively affect only formal joint meeting operation. Using the Baron and Kenny?s three-step hierarchical regression analysis, this study finds that the degree of collaboration mediates the relationship between resource dependence, trust, and the level of institutionalization and local governments? strategic performance. However, it does not show any associations with direct economic performance measures?i.e., effectiveness and efficiency of a collaborative project that might be more influenced by, and thus hardly disentangled from, other various external economic/political factors. It implies that although a high quality collaboration process cannot guarantee the success of project itself, it entails participants? learning (i.e., accumulation of knowledge and experience) that may contribute to innovation and better economic performance in subsequent collaborative projects.
    Keywords: degree of collaboration; local economic development; strategic performance
    Date: 2015–10
  47. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
    Abstract: Russia inherited pattern of economic activity location from the Soviet Union, where the main forms of industry organization were territorial-production complexes (TPC) - networks of industrial organizations united by a single technological process or the chain of raw materials processing. In a market economy in the 90s, economic ties within the TPC were destroyed, leading to a drop in the level of production, fragmentation of large enterprises and the formation of a set of independent and often competing firms. Some scientists believe that this situation over the last 20 years could serve as a necessary foundation for the formation of industrial clusters (in interpretation of modern regional science). Today, interest in clusters in Russia rises again due to the need to find new mechanisms to support production and innovation in a stagnant economy. Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has developed a project to support the pilot territorial innovative clusters by providing funding for infrastructure formation. The selection of cluster initiatives was based on applications from regional governments, interested in attracting of additional investment. Most of the clusters, formed in Russia, are not in innovative sectors, as shown by studies of the Russian Cluster Observatory. But a lot of potential clusters in Russia is not formed due to the high level of distrust between firms, due to lack of understanding of the potential benefits, etc., although these clusters can develop due to geographical proximity (high concentration) of firms. The aim of our work is to identify clusters as areas of geographical concentration of small and medium businesses (SME). We also wanted to check whether the existing cluster initiatives correspond to the concentration of economic activity and whether there is potential for increasing the cluster initiatives. In our work, we use the analysis based on the localization index, but on three geographical levels for verification reasons: regions, districts and cities. Most of the data were collected from RUSLANA database, consisting information of Russian firms. After identifying a high degree of localization of a particular industry or a group of industries, we analyze the location of enterprises, based on distance-oriented methods in specific regions or between regions. The result is a map of the high concentration and localization of small and medium businesses in certain areas in a number of industries. The authors confirmed the existence of traditional and well-known clusters and identified previously unknown concentration of firms that did not declare their interaction. In the last step, the authors conducted field research - a survey of firms in areas of concentration, where clusters today are not formed, for determining the reasons for the lack of interaction.
    Keywords: cluster identification; localization; SME; Russian regions
    JEL: C19 L70 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  48. By: Link, Albert N.; Antonelli, Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Date: 2015–10
  49. By: Kadri Männasoo; Jaanika Meriküll
    Abstract: The paper studies financing constraints for R&D over the latest boom and bust episode in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Given that financial and venture capital markets in CEE are thin in comparison to those in high-income economies and that many of CEE countries experienced a credit crunch during the last recession, it is proposed that financing constraints have a significant adverse effect on R&D activity in these countries. The paper uses two complementary firm-level data-sources from ten CEE countries. The results suggest that the role of financing constraints for R&D expenditures in CEE countries is substantial, as the probability of credit constrained firms undertaking R&D activities is around 70% lower and firms’ R&D expenditure cash flow sensitivity is very high. Despite the severity of the crisis, the adverse effect of financing constraints for R&D did not increase in the financial crisis. It is also confirmed that, conditional on credit constraints, firms’ R&D activity is higher in a recession.
    Keywords: R&D financing constraints, credit constraints, business cycle, Central and Eastern Europe
    JEL: O16 O32 O52 E32 P23
    Date: 2015–07
  50. By: Olena Slozko
    Abstract: Considering the prospects of regional innovation systems in Ukraine, theoretically found the key organizational and institutional settings that allow the potential of regional innovation systems. A criterion for the onset of systematic innovation at the regional level. They are divided into infrastructure and under- structure parameters. The first question concerns the degree of infrastructure regional financial competence. This includes private and public finances. Where there is a regional stock exchanges, firms, especially small and medium-sized can find financial resources at the local capital market. Regional innovation management process assists in the interaction of the parties, including the competence of public and private resources. The revival of public-private investment in Ukraine can also help to build capacity, reputation, trust and reliability among regional partners. State regional budgets are also important in mobilizing regional innovation capacity. Three types of budget competencies. The first - the regions have the right to manage decentralized expenditure. For example, when the region is the channel through which funds are nation-wide. The second category is applicable in cases where the regions are competent in autonomous spending. This happens when regions determine how the grant will be spent allocated from the national budget. The third category - the regions have the power to collect taxes as well as for the autonomous distribution, which creates opportunities for regional innovation. The strongest basis for promoting regional innovation is found in regions with credit opportunities, and in the regions with autonomous expenditure and authority to collect taxes. The competence of regional authorities to infrastructure issues are divided according control and influence on investment: in 'hard' infrastructure projects such as transport and telecommunications and 'soft' - infrastructure knowledge, such as universities, research institutes, science parks and technology transfer centers. Most regions lack the budget to the most strategic of them, but many have the power to design and construction of such facilities.
    Keywords: innovations; infrastruter; innovative activity;innovation development
    JEL: Q32
    Date: 2015–10
    Abstract: In our research we are trying to determine the impact of the evolution of the public expenditure of research and development on the main macroeconomic variables such us GDP growth, consumption and gross fix capital formations taken as investments in the case of the European Union. We have analysed the impact of research and development expenditure by taking into consideration the impulse response functions of a Bayesian VAR model, based on a panel approach. Our results are showing a lasting effect of the R&D expenditures on all the macroeconomic variables taken into consideration. Also, by analysing the variance decomposition we have showed that the influence of the R&D expenditures is significant in accordance with the literature review.
    Keywords: public expenditure, research and development, VAR model, impulse function
    JEL: H52
  52. By: Fabio Pieri (Departamento de Economía Aplicada, Universitat de València)
    Abstract: Many industries are characterized by a marked heterogeneity in vertical boundaries among their firms: some firms are vertically integrated in the production of inputs while others adopt disintegration strategies. This paper empirically explores if different vertical organizational forms are associated with unlike growth “behaviors” within the same industry. To this end, an econometric analysis is conducted over a sample of around 500 Italian machine tool (MT) builders for the period 1998-2007. Ceteris paribus, vertically integrated firms show a distribution of growth rates with a higher number of episodes of “moderate” growth, and this is true in case of both output expansion and contraction. Adjustment costs, organizational slacks, a better coordination along the production chain and a more effective handling of changes in customers’ needs may all concur to explain their more “moderate” growth profile with respect to disintegrated firms. This work provides insight into the output dynamics in a mature industry in which both vertically integrated and dis-integrated firms coexist.
    Keywords: Vertical integration, Firm growth, Quantile regression, Variance-vertical integration scaling, Italian machine tool industry
    JEL: D22 L23 L24 L26 L64
    Date: 2015–10
  53. By: Alessandro Bramucci (Ph.D. at University of Urbino, Department of Economics, Society, Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: This paper reviews the debate on the economic effect of the international fragmentation of production also known as “offshoring” and provides a preliminary investigation on the impact of imports of intermediate products on labor demand and wages in five European countries (Germany, Spain, France, Italy, United Kingdom). Data are obtained from the Sectoral Innovation Database (SID) of the University of Urbino, a large database that merges statistical material from various sources (LFS; CIS; OECD STAN; WIOD). The first part of this work is devoted to a discussion of the concepts, the economic effects of offshoring and the debate that followed. The second section presents offshoring trends and discusses the results of a preliminary econometric analysis on the offshoring effect on wages and employment. Results suggest that offshoring has a general negative impact on labour demand and wages although at a more careful examination high-tech offshoring appear to have a positive influence on wages of medium and high-skilled workers.
    Keywords: Offshoring, International Outsourcing, Innovation, Employment, Wages
    JEL: F1 F2
    Date: 2015
  54. By: Hamelmann, Lisa; Haucap, Justus
    Abstract: Online-Plattformen wie Suchmaschinen und Marktplätze, die als Intermediäre zwischen verschiedenen Kundengruppen agieren, rücken zunehmend in den Fokus zahlreicher Wettbewerbsbehörden weltweit. Aufgrund ihrer mehrseitigen und dynamischen Strukturen kann sich die Marktposition einzelner Unternehmen schnell verschieben, sodass kartellrechtliche Eingriffe oftmals als strittig eingestuft werden. Der vorliegende Beitrag diskutiert die wesentlichen wettbewerbsrechtlichen Verfahren auf Online-Märkten. Vorab werden spezifische Eigenarten von Online-Märkten erörtert, um eine gemeinsame Basis für die anschließenden Fall-Analysen zu schaffen. Neben dem Kartellverfahren gegen Google wird dann eine Einordnung der kartellrechtlichen Behandlung von diversen Vertikalbeschränkungen vorgenommen. Grundsätzlich wird festgestellt, dass auf Online-Märkten und im stationären Handel ähnliche Wettbewerbsbedenken hervorgerufen werden, sodass bestehende Methoden angewendet werden können. Gleichzeitig muss jedoch berücksichtigt werden, dass aufgrund der speziellen Marktcharakteristika auf Online-Märkten einige Instrumente des Wettbewerbsrechts angepasst werden müssen. Nur so können mögliche Wettbewerbseffekte verlässlich festgestellt werden und Regulierungen vorgenommen werden, die weder zukünftige Innovationen noch den technischen Fortschritt hemmen.
    Abstract: Online platforms such as search engines and market places, which act as intermediaries between customer groups, are increasingly at the focus of numerous competition authorities worldwide. Because of their multi-sided and dynamic nature, market positions can change quickly, thus the application of competition law may prove challenging. After discussing the key characteristics and possible approaches towards market definition, this paper analysis the most prominent proceedings such as the antitrust case against google as well as different cases on vertical restraints in e-commerce. The paper posits that in principle, online markets are prone to similar competition concerns as offline markets and existing competition concepts can adequately be applied. However, some of the tools need to be adjusted to account for the special characteristics of online markets, to reliably assess potential competition issues in order not to retard innovation and technological advances.
    Keywords: Digitale Märkte,Vertikalbeschränkungen,Zweiseitige Plattformen,Digital Markets,E-Commerce,Two-Sided Platforms,Google,Vertical Restraints
    Date: 2015
  55. By: Maria Lorek
    Abstract: The Interference of liberal principles and the reintroduction of a market economy have changed the structure and the organization of the productive system of centrally planned and administered countries (NOVE, 1981; ANDREFF, 2007). The new forms of industrial organization, which are the source of these transformations, give priority to territorial logics. In this context, studies on industrial districts, innovative environments, clusters? found renewed interest. However, the issue of local conversion by economic liberalization is still much unexplored in terms of impact on the organization of local actors and the development of innovation on the local level in the former centrally planned countries. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the strong links between the institutional and organizational decentralization and development of innovation on the local level. Our method of analysis is based on the idea that the change of public management after liberalization contributes to the convergence of public and private interests resulting in the emergence of an institutional agent composed of a network of actors. Collective action of these actors plays a vital role in the emergence and development of a potential innovation. To justify our approach, we combine the institutional approach and the evolutionary approach to explain the formation of the institutional agent and its involvement in the development of innovation on the local level. We apply this interpretative framework to the case of industrial port complex of Gdansk because of its economic history, the establishment of the new local economic policy (after 1989), the choice of local authorities, although significant growth of the high-tech sector and the absence of previous study on this issue. The study of institutional change in Gdansk is based on the literature review. The potential of innovation that is forged in parallel is studied on a double level first through a statistical analysis of Gdansk economy to provide an overview on all the initial conditions, then, through the study of data from surveys conducted by the National Statistical Office (GUS) to determine the weight of high-tech enterprises in Gdansk. The results show that the liberalization of exchange considerably affects the organization of local actors in Gdansk. The collective actions of public and private actors are not yet common but they encourage the development of innovation in Gdansk promoting: first, the accumulation of core assets, then the improvement of its scientific and technical potential and third the emergence of innovative high-tech companies. This study shows that the economy of Gdansk is being transformed all by emphasizing the articulation between the different actors of proximity, the local specific resources, and the reports developed on the market and non-market and the introduction of innovation.
    Keywords: institutional agent; transition; conversion; innovation; Gdansk
    JEL: R11 P21 P25
    Date: 2015–10
  56. By: Tibor Ábrám (University of Miskolc)
    Abstract: The innovation could be not only the engine of the industry and economy, but it is also a tool of development of the non-government sector of a certain country, and of other communities and organisations of the society. The innovation strategy and innovation management in certain circumstances are used in a planned way, and wittingly, but some elements of the innovation strategy and innovation management may occur even in those situation, when the organisation hasnït got a well-defined innovation strategy, or the innovation management of a certain process or activity is not wittingly planned. In the first part of this paper we will give an example how the innovation strategy and innovation management was present in the life and activity of the Reformed Church in Hungary in its early time (16th-18th century) first of all in its service toward the larger society building up a strong educational system. In the second part of this paper we will present, how the innovation strategy and innovation management plays a significant role in the planning and implementing a coherent strategy of school system development of the educational institutions maintained by the Reformed Church in Hungary and in a wider sense in Carpathian Basin.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  57. By: Marc Fleurbaey; Vito Peragine; Xavier Ramos
    Abstract: In this paper we propose different criteria to rank income distributions according to equality of opportunity. Different from existing ones, our criteria explicitly recognize the interplay between circumstances and effort. We characterize them axiomatically and we compare them with existing criteria; then we propose some scalar measures. We show that our ex post criteria are mostly obtained from "seemingly" ex ante properties. In the second part of the paper we apply our new criteria to measuring inequality of opportunity in Germany. We illustrate our ex-post inequality of opportunity approach based on classes by means of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the fi…rst decade of the 2000s.
    Keywords: Equality of opportunity, ex post/ex ante, compensation, reward, SOEP, Germany
    JEL: D3 D63 D71
    Date: 2015
  58. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Nilsson, Magnus (Dept. of Business Administration and CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper challenges one of the fundamental propositions within economic geography; that location in knowledge regions contributes to firm performance in general and especially for knowledge intensive firms that compete on the basis of knowledge. Our analysis of Swedish micro-data on 32,535 firms from 2004-2011 provides evidence that knowledge intensive firms benefit less from local knowledge spillovers than firms with comparably low in-house knowledge. This suggests that firms with high internal competencies can compensate for a lack of local knowledge spillovers and that negative knowledge externalities may make location outside knowledge centers more beneficial for such firms.
    Keywords: periphery; firm performance; spillovers; agglomeration
    JEL: O30 R10 R11
    Date: 2015–10–23
  59. By: Benjamin David
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the risk of job destructions induced by computer technology in Japan. Relying on recent methodology, we find evidence that approximatively 55% of jobs are susceptible to be carried by computer capital in the next years. We also show that there is no significant difference on the basis of gender. On the contrary, non-regular jobs (those that concern temporary and part-time workers) are more vulnerable to computer technology diffusion than the others.
    Keywords: Computer technology, Japanese labor market, Automation, Random Forest.
    JEL: C53 J21 O33
    Date: 2015
  60. By: Thomas Brenner; Marco Capasso; Matthias Duschl; Koen Frenken; Tania Treibich
    Abstract: This paper studies the causal relations between regional employment growth in Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS) and overall regional employment growth using German labour-market data for the period 1999-2012. Adopting a recently developed technique, we are able to estimate a structural vector autoregressive model in which the causal directions between KIBS and other sectors are examined including various time lags. One main finding holds that although regional growth has a negative short-term effect on KIBS, KIBS growth has a long-term positive effect on the whole regional economy. This result confirms the claim that KIBS can play a key role in regional policies. Distinguishing between financial and non-financial KIBS, we find that financial KIBS have a procyclical effect on regional growth underlining the potential de-stabilizing effect of a large financial sector.
    Keywords: Employment growth, growth spillovers, KIBS, industrial dynamics, financial geography
    Date: 2015–10
  61. By: Csaba Debreczeny (Pannon University)
    Abstract: Although Innovation is defined by many classical sources (Schumpeter, Oslo Manual etc.) it is still remains a myth at companies what it really means. It is well understood that sustainable growth is not possible without proper innovation management. Lots of energy is invested to implement and setup well-structured stage gate processes - from idea generation till market launch with state of the art project management, however fundamental question is mostly ignored, neglected: what innovation culture matches to industries, markets certain companies serve. This paper researches the literature of different innovation capability measurement systems Select one which has a fundamental new approach and shows the status of a model validation process at a new industry. The model main claim is that there is no good or bad innovation culture. The main question is how innovation culture/capability is matching to the company current and future targeted strategy and operational of excellence. During the validation process 2 strategic business fields are being selected similar in size and challenges (matured markets with stagnating product lifecycles, still need for 5-10 % of innovative growth within next 5 years which can be only reached via competence enhancement - not to be derived from current markets). These conditions provide excellent opportunity to validate the model at this industry and propose if applicable necessary adjustments.
    Date: 2015–10–15
  62. By: Selin Ozyurt; Stephane Dees
    Abstract: This paper investigates the main determinants of economic growth in the European Union from a regional perspective. The analysis is based on a recently available dataset from the European Cluster Observatory covering 253 European regions over the period 2002-2008. In addition to the traditional determinants of regional growth (such as investment, human capital developments, innovation and infrastructure endowment), the growth analysis accounts for spatial effects related to the existence of externalities from neighbouring regions. The spatial Durbin fixed-effect panel specification captures spatial feedback effects from the neighbours through spatially lagged dependent and independent variables. Social-economic environment and traditional determinants of growth are found to be significant. In particular, investment, infrastructure and human capital endowment, accessibility and innovation capacity explain both growth dynamics and cross regional differences. We do not find evidence of convergence among regions over the study period. By contrast, we detect a regional cluster in the core of Europe specialised in activities with high growth potential. Our findings confirm the significance of spatial spillovers. Specifically, business investment and skilled workforce migration have a positive ? direct and indirect ? impact on economic growth of the European regions.
    Keywords: Spatial Durbin Panel Models; Economic Growth; Cluster Analysis; European Union;
    JEL: R12
    Date: 2015–10
  63. By: Fikri Zul Fahmi
    Abstract: This study examines the degree to which creative industries fit regional economic settings in the developing world. In so doing, we examine the characteristics of regions where clusters of these industries are found, particularly in Indonesia. Our findings show that creative industries develop in particular regions in this country, but the characteristics of these industries and spatial settings are different from developed countries. In the literature, it is well-established that creative industries are most likely to concentrate in large urban regions, where innovation and cross-fertilization of ideas take place with the support of talent pooling and relatedness among niche producers. This argument is valid for explaining the clustering of ?innovative? creative industries in Indonesia. However, the same conclusion cannot be drawn for long-established ?traditional? cultural industries, which are promoted as creative industries by the government, although they rather focus on preserving heritage values. In this respect, we suggest that policy strategies for creative industries would be applicable to fairly advanced regions with sufficient human capital and economic diversification. Meanwhile, regions specialized in traditional cultural industries can apply a different strategy to optimize the impact of these industries.
    Keywords: creative industries; cultural industries; regional distribution; Indonesia
    JEL: R10 R12 Z11 Z18
    Date: 2015–10
  64. By: Feser, Daniel; Proeger, Till
    Abstract: This paper investigates barriers to effective knowledge spillovers for markets in which the product can be characterized as a credence good, i.e. its complexity impedes the evaluation of quality by customers both ex-ante and ex-post. We focus on the German market for energy efficiency consultants, as an emerging and subsidized sector in which the service offered has strong credence good properties. Based upon in-depth interviews with stakeholders, we analyze the determinants and barriers to knowledge spillovers. We find that the incentive to foster spillovers to increase suppliers´ knowledge is limited by the difficult commercialization of additional capabilities. The implementation of a public certification scheme has failed to increase the sectoral knowledge spillovers. By contrast, the participation in formal knowledge networks has been more effective in prompting companies to foster knowledge spillovers, which has also led to a higher degree of specialization. We conclude that access to certification schemes should be further restricted to increase market transparency and private networks should be supported to achieve the aim of increasing knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: credence goods,knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship,network
    JEL: D21 D82 H41 K23 L14
    Date: 2015
  65. By: Gertrudes Guerreiro; António Guerreiro
    Abstract: R&D investments are seen has having an enormous potential impact on the competitive position of regions and perhaps on regional convergence (or divergence) too. The aim of the paper is to study both the localization of R&D investments and regional income distribution among the NUTs 3 regions of Portugal to conclude if these variables are related or not. We intend to answer questions like if geography influences the pattern of R&D investments and inequality, and if these ones reveal the presence of spatial correlation. Furthermore, we evaluate convergence or divergence in income growth and if it is related with R&D investments. After a brief introduction we evaluate the inequalities among regions using information about per capita GDP and per capita R&D investment. It follows the convergence analysis and conclusions. To study the spatial convergence (approximation) of per capita income (GDPpc) and R&D investments in the regions of Portugal, we use a standard methodology of spatial econometrics. We compared the values of each geographical unit with the values calculated to the neighboring geographic units, in the first and last year of the period under review. We conclude that regions with higher GDPpc are not the same with the highest concentration of R&D investments, with the exception of the northern coastline. The R&D investments are geographically linked to the network of higher education institutions, especially in the interior regions of the country. The northern regions reveal more dynamic in terms of R&D, which apparently is not felt in the population's standard of living measured by GDPpc. Our challenge for the future of this work is to understand and to explain this data evidence.
    Keywords: R&D Investment; Income Distribution; Regional Inequality; Regional Convergence;
    JEL: C23 O30 R11 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  66. By: Joachim Möller; Uwe Blien; Phan thi Hong Van; Stephan Brunow
    Abstract: This article shows how the impulses of the transformation process in eastern Germany have spread through the economy and the labour market. The form of transformation has long-term effects on the form of control over the economy; it is managed largely from western firms. This fact has manifold consequences for the innovation behaviour of plants, among others, which in turn is further related to productivity and thus to the labour market. We argue that this transfers further to persistently lower wages and higher unemployment rates in eastern compared with western Germany.
    Keywords: Regional Unemployment; Regional Wage Dynamics; Innovation; Human Capital
    JEL: J24 J31 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  67. By: Mariana Mazzucato (SPRU (Science Policy Research Unit), School of Business, Management & Economics, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9SL, U.K.)
    Abstract: The paper considers the direct, strategic investments that have been made by international public institutions creating and shaping (not only fixing) green technology. It builds on the key themes found in The Entrepreneurial State: debunking public vs. private sector myths.
    Keywords: Financial institutions; environment; economic development; technological change; industrial policy
    JEL: G20 O13 O16 O38 L52
    Date: 2015–10
  68. By: Tommaso Aquilante
    Abstract: This dissertation consists of three independent essays which contribute to the literatures on International Trade and Political Economy. The first essay addresses questions related to the political economy of antidumping (AD). With the remarkable falling in tariff barriers that has characterized the post-World War II period, AD has become the most used non-tariff barrier (NTB).1 Studying the use of AD is thus of great importance, also because the restrictive effects of AD measures on trade can be sizable (see for instance Ruhl, 2014). Moreover, there is an increasing concern that AD has turned to be an industrial policy tool rather than a mean that governments can use to restore the “level-playing field” (Vandenbussche and Zanardi, 2008). This worry is in line with the findings presented in the first chapter of this dissertation, Bureaucrats or Politicians? Political Parties and Antidumping in the US, which shows that the adoption of ADmeasures in the US is heavily shaped by political parties’ interests. I focus on the voting behavior of the International Trade Commission (ITC), a US quasijudicial agency composed by six non-elected commissioners who are supposed to conduct (an important part of the) AD investigations in a fair and objective manner. Using a newly collected dataset containing all ITC commissioners’ votes on AD over the period 1980-2010, I show that political parties can affect the ITC voting behavior in two ways: by selecting ITC commissioners who have a similar stance on trade policy as their own (selection effect) and by influencing them while they are in office (pressure effect). While other studies have emphasised that Congress can put pressure on the ITC, the novelty of this work is to show that this pressure is party-specific. First, I show that Democratic-appointed commissioners are systematically more protectionist than Republican-appointed ones. This effect is sizable (the probability of voting in favor of AD is at least 8 percentage points higher for Democratic-appointed commissioners) and suggests that political parties can play an important role by influencing the choice of ITC commissioners who have a similar preferences on trade. This result is insensitive to several changes in the econometric specifications and to the use of different methodologies. Moreover, commissioners’ votes on AD depend on the trade policy interests of key senators (i.e. Trade subcommittee members) in the party they are associated to.2 In particular, whether (Democratic) Republican-appointed commissioners vote in favor of AD depends crucially on whether the petitioning industry is key (in terms of employment) in the states represented by leading (Democratic) Republican senators at the time. This result is robust to several checks also holds when controlling for any unobserved time-invariant characteristic of ITC commissioners (e.g. the state of origin) that could influence their votes on AD and be correlated with the pressure variables, i.e. when commissioner fixed effects are included in the specifications. In addition, the pressure effect can actually overcome the selection effect, making a Republican-appointed commissioner more protectionist than the average Democratic-appointed one. The second essay, Internationalization and Innovation of Firms: Evidence and Policy, analyzes the link between internationalization and innovation at the firm level.3 The evidence presented Chapter 2 shows that the degrees of involvement in internationalization and innovation activities are inextricably linked. However, the European policy context seems at odds with this evidence: trade-promotion and innovation-enhancing policies are largely unrelated and often carried out through various agencies (see EIM, 2010).4 Thus, understanding the interaction between internationalization and innovation can be crucial for policy makers, especially in a world which is increasingly characterized by global value chains.5 The interplay between internationalization and innovation is investigated in a unique, representative and cross-country comparable sample of manufacturing firms with at least ten employees (EFIGE), across seven European countries (Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain, UK) for the year 2008. We find that firms in the sample at hand are quite active in both innovation and internationalization: 87% of firms devote resources to R&D projects, IT solutions, or patent/design/ trademark registrations, while 77% of our firms are active in international trade, cross-border outsourcing relations, or FDI. For modes of internationalization, there is a clear ranking of associated firm performance: FDI makers show the highest productivity, followed by outsourcers and traders. Innovation differences across modes are less clear cut. Moreover, defining internationalization (innovation) intensity as the number of internationalization (innovation) modes in which firms are involved, we show that firms with high innovation intensity tend also to show high internationalization intensity. Instrumenting innovation intensity by the share of firms that have benefitted from R&D financial incentives in a given (NACE 2 digits) industry-country pair and by the share of investment in R&D over the value added in the same industry-country pair, for the years 2002-2006, we are not able to find conclusive evidence of a causal effect of innovation on internationalization. Finally, a positive association between innovation and internationalization intensities appears at both firm level and country-industry (milieu) level, and at country level when average intensity is calculated disregarding the relative numbers of firms in the different industries. If country average intensities are computed weighting by firm numbers in the various industries, the correlation between innovation and internationalization intensities across countries appears weaker, suggesting that innovation matters more than internationalization for driving differences across countries. Based on the evidence we collected, we suggest a higher coordination/integration of internationalization and innovation policies at both the national and EU levels, and propose a bigger coordinating role for EU institutions, in order to reduce the current paradox of generally uncorrelated policies aimed at mostly correlated outcomes. The third essay, Cooperation Among Criminal Organizations: Evidence from Organized Crime in Italy, uncovers new facts about the behavior criminal organizations on the Italian territory. Since Becker (1968) the economic analysis of crime has especially focused on the behavior of individual offenders. Much less attention has been devoted to the activities of criminal organizations, especially from an empirical point of view. Nevertheless, organized crime is a prominent and alarming presence in the world economy: it destroys physical and human capital and deteriorates the business environment, ultimately lowering the growth potential of an economy (Acconcia et al. 2014; Pinotti, 2015). The third chapter of this dissertation contributes to the literature on economics of organized crime by shedding light on the interaction between domestic and foreign organizations in Italy, showing that the probability of cooperation among them depends both on the type of crime committed and on the presence of traditional (incumbent) organizations in some regions of the country. More specifically, cooperation between domestic and foreign criminal organizations is studied using a novel dataset containing information on their activities in the Italian territory during 2007-2010. Italian territory during 2007-2010. We first show that cooperation among Italians and foreigners is skewed towards specific crimes (e.g. counterfeiting activities). We then show that the presence of traditional (incumbent) organizations in some regions reduces the probability of cooperating. Interestingly, in these areas the same probability is higher when cooperation takes place for criminal activities in which foreign organizations can play an important role in providing inputs.
    Keywords: Innovation Policy; Antidumping Policy; Political Parties; Internationalization; Innovation; Firm Heterogeneity; Trade Policy; Organized Crime
    Date: 2015–08–28
  69. By: Óscar Rodil; Diana Morales
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the difference between the rates of potential entrepreneurship and actual entrepreneurship in European and American context, trying to identify some of the explanatory factors. For this purpose an institutional approach is used, which includes the role of various formal and informal factors related with the potential and emerging entrepreneurial activity. From an empirical point of view, the paper takes into account twenty countries from the European and American continent, covering the last decade. The results show, in general, the influence of the institutional framework on the gap between the nascent entrepreneurship and potential entrepreneurship, through formal and informal factors. We use data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), which measures the entrepreneurial intention and nascent entrepreneurial activity, the World Bank and the Index of Economic Freedom (The Heritage Foundation).
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Gap; New Institutional Economics; Europe; America
    JEL: L26 E02 O52
    Date: 2015–10
  70. By: Mauricio Serra; Louise Kempton; Paul Vallance; Ana Paula Bastos; Cassio Rolim
    Abstract: By looking at the official data, it is impossible not to notice that Brazil has undergone profound social and economic transformation. In fact, Brazil's GDP grew approximately 157 times since the early twentieth century to the present day, being this economic performance responsible for placing the country as an important player in South America and in the world as well. This deep transformation also affected the Brazilian higher education system, which has experienced considerable changes over the last decades, most of them driven by two interrelated factors: (a) an intense process of globalization that offers new opportunities as well as imposes new demands for universities; and (b) the perception ? largely influenced by the vast literature on Regional Innovation Systems - that regions are important actors in the development process insofar as they can meet their own and national development goals by supporting innovation, contributing to an increase in productivity as well as in living standards. Despite its successful economic trajectory, Brazil continues to be a highly unequal country in social and economic terms. This inequality can be seen not only within the regions, but principally among them. In this sense, the North region is the poorest Brazilian region, whose share of Brazil?s GDP is very low (only 5.4% in 2013) and whose social indicators are far below the national average. However, it is worth noting that this region has a tremendous potential insofar as it is the country's largest region (it covers roughly 60% of the national territory, comprising Amazonia with its extraordinary biodiversity and natural wealth), its growth rates has been higher than the national average over the last three decades, and has important universities and research institutions. On the other hand, the Southeast is the country?s richest and most dynamic region, its share of Brazil?s GDP is very high (55.4% in 2013), its social indicators are far above the Brazilian average, and its universities are among the highest quality in Brazil and South America as well. This paper focuses on two contrasting Brazilian regions, not only in social and economic terms, but also in terms of innovation and entrepreneurship: the state of Para in the northern region, and the state of São Paulo in the southeastern region. Based on regional innovation system, regional triple helix spaces and entrepreneurial region concepts and also on the recent growing body of literature on the pivotal role of universities in regional development process, this paper can shed light on how universities operate in different contexts within a peripheral country, what kind of interaction they have with the regional actors, to what extent the surrounding environment influences their performance, and what has been their role in the developmental trajectory of their regions.
    Keywords: regional imbalance; higher education institutions; Brazil
    JEL: R1
    Date: 2015–10
  71. By: Vincent Lefebvre (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Miruna Radu Lefebvre (Audencia Recherche - Audencia); Eric Simon (ISC Paris Business School - ISC Paris Business School)
    Abstract: This article argues that entrepreneurial learning is genuinely connected to entrepreneurial networking activities, within a co-evolving dynamics. We take a longitudinal network approach to study the combined development of network dynamics and learning in a French formal entrepreneurial network over a period of four years (2005-2009). Our aim is to extend our knowledge of entrepreneurial learning emphasised both as a process and an outcome of social interaction, by focussing on the interplay between network evolution and the changing learning needs of participants over time. Building on a situated social perspective of entrepreneurial learning, we demonstrate that network learning processes and outcomes are contingent on the progressive network transformation from a social network to a community of practice.
    Keywords: Formal entrepreneurial network,Learning,Community of practice
    Date: 2015
  72. By: László Szerb; William Trumbull
    Abstract: Objectives: This paper aims to examine the transition process from the development and state of entrepreneurship in 15 former European socialist countries during 2006-2012. Our focus here is not on the full but on just one dimension of transition, entrepreneurship. While it is surely the case that certain transition tasks, like privatizing state-owned enterprises, remain unfinished, a perhaps more interesting question is whether the fundamental characteristics of these economies has changed to the point where starting and growing a new business in the former socialist countries is substantively different from starting and growing a new business elsewhere. Thus, we ask whether it is possible to discern differences with respect to entrepreneurship between the post-socialist countries of Europe and the non-post-socialist countries, controlling for level of economic development. Methodology: Unlike previous analyses that applied single activity related entrepreneurship measures like self-employment, or the GEM's TEA rate, we use a complex entrepreneurship measure, the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI). GEDI incorporates both individual and institutional factors of entrepreneurship in order to explain the role of entrepreneurship in economic development. The GEDI, with its three sub-indexes and fourteen pillars, is a particularly suitable tool for examining the level, the components, and the configuration of the National System of Entrepreneurship. Findings: Investigating the former transition countries, we can conclude that the overall level of entrepreneurship in the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries fits their level of economic development. While the examined CEE countries have lower GEDI scores as well as institutional development than developed European innovation-driven economies; they possess slightly higher institutional and individual level of development than similarly developed efficiency-driven economies. We anticipated some kinds of characteristic differences between the former socialist and the efficiency-driven countries that would reveal that transition has not been completed. However, our results are more consistent with the conclusions that, while the post-socialist economies were qualitatively different twenty some years ago, those differences have vanished today with the exception of only one of the countries included in our analysis: Russia. Thus, these post-socialist countries (excepting Russia) are on a normal capitalist path with any differences being due to different levels of economic development rather than to having a different economic system. Originality/value: While our results imply that transition is over, there are some shared characteristics of the former socialist countries that most likely stem from their socialist heritage, such as the relatively low level of opportunity perception or cultural support. The results have important implications as they reinforce our argument that, rather than homogeneous entrepreneurship support policies, effective implementation of policies in CEE should fit the profile of the targeted territory.
    Keywords: Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index; Global Entrepreneurship Monitor;
    JEL: M13 O10 P20
    Date: 2015–10
  73. By: Krüger, Jens J.
    Abstract: In this paper we report the results from a detailed investigation of the shifts of the world production frontier function over the period 1980-2010. Analogous to a radar we implement a novel measurement approach for these shifts using nonparametrically computed productivity measures to scan the frontier shifts across the entire input-output space. The shifts of the frontier function measured in this way are analyzed by various regression methods (including robust and nonparametric). The results point towards substantial non-neutrality of technological progress and furthermore show that technological progress is more pronounced in regions of high output per worker and in regions where physical and human capital are intensely used.
    Keywords: non-neutral technological change,world production frontier,nonparametric frontier function
    JEL: C14 E23 O11 O47
    Date: 2015
  74. By: Aldo Geuna (Department of Economics; Statistics Cognetti De Martiis, University of Torino); Matteo Piolatto (Department of Social and Political Studies, University of Milan)
    Abstract: This paper provides a comparative analysis of the development of the UK and Italian university research funding systems with a special focus on Peer Review-Based Research Assessment (PRBRA) and its cost. Much of the debate surrounding the value of performance-based allocation systems hinges on the disadvantages versus the benefits of their implementation, and there is very little evidence on either their absolute cost or their cost relative to other allocation systems. Our objective is to fill this gap, collating the best possible estimates of the costs of alternative research funding methods to inform the ongoing policy debate. First, we compare funding in the UK and Italy during the period 2005-2012 and analyze the development of performance-based allocation in the two systems. Second, based on public reports and documents collected from universities, we discuss the public agency and university costs of RAE2008 and REF2014 and provide some estimates for VQR2012. We find that RAE2008 costs accounted for less than 1% of the total performance allocation in the related period while the VQR2012 efficiency ratio is estimated at around 2.5%. Finally, we compare the costs and efficiency ratios of PRBRA with metrics-based assessment and Research Council allocations and show that costs increase going from metrics to PRBRA to Research Council allocation.
    Keywords: Higher Education Policy, Public Funding, Research Assessment, University Research challenges, public finance, financialisation, innovation
    JEL: I2 Z18 H5
    Date: 2015–10
  75. By: António Almeida
    Abstract: Introduction: This paper analysis the spatial dynamics of the development of tourism industry in a leading tourism destination in Portugal. Previous studies focused on the spatial dynamics of the tourism industry had shown that, at the very begin, hotels and tourism facilities are located in the main city and surrounding areas along the coast. Then, the hinterland is incorporated into the dynamics of economic development to sustain the development of mass tourism. Method: Based on the Plantation Model proposed by Weaver (1993), we provide an illustrative description of the progressive spread of tourism facilities from Funchal to rural areas into the island rural areas in the North Coast. Despite all efforts to develop from scratch alternative market niches, rural areas face severe obstacles in developing the tourism industry. Rural areas are deprived of key tourism ?raw materials? such as complementary services, an entrepreneurial attitude on the rural houses owners´ part, strongly linkages between the emerging tourism sector and agriculture and an ?autonomous? image abroad. All this issues are well evident in Madeira and we show that intra-island imbalances in terms of the accommodation capacity and tourism receipts are still a pressing issue. Conclusions: The aim of this paper is to apply the Weaver´ Plantation Model to the Madeira Island case study in order to conceptualize and understand recent developments in the tourism sector and to provide recommendations to bridging the gap between the South Coast and the North Coast. Based on the evidence provided, we highlight the importance of investments in infrastructure and increased levels of accessibility, and we argue for a comprehensive analysis of tourism benefits from a rural area point of view.
    Keywords: regional development; plantation model; Tourism; Madeira
    JEL: R11 L83 L81 L93
    Date: 2015–10
  76. By: Jean Bonnet; Rafik Abdesselam; Patricia Renou-Maissant; Mathilde Aubry
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze entrepreneurial activity in OECD countries over the period 1999-2012 in order to make a distinction between economies that are more or less entrepreneurial. A combined use of multidimensional and evolutive data analysis methods is used with variables pertaining to entrepreneurial activity and growth. It allows us to distinguish several types of development. Furthermore, three main periods are found, before, during and after the crisis. The pre-crisis period, from 1999 to 2008, was a period of growth favorable to entrepreneurship while the sub-period 2010-2012 is less favorable. The effects of the financial crisis are noticeable after a delay in 2009. We show that in 2009, the agricultural economies have best withstood the financial crisis. Secondly, during the period 2010-2012 after the crisis, economies widely dependent on the financial sector were most impacted by the financial crisis. Because of the financial crisis, the entrepreneurial dynamics vary greatly across countries over the period 1999-2012, however we were able to establish common trajectories for a number of them
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Data analysis methods; Entrepreneurial/Administrated economies
    JEL: L26 C38 O1
    Date: 2015–10
  77. By: Myriam Matray (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon); Jacques Poisat (EVS - UMR 5600 Environnement Ville Société - ENSAL - Ecole nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon - Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Etienne - CNRS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État [ENTPE] - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon)
    Abstract: Coming from the civil society and entrepreneurial processes in a bottom-up strategy, territorial clusters of economic cooperation (inspired by French economic clusters) could not emerge and develop without support from public institutions. Indeed, jointly developed local strategies by groups of citizens and institutions tend to foster the emergence of groups of social actors. The study of TCEC in the Rhone-Alps Region highlights the many practical forms that the involvement of public institutions can take in the development of a social cluster, and shows the strategic importance of reaching an agreement, both from the social economy and local public institutions point of views. However the forms of public-civil society governance differ according to the types of clusters and their evolution. As the political approach to economic problems shows (Ostrom, 1990), local development projects are partly based on the ability of social actors to create collective intelligence (Heurgon, 2006) through deliberation in public spaces (Habermas, 1978), involving all stakeholders, including Universities (Goujon, Goyet, Poisat, 2011). However, local democracy cannot be imposed and collective intelligence requires broad mobilization. Consequently, the questions of the actors' coordination and of the emergence of new forms of regulations in territories become strategic, including in the social sector. Thus, after a long period of social innovations, the organizations in social and solidarity economy (SSE) experiment new forms of coordination between actors, companies and local authorities to pool resources and develop cooperative projects in territories. For example, the concept of "territorial clusters of economic cooperation" (TCEC), which was inspired by the French competitiveness clusters launched in 2005, has recently emerged under the influence of the main networks of SSE. This approach was backed by public authorities.
    Keywords: deliberation,entrepreneurship,governance,local authorities,social innovation,TCEC
    Date: 2015–07–15
  78. By: Huub Mudde (Maastricht School of Management); Dugassa Tessema Gerba; Alemfrie Derese Chekol
    Abstract: PThis report presents the findings of an entrepreneurship assessment of universities in Ethiopia, carried out within the context of the University Leadership and Management Capacity Development (ULMCD) project that has been implemented and coordinated by Maastricht School of Management (MSM), and funded by EP-Nuffic. Ethiopia is at the start of its second five year Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2) which aspires to make Ethiopia a middle income county by 2025. As a result, the government of Ethiopia had been pursuing, as one of its strategies, measures to promote small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to spur the economies’ growth and to increase youth employability (64.1% of the population is below 25 years of age). Universities play a significant role in the production of human resources the economy demands; education including entrepreneurship is critical as it contributes to job creation and leads to considerable reduction of poverty. Equally, universities have an important role to play in regional innovation systems. In Ethiopia, the number of graduates is growing fast and institutional challenges of universities are large because more than 20 new universities have been established in the last decade and the foundation of another 11 universities announced in 2015. It is this pertinent challenge of capacitating the growing number of students put upon the (mostly very young) Ethiopian universities in which this study is framed with the purpose to advise the Ethiopian universities on how to strengthen their entrepreneurial policy, activities, facilities, and educational programs, and to advise the Ethiopian Ministry of Education/Education Strategy Centre (ESC) on how it could support the Ethiopian universities on these matters.
    Date: 2015–07
  79. By: Michael Bentlage; Matthias Dorner; Alain Thierstein
    Abstract: Regions in Germany are facing an intensifying structural change towards the knowledge economy which is affecting spatial patterns of growth. . Features of such a change know many facets: fierce competition for skilled, mobile and motivated labor force, unemployment of non-qualified labor, longer commutes, multi-local households, re-concentration of the value chain, increased knowledge intensity of innovations, triple-helix collaborative ventures, structural weakness of public budgets, etcetera. These changes result in uneven spatial development, concentration in polycentric large-scale urban regions and increase in spatial disparities. The question arises how this structural change affects the territory of Germany, where securing equivalent living conditions still counts among the basic constitutional principles. We hypothesize that knowledge intensive employment tends to concentrate in two different spatial environments: (1) urban metropolitan centers and (2) network nodes with specialized knowledge resources. Both spatial configurations qualify by their combination of agglomeration economies and network economies. And both spatial environments tend to provide an optimum of geographical proximity and relational proximity, which eventually enable systematic knowledge creation. We test our hypothesis by analyzing the employment from 1998 to 2010 in 16 branches of the knowledge economy with a shift-share analysis. We argue that structural change and the economic crisis from 2009 intensify regional disparities while inducing relative employment shifts.
    Keywords: employment growth; economic crisis; knowledge economy; labor market regions
    JEL: R11 R12 O1
    Date: 2015–10
  80. By: Sandro Turina; Giuseppe Confessore; Maurizio Turina; Ilaria Barbante
    Abstract: The working group, in valuing the scientific publications made in previous years on the quantification and measurement of the indicators of 'attraction' of a territory, tried to find a sustainable development model, verifing the effect that the recent introduction APEA (Industrial Areas Ecologically equipped) has as a tool enabler the 'site location', in order to verify the effect that the reduction in the time of issuance of the necessary permits to the settlements has on potential for growth of one or more 'cluster competitor' adhering to FICEI (Italian Federation Industrial Consortia). The Ficei is a federated structure admitted to the program of support for technology transfer RIDITT, funded by the Ministry of Economic Development and the study has allowed us to develop decision support tools able to impact more on the ability to 'strategic positioning' of industrial clusters in regime of mutual competition or in competition. In particular, the simulation of the growth effect of the industrial areas APEA in regime of competition inter and intra cluster was made possible through the development of data base aggregates to which it was decided to associate logistic functions who have displayed in 'real time' the growth potential in the regime of a renewed action of technology transfer provided by the ministerial program. For the realization of the above system has realized an application capable of guiding the choices of strategic positioning simulating the growth potential compared to 'contender cluster' with a method characterized by the introduction of parametric functions of saturation of the population of enterprises and the introduction of parameters 'predation' capable of simulating the competitive effect of one or more clusters Italian the pilot area object of study. The working method used was, therefore, the following: (i) mapping of the distinctive features of the cluster Ficei-Apea; (ii) identification of the effect of technology transfer through saturation parameters to be included in logistics functions; (iii) identification of the parameters of predation required to simulate the effect of competitive industrial clusters; (iv) processing the data in the light of the selected indicators and representation of the dynamics of growth through comparative analysis of the functions of saturation. The results of the research group will permit to operate in application environments more in line with the needs of the area of innovation by helping to assess the sustainability for businesses of new business models in an area characterized by a higher degree of competition. The publication of this work is, therefore, the evolution of the work presented last year confirming the effort made by the research team to make available to the scientific community, predictive models for impact assessment that public support has on local SMEs and the related question of development.
    Keywords: Financial institution; Financial Market; Innovations; Transfer of Technology
    JEL: G21 G29 O30 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–10
  81. By: Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
    Abstract: When we consider knowledge economy as the top level of innovative economical development and the basis for the scientific knowledge, there is a need to make a favorable environment that might provide its efficient function. Knowledge economy that follows postindustrial society includes the increased quality of the human capital, increased life level, knowledge and high technologies production as well as production of innovations and qualitative services. The human capital has become the key productive factor in creation of up-to-date new high technologies, production development, and their efficiency increase that leaves behind development of science, culture, healthcare, safety and social spheres. According to the United Nation Organization?s report about the human capital development, the human capital ratio in such well developed countries like the USA, Finland, Germany, Japan and Switzerland makes about 80 % of the national wealth. Research and development, increased investments into the human capital and hi-tech inventions precisely guarantee those countries the world?s leadership. Summarizing the results of the recent 20-years period of the Russian economy development, unfortunately we have to take a note that, production efficiency and economy of the whole Russia and its northern regions in particular hasn?t increased, but decreased in most cases compared to the soviet period results. The quality of the human capital requires increase of its techno-technological characteristics. Creation of hi-tech productions with the high adding value requires first and foremost contemporary knowledge economy infrastructure that includes: ? Top quality of education; ? Efficient fundamental science; ? Venture business; ? High quality of the human capital; ? Knowledge and new technologies production; ? Knowledge society; ? Infrastructure for the ideas, inventions and researches transfer into production. All the above mentioned is acute and crucial for the Russian northern regions development. The Komi Republic is studying the world?s best practices and establishes professional clusters in order to create efficient productive environment for its economical development.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; innovations; human capital development; quality of education
    Date: 2015–10
  82. By: Mehmet Emin Demir (SELCUK UNIVERSITY); Mehmet Akif Çini (SELCUK UNIVERSITY)
    Abstract: The importance of entrepreneurship has been increasing in our country and in the world day by day. Because entepreneurs take risks when bringing production factors together, turn a work idea into a purchasable product, and have a critical significance in the establishment of SMEs as locomotives of economy which involve 99% of enterprises operating in our country. So entrepreneurs and their SMEs in our country and in the world are of great importance to have economical development and social welfare. Therefore, it is necessary that entrepreneurs and SMEs be supported by the state. Many various institutions give support to entrepreneurs and SMEs in our country. One of the important institutions supporting is KOSGEB (Small and Medium Enterprises Development Organization). KOSGEB has "Entrepreneurship Support Program" aimed at entrepreneurs. In this study, the activities by KOSGEB in the framework of Entrepreneurship Support Program in Konya province will be analyzed via data from the institution; the main objective of the study will show the importance of state support in entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, SMEs, KOSGEB Entrepreneurship Support Program
    JEL: L26 M13
  83. By: Arzu Taylan; Elif Gunduz; Mehmet Akif Sag; Kubra Karkin
    Abstract: This paper will evaluate the outcomes of the economic and sectoral development policies of Turkey in terms of investigating the socio-economic and spatial resilience of Kayseri city-region. In Turkey, economic development was mainly based on the manufacturing sector with a significant rise during the period of 1980-1990s. In recent decade, however, the main economic activity has shifted toward the construction sector. Depending on the limitations of the construction industry in the near future, however, the cities need to develop ?resilience plans?, which consider the sectoral potentials and challenges as well as their influences on physical development and/or settlement patterns by comprising both the urban and rural areas of their regions. In this context, this paper focused on the Kayseri city-region. Indeed, Kayseri, which is known with its innovative entrepreneurship in business, has witnessed certain developments in the manufacture industry, i.e. automotive and furniture sectors during 1980-1990s. Although this change addressed a significant shift toward the new regional policies that can lead success in the competitiveness and global integration, there is seen a sectoral decline in the automotive industry since 2000s. Simultaneously, the construction and service sectors increased, when Kayseri has experienced a significant rural-to-urban migration. That is, the influence of the rise in the construction sector does not only lead a decline in the urban manufacturing sectors, but also a decrease in the rural sectors that accompany to the migration. Moreover, the peripheries of Kayseri metropolitan area that had agricultural character with a contribution into the industry have also been threatened with the speculative activities of the construction industry. Regarding the limitations of the construction industry in the next years, Kayseri needs to define the way of resilient development by means of economic sectors. Thus, the paper will evaluate the resilience of Kayseri city-region in terms of Multi-Criteria Analysis Approach, which provides using several criteria, i.e. limits and potentials in the economic sectors as well as in the social and physical development, and different scales, i.e. regional and metropolitan levels. The data on the economic sectors and spatial development of Kayseri are obtained from local authorities such as regional development agency and metropolitan and district municipalities. Regarding both the characteristics of urban and rural areas, the paper will present firstly a sub-regional zoning, which is based on the existing and potential economic activities with the reasons of migration, proposals for rural development and integration of rural sectors into metropolitan sectors. Then, the paper will focus on the metropolitan area by investigating the potentials of urban economic sectors in association with rural sectors? integration, urban growth patterns and main macro-form decisions.
    Keywords: sectoral changes; socio-spatial resilience; urban growth; regional development
    JEL: R1 R11 R12 R14 R58 N5 N6 N9
    Date: 2015–10
  84. By: Gabueva, Larisa (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Pirogov, M. (Independent)
    Abstract: The rules of the federal regulatory documents are, in our opinion, the practical basis for the development of entrepreneurial projects and public-private partnerships, in accordance with which medical organizations implementing the program of state guarantees must comply with the standard-issue equipment by health care workers to enable them to perform medical services and diagnostics of certain set and quality within the approved standards of treatment of diseases (prevention, rehabilitation, etc.). Lack of targeted sources of federal and regional budgets for the resumption of the material and technical resources for the keeping the standards of care may be subject to revocation of licenses, fines inspection bodies, public complaints. In this regard, the search for alternative sources for purchasing regular equipment and (or) its financial rent (leasing) leads to the development of partnerships with private investors and the need to meet all the standard appointments of treatment entails the search forms to attract private companies to perform them.
    Keywords: healthcare, investments, innovations
    Date: 2014–07–01
  85. By: Hervé Goy (COACTIS - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne)
    Abstract: Contemporary universities would become in thirty years entrepreneurial organizations, able to develop specific strategies. Simultaneously in France, the implementation of a contractual policy does not seem to really have confirmed the existence of such strategies within universities. This article, based on the longitudinal case study of a French university, aims to understand the reasons.
    Abstract: Les universités contemporaines seraient devenues en une trentaine d’années des organisations entreprenantes, à même de développer des stratégies spécifiques. Concomitamment en France, la mise en œuvre d’une politique contractuelle ne semble pas avoir vraiment permis l’affirmation des stratégies universitaires. Cet article, fondé sur l’étude longitudinale du cas d’une université française, vise à en comprendre les raisons.
    Keywords: Strategy,University,Contractual policy,Institutional isomorphism,Stratégie,Université,Politique contractuelle,Isomorphisme institutionnel
    Date: 2015–07
  86. By: Semiha Turgut; Aliye Ahu Akgun
    Abstract: The effect of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth has been a research agenda for the last two decades. Entrepreneurship, by creating employment, fostering competitiveness or affecting employment, somehow contributes to economic development. While entrepreneurship is mostly defined or measured as numbers of self-employed, firm formation, business formation, new firm start-ups, firm births or net entry rates in the empirical studies, regional economic development is defined or measured as, the growth of gross domestic product (GDP), gross value added (GVA) and the change of employment/unemployment rate or productivity. The effect of entrepreneurship on economic growth is mainly seen in two time periods: long term and short term. In the literature, there is evidence on the effect of employment growth in short term and on the effects like crowd-out, displacement, the employment decreases because of the firm closures or employment and productivity growth caused by the new firm formations in long term. The purpose of this article is to find the causality between entrepreneurship and regional economic development in Turkey at the NUTS1 level. In order to reach this aim, entrepreneurship is measured as firm formation and net entry, while regional economic development is measured by GVA, GDP and employment. One of the well-known techniques to identify the causal relations among the variables, correlation is used to measure the length, direction and the weight of the causal affects/relations between regional economic development and entrepreneurship. First, the aim, objectives and detailed framework of this article are given. Then, in the following section, the conceptual and theoretical framework of entrepreneurship and regional economic development is discussed. The case study is given in the third section, with the explanation of data and methodology, a short brief of firm and entrepreneurship policies in Turkey and the effect of entrepreneurship on regional economic development in Turkey at two distinctive periods as 1987-2001 and 2004-2011 separately. This study is the first attempt to show such a relation between entrepreneurship and regional economic growth on the basis of the firm formation. The findings show that the causality between (or effect of) entrepreneurship and regional economic growth changes among regions, which clarifies regional similarities of diversities. Therefore, although the trends of entrepreneurship to affect regional growth in Turkey seem corresponding the findings of the current literature, eastern regions acts differently.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; firm formation; regional economic growth
    JEL: L26 O47
    Date: 2015–10
  87. By: Hanh Vu Thi
    Abstract: Trade liberalization and international economic integration are major and important issues especially to developing countries including Vietnam. They have provided the country with many opportunities such as foreign investment projects from developed countries, an increase in the State budget through taxation on exports and imports, the higher level of employment, which have all contributed to improving the standard living of the people. Since the country's Reform (Doi Moi) in 1986, trade liberalization has brought about an increase export value from 0.78 billion USD in 1986 to more than 72 billion USD in 2010 which accounted for an average of 70% increase to the GDP of Vietnam. Moreover, Vietnamese firms are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of innovation and this is becoming the main driver for Vietnam's deeper participation in regional and global economic integration organization such as ASEAN and WTO. Exports play an important role in Vietnam’s international trade, helping to increase the national revenue and to improve the position of Vietnamese firms in the global value chain. Such an improvement of Vietnam's position in the global value chain means being higher in the chain rather than carrying out simple processing at the low-end. If the production factors which include labor, capital, and fixed assets are analyzed in relation to firms' exports, plausible assessments of Vietnamese firms' contributions to the global chain can be determined. It should be also noted that the country's trade policy reform has affected the structure of Vietnam's exports during periods, has been subject to the effect of the volatile world's trading market and the effect of an emerging giant exporter such as China. However, Vietnam's exports are facing some problems on international trade market for various reasons. Firstly, the export structure continues to be mainly based on primary and labor-intensive products such as the agricultural, forestry, fishery and footwear sectors. Secondly, low value added and labor intensive products account for a large proportion of the total exports since almost all economic sectors of Vietnam are involved in the assembly and simple processing stage of the global value chain. We hope this dissertation can help to constitute a reliable basis for formulating export trade policy. Firstly, there is a need for greater efforts from Vietnamese government to implement social economic structural reform with a special focus on SOEs, in order to strengthen investors' confidence. Secondly, there is also a need to encourage the shift away from labor-intensive export products toward capital-intensive products with special emphasis on innovation in particular through research and development activities of firms. The dissertation studies export trade of a single country namely Vietnam. It is an empirical study, which tests both macro and micro determinants of Vietnamese export trade. Particularly, the dissertation uses export trade data at country and firm level to test hypotheses for each determinant including firm and sector effects. We have extracted a dataset on Vietnam's export trade for the 1997-2009 period via WITS of the World Bank. For firm's gravity model, we used export data of firms from VCO for the 2006-2010 period. We analyzed determinants of firms' exports by combining firms' export data and the data of footwear, rice and wood and wood products firms' characteristics for the year 2008. Since firms' export intensity strictly lies in the unit interval, we transformed it into the type of logit then attempted with the OLS and quantile regression methods. Our dissertation mainly focuses on certain external factors of Vietnamese exports at macro and micro levels and analyzes some important determinants of exporting firms in three sectors namely footwear, rice and wood and wood products. Relevant findings based on empirical analysis serve to suggest policy implications and firms' managerial practices. In general, wealthier nations are preferred destination market for Vietnamese exports because of their higher purchasing power. The government of Vietnam therefore tries to negotiate proactively and conclude trade agreement as well as memorandum of understanding with such countries as these measures facilitate trade for local firms. However, rice firms in particular do not necessarily consider country with the large economy to be their destination market. In fact, there are several reasons for firms to enter international market and to sign contracts such as to improve their net profits, to expand their market share or to develop potential market. Regarding determinants of Vietnamese exporting firms, higher wages reduce a firms' propensity to export in general which significantly affects wood and wood products and footwear firms. Although, in some cases, increasing wages somewhat improve worker's productivity thus increasing export revenue, in other cases for economic reasons, higher wages can not be afforded by employers for manual workers in manufacturing sectors where skilled labor is not essential. Investing in high-tech production technology does not necessarily increase growth in the value of Vietnamese firms' exports in three sectors mentioned. Although, state-owned firms have been granted preferential or priority treatment by the Government, they appears to be less efficient than others. The regression result shows that state-owned firms in all three sectors are lagging in export performance. Ongoing Government support for state-owned, firms may lead to an unfair competitive environment especially for small, privately owned firms since the Government protection of the Government seem to be unreasonable. If full data on firms' exports of in all sectors had been obtained, the author of the dissertation were able to draw conclusions on the determinants for all sectors and compare their effects on exports accordingly. We consider innovation indicators would be interesting particularly for firms located in a developing and emerging country such as Vietnam. Therefore, we need an appropriate survey method to collect information to resolve the missing data problem of the existing database.
    Keywords: research copperation; doing business
    Date: 2015–08–24
  88. By: Antonio Garcia-Tabuenca; Federico Pablo-Martí; Fernando Crecente-Romero
    Abstract: The research on women entrepreneurship has mainly studied these topics: i) the characteristics and motivations (Brush and Hisrich, 1991; Pablo-Martí et al., 2014), ii) the strategic choice (Verheul et al., 2008), iii) the role of leadership (Schwartz, 1976; Justo et al. 2006)), iv) the entry barriers (Brush and Gatewood, 2008), mainly access to funding (Klapper and Parker, 2010), and v) the performance and achieved results (Coleman and Robb, 2009; Díaz and Jiménez, 2010; Crespo-Espert et al., 2012). These topics have been well studied. However, further research on this field is required. The long period of crisis from 2007 on has changed some of the findings related to these issues. This is especially significant in the most affected economies such as those of the southern countries of the EU. In these countries the severity of the crisis has had significant consequences for the productive sector (destruction of companies, high unemployment, credit restrictions) and on public finances under severe uncertainty (sovereign debt crisis, banking crisis). This is generating major changes in productive activity and business competitiveness, which is associated with the deleveraging of companies, as well as the varying prevalence of smaller companies (SMEs) in the economies. In this context, it may be hypothesized that the progress and results of activities led by women entrepreneurs had significant changes between the period before the crisis and the current stage of uncertain recovery. In this paper we analysed the dynamics and evolution of entrepreneurial activity of women in Spain in the period 2003-2013. It includes a stage of strong expansion and other recessive. Also, the research focuses on the differences found in two of the topics listed above: a) the obstacles in accessing to funding and b) the results of businesses women-owned compared to those of male-owned businesses. We made use of the SABI database. It includes information from the commercial registers. It has over one million companies with employees that represent most of the Spanish companies. The samples for this study differentiate whether the company is owned by a man or a woman. These samples are representative for company sizes, sectors and regions. Thus the results that adopt a regional approach can be segmented for a better understanding of the different types of women's businesses. The variables of the study are some financial indicators: credit ratio, debt ratio, productivity, EBITDA over assets, EBITDA over turnover, economic profitability and financial profitability. We employ various dummies to control for differences in size, sector and location of firms. The results allow understanding the different behaviour of women entrepreneurs and its reasons. They can also serve to develop new entrepreneurship policies related to gender in economic recovery.
    Keywords: women entrepreneurs; credit; debt; business results; SMEs; business cycle
    JEL: B54 M21 G30
    Date: 2015–10
  89. By: Anna Arent; Matylda Bojar; Nelson Duarte; Francisco Diniz
    Abstract: This paper analyses the role of SMEs in regional development, focusing the particular case of This paper analyses the role of SMEs in regional development, focusing the particular case of Lublin Region in Poland. By using a questionnaire presented to firms that are operating in manufacturing and construction sectors were analysed several issues related to firms themselves, and their sustainability strategies. The sustainability strategy was measured through the combination of the three main perspectives in sustainable development: Economic, Social, and Environmental. This study aims, in a first stage, to analyse entrepreneurs? view of their role in local and regional development, by the adoption of sustainability strategies at the three identified levels. After that, it will also be explored the relation between sustainable development and other variables such as: business local integration, firm age, number of years in the actual location, or firm legal form. As mentioned, the methodology adopted was the questionnaire, in order to get entrepreneurs opinion. In order to guarantee a valid sample, and considering the number of firms operating in this region, it was calculated the number of a valid sample, and due to the results obtained after a pilot study it was identified a valid sample of 44 questionnaires. However, due to the number of firms operating in the manufacturing and construction businesses (above 34.000) it was decided to collect some more questionnaires. At the end 314 questionnaires answered by managers from SMEs operating the in region of Lublin, acting the in the manufacturing and construction sectors, were accepted for this analysis. As main results it was identified that the major concern of entrepreneurs is related to the economic perspective. The second most important perspective was the environmental and at last the social one. In general the results were very positive. Most of firms present a proactive attitude towards to sustainable development, arguing that they adopt sustainability strategies (Economic, Social, and Environmental) at their management policies and strategies. However it was noticed that while older firms (above 10 years old) present greater concern with social and environmental issues, younger firms, are focusing in the economic perspective.
    Keywords: SMEs; Sustainable Development; Local/Regional Development
    JEL: M10 O14 O18 O44
    Date: 2015–10

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