nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
forty-six papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  2. Multinational firms and the internationalization of green R&D: A review of the evidence and policy implications By Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
  3. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  4. Foreign inventors in the US:\r\n Testing for Diaspora and Brain Gain Effects By Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
  5. Service innovation for sustainability: paths for greening through service innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  6. The L&E of Intellectual Property – Do we get maximum innovation with the current regime? By Ejan Mackaay
  7. Pharmaceutical patents and generic entry competition: the role of marketing exclusivity By MIYAGIWA, Kaz; WAN, Yunyun
  8. Managing radical innovation as an innovative design process: generative constraints and cumulative sets of rules By Pierre-Antoine Arrighi; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  9. Le rôle de la syndication des capital-investisseurs dans le financement de l’innovation, The Role of Venture Capitalists Syndication in the Financing of Innovation By Philippe DESBRIERES
  10. Technology invention and diffusion in residential energy consumption. A stochastic frontier approach By Giovanni Marin; Alessandro Palma
  11. Does Foreign Entry Spur Innovation? By Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
  12. Unpacking investment decisions in biorefineries By Hansen, Teis; Coenen, Lars
  13. Why space matters for collaborative innovation networks. On designing enabling spaces for collaborative knowledge creation By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  14. Multiple forms of applications and impacts of a design theory -ten years of industrial applications of C-K theory By Armand Hatchuel; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil; Marine Agogué; Akin Kazakçi; Sophie Hooge
  15. Stochastic Frontier I & D of fractal dimensions for technological innovation By Maria Ramos-Escamilla
  16. Generic technique and the dynamics of technologies: using matroid and design theory to design techniques with systemic impact By Pascal Le Masson; Armand Hatchuel; Olga Kokshagina; Benoit Weil
  17. Pacts for Employment and Competitiveness as a Role Model? Their Effects on Firm Performance By John T. Addison; Paulino Teixeira; Katalin Evers; Lutz Bellmann
  18. Culinary Tourism in Greece: Can the past define the future? A comparative analysis by using 10 case studies By Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore
  19. Patent Boxes Design, Patents Location and Local R&D By Annette Alstadsæter; Salvador Barrios; Gaetan Nicodeme; Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna; Antonio Vezzani
  20. Technology invention and diffusion in residential energy consumption. A stochastic frontier approach. By Giovanni Marin; Alessandro Palma
  21. The antecedents of corporate sustainability performance By Salina Daud
  22. Does EMAS foster innovation in European firms? An empirical investigation By Fabio Montobbio; Ilaria Solito
  23. The OECD's "Action Plan" to Raise Taxes on Multinational Corporations By Gary Clyde Hufbauer; Euijin Jung; Tyler Moran; Martian Vieiro
  24. Combining Knowledge and Capabilities across Borders and Nationalities: Evidence from the inventions applied through PCT By TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao
  25. The free-rider problem and the optimal duration of research joint ventures: theory and evidence from the Eureka program By MIYAGIWA, Kaz; SISSOKO, Amy; SONG, Huasheng
  26. Shedding Light on Inventors' Returns to Patents By Depalo, Domenico; Di Addario, Sabrina
  27. Mindful Deviation through Combining Causation and Effectuation: A Design Theory-Based Study of Technology Entrepreneurship By Marine Agogue; Mats Lundqvist; Karen Williams Middleton
  28. Does Informal Learning at Work Differ between Temporary and Permanent Workers? Evidence from 20 OECD Countries By Ferreira Sequeda, Maria; de Grip, Andries; Van der Velden, Rolf
  29. The diversity of carmakers\' behaviors vis-a-vis the Corporate Venture Capital By Vincent FRIGANT; Marina FLAMAND
  30. The Comparative Economics of Catch-Up in Output per worker, total factor productivity and technological gain in Sub-Saharan Africa By John Ssozi; Simplice Asongu
  31. Developing Danube R&I Projects across Borders – How to Make the Joint Use of EU-Funds a Reality? By Ales Gnamus; Fatime Barbara Hegyi; Susana Elena Pérez
  32. Evolving the future by learning from the future (as it emerges)? Toward an epistemology of change By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  33. Geography, Ties, and Knowledge Flows: Evidence from Citations in Mathematics By Yao Amber Li; Keith Head; Asier Minondo
  34. Improving Asian Students’ Writing Skills through TELL Environment: What makes the difference? By Wadinlada Thuratham; Dararat Khampusaen
  35. Time-intensive R&D and unbalanced trade By Philip Ulrich Sauré
  36. Learning how to innovate as a socio-epistemological process of co-creation. Towards a constructivist teaching strategy for innovation By Peschl, Markus F.; Bottaro, Gloria; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Rötzer, Katharina
  37. Vers un cadre d’analyse institutionnaliste de la politique de filière : Quelle cohérence pour la politique de filière française ? By Guillaume ASSOGBA; Samuel KLEBANER
  38. Health, Medical Innovation and Disability Insurance: A Case Study of HIV Antiretroviral Therapy By Perry Singleton
  39. Urban Networks: Spreading the Flow of Goods, People, and Ideas By Glaeser, Edward L; Ponzetto, Giacomo AM; Zou, Yimei
  40. Portfolio management in double unknown situations: technological platformsand the role of cross-application managers By Olga Kokshagina; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil
  41. Lieferanteninnovationen und Unternehmensperformance: Eine Tertiärstudie zur kooperativen Produktentwicklung By Ries, J. M.; Grosse, E. H.; Hochrein, S.
  42. The Key Challenge for Canadian Public Policy: Generating Inclusive and Sustainable Economic Growth By Don Drummond; Evan Capeluck; Matthew Calver
  43. Do individuals’ risk and time preferences predict entrepreneurial choice? By Cook, William; Whittle, Richard
  44. Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (MAFEIP) - Conceptual description of the Monitoring and Assessment Framework for the EIP on AHA By Fabienne Abadie; Christian Boehler
  45. Financing social ventures by crowdfunding: The influence of entrepreneurs’ personality traits By Susana Bernardino; J. Freitas Santos
  46. Renewable Energy Policies and the Solar Home System in Cambodia By Han Phoumin

  1. By: BELDERBOS, René; GILSING, Victor; SUZUKI, Shinya
    Abstract: Extant literature on firm-university collaboration has emphasized two different strategies that firms in science based industries adopt in order to source scientific knowledge and expertise. On the one hand, firms engage in direct research collaborations with universities. On the other hand, firms establish indirect, mediated, ties to universities by engaging in research collaborations with dedicated biotech firms (DBFs) that are themselves strongly linked to universities - with the DBF taking the role of ‘broker’. We argue that the relative benefits of direct and mediated ties depend on the extent to which firms have organized their R&D to facilitate the absorption, assimilation, transformation and exploitation of scientific knowledge, which we coin ‘scientific absorptive capacity’. Drawing on patent and publication data in a panel of 33 vertically integrated pharmaceutical firms, we find that direct university collaboration is more beneficial for firms with relatively high scientific absorptive capacity, while only mediated ties are associated with greater innovative performance for firms with relatively low scientific absorptive capacity. The latter association is reduced if the mediated ties are with top universities. Our findings are suggestive of the importance of a ‘fit’ between the nature of a firm’s R&D organization and its strategy to access scientific knowledge.
    Keywords: R&D collaboration, alliance portfolios, industry-science linkages, scientific absorptive capacity
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Joëlle Noailly; David Ryfisch
    Abstract: This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the internationalization of green R&D by multinational firms (MNCs), as measured by patents data. Using data on inventors’ addresses for the set of 1,200 MNCs firms patenting in green technologies over the 2004-2009 period, we find that about 17% of green patents result from MNCs R&D investments conducted outside their home countries. MNCs tend to locate their foreign green R&D activities in other OECD markets and in China, in particular in lightings and solar technologies. The empirical analysis reveals that the probability of conducting green R&D abroad increases with the host country’s stringency of environmental regulation, market size and (green) R&D intensity. Also, relatively lower wages for scientists and engineers, and stronger protection for intellectual property rights in the host country increase the likelihood for MNCs to offshore green R&D. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of this changing global innovation landscape.
    Keywords: Energy; R&D; Multinationals; Globalization.
    JEL: Q4 Q55 O33
    Date: 2014–02–19
  3. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
    Abstract: We assess the role of ethnic ties in the diffusion of technical knowledge by means of a database of patent filed by US-resident inventors of foreign origin, which we identify through name analysis. We consider ten important countries of origin of highly skilled migration to the US, both Asian and European, and test whether foreign inventors’ patents are disproportionately cited by: (i) co-ethnic migrants (“diaspora” effect); and (ii) inventors residing in their country of origin (“brain gain” effect). We find evidence of the diaspora effect for Asian countries, but not for European ones, with the exception of Russia. Diaspora effects do not translate necessarily into a brain gain effect, most notably for India; nor brain gain occurs only in presence of diaspora effects. Both the diaspora and the brain gain effects bear less weight than other knowledge transmission channels, such as co-invention networks and multinational companies.
    Keywords: migration, brain gain, diaspora, diffusion, inventors, patents
    JEL: F22 O15 O31
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to examine the extent to which services and service innovation can contribute to sustainable development in its environmental dimension. The supposed immateriality of services seems to argue in favour of their natural sustainability. This is actually just a myth – one we examine the roots of, and which we refute. This calling into question of the naturally-green-servicesmyth does not, however, mean that the greening of the economy cannot rely on services. On the contrary, greening also fundamentally depends on innovation dynamics being implemented in or by services.
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Ejan Mackaay
    Abstract: Innovation is crucial to economic growth – the essential path for lifting much of the world population out of dire poverty and for maintaining the living standard of those who already have. To stimulate innovation, the legal system has to support the means through which innovators seek to get rewarded for their efforts and risks taken. Amongst these means, some, such as the first mover advantage or 'lead time,' are not directly legal; but secrets and intellectual property rights are legal institutions supported for the specific purpose of stimulating innovation. Whilst the protection of secrets has not changed very much over recent years, intellectual property (or IP) has. IP borrows some features from ordinary property rights, but is also distinct, in that, unlike physical goods, information, the object of IP, is not inherently scarce; indeed as information and communication technologies expand, the creation and distribution of information is becoming ever cheaper and in many circumstances abundant, so that selection is of the essence ('on the internet, point of view is everything'). New information builds on already existing information. Where rights on information extend too far, their monopolising effect may hamper innovation. The paper investigates the underlying structure of IP rights and surveys what we know empirically about the incentive effects of IP as about industries that flourish without formal IP. L'innovation est essentielle à la croissance économique, elle-même la voie obligée pour faire sortir une grande partie de la population mondiale de la misère et pour maintenir le niveau de vie des personnes qui en sont déjà sorties. Pour stimuler l'innovation, le système juridique doit soutenir les moyens par lesquels les innovateurs cherchent rémunération de leurs efforts et des risques pris. Parmi ceux-ci, certains comme l'« avance de départ » ne sont pas directement juridiques; mais le secret commercial et la propriété intellectuelle sont des institutions juridiques soutenues dans le but précis de stimuler l'innovation. Alors que la protection des secrets n'a pas beaucoup évolué au cours des ans, la propriété intellectuelle (PI) l'a bien. La propriété intellectuelle emprunte certains traits de la propriété classique des biens matériels, mais est aussi distincte, en ce que, contrairement aux biens matériels, l'information – l'objet de la PI – n'est pas par nature rare ; en fait, à mesure que les technologies de l'information et des communications s'étendent, la création et la distribution de l'information devient toujours moins chère. Dans certains cas, l'information devient même abondante à telle enseigne que la sélection et essentielle ('on the internet, point of view is everything'). L'information nouvelle s'appuie sur de l'information déjà disponible. Là où les droits sur l'information, et notamment la PI, s'étendent trop loin, leurs effets monopolisateurs risquent d'interférer avec l'innovation. Le texte examine la structure sous-jacente des droits de propriété intellectuelle et fait un survol de ce que nous savons de manière « empirique » sur les effets incitatifs de la PI de même que des industries qui prospèrent sans droit de propriété intellectuelle formel.
    Keywords: intellectual property – copyright – innovation, propriété intellectuelle, droit d'auteur, innovation
    JEL: K00 K29 L17 O31 O34
    Date: 2015–09–15
  7. By: MIYAGIWA, Kaz; WAN, Yunyun
    Abstract: Extensive tests required by FDA severely curtail effective patent length for innovation drugs, raising concern that incentives to develop new drugs are insufficient in the U.S. The Hatch-Waxman Act addresses this issue with a five-year patent extension. At the same time, Hatch-Waxman promotes generic entry by reducing the entry cost for generics and by granting 180-day marketing exclusivity to a first challenger of the patent. While these two objectives seem at odds with other, we show that if the entry cost reduction is substantial, granting the marketing exclusivity also contributes to restoration of incentives to innovate. However, market exclusivity most likely decreases social welfare.
    Keywords: innovation, generic entry competition, patent, pharmaceuticals
    JEL: I18 K23 L13
    Date: 2015–08–21
  8. By: Pierre-Antoine Arrighi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the organization of design processes and the difficulty of simultaneously achieving control and exploration while aiming to achieve radical innovation. After a first generation of works that tended to oppose NPD processes (with controlled convergence and very limited exploration) to Innovation processes (with poorly controlled convergence and random (uncontrolled) exploration, the new generation of works proposed ways to combine control and convergence either through concept shift or through stable architectures. Relying a generic analytical framework (design space / value management) it appears that each model makes restrictive hypotheses (respectively smart leadership or stable architecture) to address two critical questions: Q1. How can one increase the efficiency of exploration? Q2. How can one ensure forms of cumulative convergence? Relying on the ame analytical framework we analyze two cases that explore the unknown in a controlled way and still don't correspond two either of the two models. We show that these two anomalies and the two models actually have two critical features in common: a focus on generative constraint and a logic of cumulative design rules. As a consequence these two features might generic to several processes where teams have to explore the unknown and still have to keep a rigorous control of exploration and convergence.
    Keywords: concept shift,modular innovation,Radical innovation,design process,design theory
    Date: 2015–08–31
  9. By: Philippe DESBRIERES (IAE DIJON - Université de Bourgogne (CREGO))
    Abstract: (VF) La pratique de la syndication est notablement développée dans le métier du capital-investissement, quel que soit le stade de développement, le secteur d’activité et la nationalité de l’entreprise financée. La syndication s’explique autant par des arguments financiers (partage des risques entre capital-investisseurs ; gouvernance du management de l’entreprise financée...) que par la nécessité d’une part, d’accéder à des ressources (informations, compétences) en matière de sélection et de surveillance des investissements et, d’autre part, de partager, voire créer, des connaissances. L’objectif de cette synthèse de la littérature est d’étudier dans quelle mesure cette pratique favorise ou contraint l’innovation et son financement dans les firmes entrepreneuriales. (VA) Syndication is a highly developed practice in the venture capital industry, whatever are the stage of development, the industry sector and the nationality of the financed company. It can be explained by financial arguments (sharing of risks between venture capitalists; governance of managemers of the financed firm) as well as by the necessity, on the one hand, to reach resources (information, skills) regarding selection and control of the investments and, on the other hand, to share or create knowledge. The objective of this survey is to study to what extent this practice favor or limit innovation and its financing within entrepreneurial firms.
    Keywords: capital-investissement, syndication, innovation, financement;Venture Capital, Syndication, Innovation, Financing
    JEL: G24 L26 O31
    Date: 2015–05
  10. By: Giovanni Marin (IRCrES-CNR, Milano (Italy)); Alessandro Palma (IEFE-Bocconi, Milano (Italy))
    Abstract: Traditional large appliances absorb a large share of residential electricity consumption and represent important targets of energy policy strategies aimed at achieving energy security. Despite being characterized by rather mature technologies, this group of appliances still offers large potential in terms of efficiency gains due to their pervasive diffusion. In this paper we analyse the electricity consumption of a set of four traditional ‘white goods’ in a panel of ten EU countries observed over 21 years (1990-2010), with the aim of disentangling the amount of technical efficiency from the overall energy saving. The technical efficiency trend is modelled through a set of technology components representing both the invention and adoption process by the means of specific patents weighted by production and bilateral import flows, which allows to overcome the rigid Stochastic Frontier framework in modelling the effect of technical change. Our results show that the derived energy demand and inefficiency trends are both related to changes in the amount of available technology embodied in energy efficient appliances. The effect is significant both in its domestic and international components and suggests an active role of innovation and trade policies for achieving efficiency targets which directly impact the amount of electricity consumed by households.
    Keywords: energy efficiency, technological diffusion, electrical appliances, stochastic frontier analysis, residential sector
    JEL: O33 Q55 Q41
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
    Abstract: Our estimates, based on large firm-level and industry-level data sets from eighteen countries, suggest that FDI and trade have strong positive spillover effects on product and technology innovation by domestic firms in emerging markets. The FDI effect is more pronounced for firms from advanced economies. Moreover, our results indicate that the spillover effects can be detected with micro data at the firm-level, but that using linkage variables computed from input-output tables at the industry level yields much weaker, and usually insignificant, estimated effects. These patterns are consistent with spillover effects being rather proximate and localized.
    JEL: F2 M16 O16 P23
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Hansen, Teis (Department of Human Geography & CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU)); Coenen, Lars (CIRCLE, Lund University; Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU))
    Abstract: The development and diffusion of biorefineries is a central factor in the transition towards a bioeconomy. Such biorefineries, which produce multiple products based on biological material, are heralded as an important opportunity for renewal of the pulp and paper industry in developed countries, facing increasing competition and environmental requirements. However, pulp and paper firms have only made few investments in biorefineries. <p> Examining investment decision in Swedish and Finnish pulp and paper firms, this paper highlights the importance of considering decision-making processes within companies in order to understand the limited diffusion of biorefinery technologies. Further, the paper identifies organisational innovations in the form of new divisions, forward vertical integration, and creation of new value chain relations as central to commercialisation of biorefinery technologies. Theoretically, it argues that the technological innovation systems framework should be complemented with insights on decision-making processes within companies in order to understand the development of emerging technologies.
    Keywords: Biorefineries; investment decisions; organisational innovation; pulp and paper industry
    JEL: L73 O31 O33 Q55
    Date: 2015–09–11
  13. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: As opposed to managing or controlling innovation processes, this paper proposes the notion of enabling as a more suitable approach to innovation. As a consequence, the concept of Enabling Spaces is introduced as a space that is designed in such a way that it enables and facilitates processes of collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. In that context a rather broad notion of space is applied: It goes far beyond architectural/physical space by integrating social, cognitive, emotional, organizational, and epistemological dimensions in an interdisciplinary manner. Both the theoretical background and the methodological approach and design process will be presented. Furthermore, we will discuss a case for an Enabling Space which functions as a collaborative innovation network. It will turn out that Enabling Spaces and Collaborative Innovation Networks (COINs) share a lot of characteristics, attitudes, and values.
    Keywords: cognition, collaboration, design, Enabling Space, extended cognition, innovation, knowledge creation, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Armand Hatchuel (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Marine Agogué (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Akin Kazakçi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Sophie Hooge (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: C-K theory has been developed by Armand Hatchuel and Benoit Weil and then by other researchers since 1990s. In this paper we show that its very abstract nature and its high degree of universality actually supported a large variety of industrial applications. We distinguish three types of applications: 1) C-K theory provides a new language, that supports new analysis and descriptive capacity and new teachable individual models of thoughts; 2) C-K theory provides a very general framework to better characterize the validity domain and the performance conditions of existing methods, leading to potential improvement of these methods; 3) C-K theory is the conceptual model at the root of new design methods that are today largely used in the industry.
    Keywords: engineering design,design theory impact,creativity,Design theory,C-K theory
    Date: 2015–08–01
  15. By: Maria Ramos-Escamilla
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the study variables such as gdp, employment levels, the level of R & D and technology that will serve as the basis for stochastic modeling of production possibilities frontier in the goodness of fractal dimensions Ex Ante and Ex Post a priori to determine the levels of causality immediately and check its accuracy and power of indexing, using high frequency data and thus address the response this assumption of stochastic frontiers with level N of partitions in time.
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Armand Hatchuel (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Olga Kokshagina (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: As underlined in Arthur’s book “the nature of technology” we are very knowledgeable on the design of objects, services or technical systems, but we don’t know much on the dynamics of technologies. Still contemporary innovation often consists in designing techniques with systemic impact. They are pervasive– both invasive and perturbing-, they recompose the family of techniques. Can we model the impact and the design of such techniques? More specifically: how can one design generic technology, ie a single technology that provokes a complete reordering of families of techniques? Recent advances in design theories open new possibilities to answer these questions. In this paper we use C-K design theory and a matroid-based model of the set of techniques to propose a new model (C-K/Ma) of the dynamics of techniques, accounting for the design of generic technologies. We show: • F1: C-K/Ma offers a computational model for designing a technique with systemic impact. • F2: C-K/Ma accounts for some phenomena associated to generic technology design. • F3: C-K/Ma offers an efficient guide for the design of technologies with systemic impact, based on generativity and genericity criteria
    Keywords: matroid , generic technique ,design theory , generativity
    Date: 2015–07–27
  17. By: John T. Addison (University of South Carolina, Durham University, University of Coimbra/GEMF, and IZA Bonn.); Paulino Teixeira (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra/GEMF and IZA Bonn); Katalin Evers (Institute for Employment Research (IAB)); Lutz Bellmann (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, IAB and IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: Pacts for employment and competitiveness are an integral component of the ongoing process of decentralization of collective bargaining in Germany, a phenomenon that has been hailed as key to that nation's economic resurgence. Yet little is known about the effects of pacts on firm performance. The evidence largely pertains to employment and is decidedly mixed. The present paper investigates the association between pacts and a wider set of outcomes – wages, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, and survivability – in a RDD framework where the controls comprise establishments that negotiated over pacts but failed to reach agreement on their implementation. An extensive set of simulations are run to test for robustness of the key findings of the model. There is no evidence of pacts negatively impacting any of the selected measures of establishment performance. Indeed, the positive effects reported for wages, productivity, and innovation are sustained in simulations.
    Keywords: pacts for employment and competitiveness, concession bargaining, opening clauses decentralization, firm performance, regression discontinuity design, Germany.
    JEL: D22 J3 J41 J50 J53
    Date: 2015–09
  18. By: Karagiannis, Dimitris; Metaxas, Theodore
    Abstract: This paper examines the possibility that gastronomy, based on ancient Greek values, could be part of the answer for economic prosperity through the development of food tourism in a country with harsh economic environment such as Greece. We examine if local food, culture and tourism could become great fields of new entrepreneurial and thus regional development when paired with knowledge, innovation and quality. We shall examine what the historical background on ideas such as gastronomy, entrepreneurship, and innovation in ancient Greek culture; in order prove that the answer to contemporary business practicing might be hidden in the history of the country. Real examples of innovative entrepreneurship related to gastronomy will be presented as case studies. By analyzing them, we will prove that there is an answer for potential business growth, when tailor-made solutions are applied that take into account the unique characteristics of a place while utilizing its competitive advantages.
    Keywords: culinary tourism, gastronomy, economic development, comparative analysis, Greece
    JEL: O20 R11 R58 Z19
    Date: 2015
  19. By: Annette Alstadsæter (University of Oslo); Salvador Barrios (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Gaetan Nicodeme (European Commission DG TAXUD); Agnieszka Maria Skonieczna (European Commission DG TAXUD); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: Patent boxes have been heavily debated for their role in corporate tax competition. This paper uses firm-level data for the period 2000-2011 for the top 2,000 corporate research and development (R&D) investors worldwide to consider the determinants of patent registration across a large sample of countries. Importantly, we disentangle the effects of corporate income taxation from the tax advantage of patent boxes. We also exploit a new and original dataset on patent box features such as the conditionality on performing research in the country, and their scope. We find that patent boxes have a considerable effect on attracting patents, mostly because of their favourable tax treatment, especially for high-quality patents. Patent boxes with a large scope in terms of tax base definition also have stronger effects on the location of patents. The size of the tax advantage offered through patent box regimes is found to deter local innovative activities, whereas R&D development conditions tend to attenuate this adverse effect. Our simulations show that, on average, countries imposing such development conditions tend to grant a tax advantage that is slightly greater than optimal from a local R&D impact perspective.
    Keywords: Corporate taxation; patent boxes; location; patents; R&D; nexus approach
    JEL: F21 F23 H25 H73 O31 O34
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Giovanni Marin; Alessandro Palma
    Abstract: Traditional large appliances absorb a large share of residential electricity consumption and represent important targets of energy policy strategies aimed at achieving energy security. Despite being characterized by rather mature technologies, this group of appliances still offers large potential in terms of efficiency gains due to their pervasive diffusion. In this paper we analyse the electricity consumption of a set of four traditional ‘white goods’ in a panel of ten EU countries observed over 21 years (1990-2010), with the aim of disentangling the amount of technical efficiency from the overall energy saving. The technical efficiency trend is modelled through a set of technology components representing both the invention and adoption process by the means of specific patents weighted by production and bilateral import flows, which allows to overcome the rigid Stochastic Frontier framework in modelling the effect of technical change. Our results show that the derived energy demand and inefficiency trends are both related to changes in the amount of available technology embodied in energy efficient appliances. The effect is significant both in its domestic and international components and suggests an active role of innovation and trade policies for achieving efficiency targets which directly impact the amount of electricity consumed by households.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency, technological diffusion, electrical appliances, stochastic frontier analysis, residential sector
    JEL: O33 Q55 Q41
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Salina Daud (Universiti Tenaga Nasional)
    Abstract: Climate change and global warming are major challenges for Malaysia as well as for companies. Companies are fronting growing pressure to become greener or more environmentally friendly. Due to pressure from consumers and government, companies need to review their production processes. Consequently, they have to apply the concept of sustainable development in their policies and plans. The objective of this study is to examine three dimensions, mainly, knowledge management, eco-innovation and corporate sustainability performance to support sustainability environment. Creating sustainability environment is one of the main agendas in Malaysia Plan. The study focuses on examining the effect of knowledge management strategy on eco-innovation; the effect of knowledge management strategy on corporate sustainability performance; the effect of eco-innovation on corporate sustainability performance; and the mediating effect of eco-innovation on knowledge management strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Halal pharmaceutical companies were chosen as a sample in the study. Data were collected using survey questions and were analysed using Smart PLS. Results show that strategic KM contributes significantly to eco-innovation but does not contribute significantly to corporate sustainability performance. Eco-innovation significantly affects corporate sustainability performance and it mediates the relationship between strategic knowledge management and corporate sustainability performance. It is suggested that pharmaceutical companies in the study need to enhance the creating, sharing and utilizing of implicit and explicit knowledge in order to enhance companies’ corporate sustainability performance.
    Keywords: Knowledge management, codification, personalization, eco-innovation, corporate sustainability performance.
    JEL: M20
  22. By: Fabio Montobbio (Università di Torino (Italy), CRIOS – Università L. Bocconi, Milano (Italy)); Ilaria Solito (Laboratoire RITM, Université Paris Sud, Faculté Jean Monnet (France))
    Abstract: This paper aims at analyzing whether environmental management systems can spur innovation at firm level, by providing new empirical evidence on the relationship between EMAS (Eco Management and Audit Scheme) and patented innovation. In applying a Negative Binomial model with Fixed Effect, we estimate the number of granted patents using EMAS as key explanatory variable. The relationship between EMAS and innovation is studied by using an original panel database composed by 30439 European firms belonging to all sectors and size. Moreover, we use an original instrumental variable to control for potential endogeneity. The analysis reveals that EMAS is positively correlated with innovation at firm level, although the results vary across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: Innovation; Environmental management systems; Patents; Eco-Management and Audit Scheme
    Date: 2015–09
  23. By: Gary Clyde Hufbauer (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Euijin Jung (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Tyler Moran (Peterson Institute for International Economics); Martian Vieiro (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: Hufbauer and colleagues critically evaluate the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s ambitious multipart project titled Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), which contains 15 "Actions" to prevent multinational corporations (MNCs) from escaping their "fair share" of the tax burden. Spurred by G-20 finance ministers, the OECD recommends changes in national legislation, revision of existing bilateral tax treaties, and a new multilateral agreement for participating countries. The proposition that MNCs need to pay more tax enjoys considerable political resonance as government budgets are strained, the world economy is struggling, income inequality is rising, and the news media have publicized instances of corporations legally lowering their global tax burdens by reporting income in low-tax jurisdictions and expenses in high-tax jurisdictions. Given that the US system taxes MNCs more heavily than other advanced countries and provides fewer tax incentives for research and development (R&D), implementation of the BEPS Actions would drive many MNCs to relocate their headquarters to tax-friendly countries and others to offshore significant amounts of R&D activity.
    Keywords: Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS), Corporate Taxes, International Taxation, Tax Policy
    JEL: H26 K34
    Date: 2015–09
  24. By: TSUKADA Naotoshi; NAGAOKA Sadao
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how co-inventions with foreign residents and/or foreign-born inventors contribute to the inventive performance, using the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) applications. We find that combining inventors across borders and nationalities have become important in major industrialized countries, especially in the sectors where science is important for inventions. Both inventions with foreign-born inventors and those with foreign resident inventors have high science linkages, controlling for the sectors. We also find that the inventions based on such collaborations have high performance in terms of forward citations (but not in terms of the geographic scope of patent protection), relative to the inventions by the purely domestic team. These effects diminish but remain significant even if we control for firm fixed effects. However, these effects disappear once we control for the first inventor fixed effects, indicating the possibility that the matching between the high performing domestic inventors and the foreign resident and/or foreign-born inventors plays an important role.
    Date: 2015–09
  25. By: MIYAGIWA, Kaz; SISSOKO, Amy; SONG, Huasheng
    Abstract: In a research joint venture (RJV), members' contributions consist mostly of personnel and proprietary technical know-how. Since the quantity and quality of such contributions are difficult to verify, each member has the temptation to free-ride on others' contributions. In this paper we show that a RJV can resolve this free-rider problem by pre-committing to its duration. Our model predicts, among others, that a RJV chasing a higher-cost innovation tends to have a shorter duration. We then utilize data from the European Eureka program to investigate the factors determining the durations of Eureka RJVs. We find the Eureka data consonant with the prediction of our model.
    Keywords: Research joint venture (RJV), Free-rider problem, Unobservable R&D, Collusion, Stability of RJVs
    JEL: D82 L1 L2
    Date: 2015–05
  26. By: Depalo, Domenico; Di Addario, Sabrina
    Abstract: We estimate individual returns to patents using a unique longitudinal administrative dataset on patents and earnings, following individuals and rms for 20 years (1987-2006). We nd that inventors' wages steadily increase before patent applications are submitted to the EPO, peak in the year preceding their ling, and then decrease again. We take the fact that earnings peak at t-1 instead of at t as a bureaucratic delay between the time the invention really takes place and the time when the rm submits the application. We also nd that the applications that will eventually lead to a granted patent receive a greater wage increase than those who will not. Finally, we use an event study framework to distinguish among inventor-types, and we nd that the \star-inventors" (the employees submitting at least three times in their life) receive a lasting wage premium, while the employees with one or two submissions stop receiving the premium after the application date.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, patents, wages, incentives, inventors, perfomances pay, return
    Date: 2014–08–01
  27. By: Marine Agogue (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Mats Lundqvist (Department of Computational Biology, School of Computer Science and Communication); Karen Williams Middleton (Chalmers - Chalmers University of Technology - Chalmers University of Technology)
    Abstract: Technology entrepreneurship can be seen as building upon while also deviating from technological paths. Such deviation has primarily been described as singular events where individuals with prior knowledge discover a new opportunity. In this article, we will instead study deviation as a process of collective decision making, seen more as something mindful than singular. The purpose is to explore mindful deviation as decision-making by nascent technology entrepreneurs as they conceptualize an early platform technology. Based on case assignments undertaken by 13 teams in a venture creation program, C-K design theory is used to trace how nascent technology entrepreneurs in action combine causal and effectual decision-making logics. Individually answered questionnaires also offered insights on how the entrepreneurs perceived their decision-making in hindsight. The findings break with our received wisdom around how opportunities are recognized as well as how effectual and causal logics occur. As a result, mindful deviation through combinations of effectual and causal logic is suggested as a means to understand early-stage technology entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: nascent,design theory,entrepreneurship,technology,effectuation
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Ferreira Sequeda, Maria (ROA, Maastricht University); de Grip, Andries (ROA, Maastricht University); Van der Velden, Rolf (ROA, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Several studies have shown that employees with temporary contracts have lower training participation than those with permanent contracts. There is, however, no empirical literature on the difference in informal learning on the job between permanent and temporary workers. In this paper, we analyse this difference across 20 OECD countries using unique data from the recent PIAAC survey. Using a control function model with endogenous switching, we find that workers in temporary jobs engage in informal learning more intensively than their counterparts in permanent employment, although the former are, indeed, less likely to participate in formal training activities. In addition, we find evidence for complementarity between training and informal learning for both temporary and permanent employees. Our findings suggest that temporary employment need not be dead-end jobs. Instead, temporary jobs of high learning content could be a stepping stone towards permanent employment. However, our results also suggest that labour market segmentation in OECD countries occurs within temporary employment due to the distinction between jobs with low and high learning opportunities.
    Keywords: temporary contracts, informal learning, training, human capital investments
    JEL: E24 J24 J41
    Date: 2015–09
  29. By: Vincent FRIGANT; Marina FLAMAND
    Abstract: This paper wishes to contribute to the literature about the industrial firms\' motivations to invest in Corporate Venture Capital programs. In a first part, we build a typology on CVC objectives based on a literature review. Then we apply this typology to carmakers’ CVC programs. We study 13 worldwide car manufacturers. Results show a poor interest of car makers vis-à-vis CVC programs. However, the existing programs show that strategic objectives are the most common objectives even if some others objectives are also pursued, like the “relational objective”. Summarizing the results, we identify four typical behaviors of carmakers vis-à-vis CVC programs. We conclude by a discussion about the automotive industry specificity, and we call upon other sectoral studies based on a qualitative method.The diversity of carmakers\' behaviors vis-a-vis the Corporate Venture Capital
    Keywords: Corporate Venture Capital, CVC, Innovation, Automotive, Investment strategy, Entrepreneurial Finance
    JEL: G3 G34 L62 M13
    Date: 2015
  30. By: John Ssozi (Baylor University, USA); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: After investigating the effect of external financial flows on total factor productivity and technological gain, we use the beta catch-up and sigma convergence to compare dispersions in output per worker, total factor productivity and technological gain in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) for the years 1980-2010. The comparative evidence is articulated with income levels, years of schooling, and health factors. We find; first, a positive association between foreign direct investment, trade openness, foreign aid, remittances and total factor productivity. However, when foreign direct investment is interacted with schooling, it is direct effect becomes negative on total factor productivity. Second, beta catch-up is between19.22% and 19.70% per annum with corresponding time to full catch-up of 25.38 years and 26.01 years respectively. Third, we find sigma-convergence among low-income nations and upper-middle income nations separately, but not for the entire sample together. Fourth, schooling in SSA is not yet a significant source of technology, but it can make external financial inflows more effective. Policies to induce external financial flows are not enough for development if absorptive capacity is low. More policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: External capital flows, Human capital, Total Factor Productivity, Convergence, and Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: E23 O33 O55
    Date: 2015–09
  31. By: Ales Gnamus (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fatime Barbara Hegyi (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Susana Elena Pérez (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief analyses the opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed and handled with an integrated approach in order to assure a well-supported and effective transnational cooperation in the Danube macro-region. Cooperation among Danube countries has particular importance as regards to coordination of Research and Innovation (R&I) activities since they contribute significantly to competitiveness and economic growth of the macro-region and are at the same time the areas where cooperation and knowledge sharing across borders may crucially contribute to achieving best results. The purpose of this Policy Brief is to identify and examine the key issues that can contribute to the enhanced R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region. On the other hand the report also briefly summarizes discussions among the experts at the workshop organised by DG REGIO and DG JRC in Brussels in April 2014. The report thus aims to take a stock of the state-of-the art of the current Danube cooperation activities and provide some guidance to the stakeholders on how to best enhance R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region. The guide attempts to highlight some concrete suggestions on how to better implement governance mechanisms of transnational R&I cooperation, to revise the existing financing tools of cross-border and transnational cooperation in support of the project holders, and points out some synergies between EU funding sources that may be exploited to facilitate transnational R&I cooperation in the Danube macro-region.
    Keywords: Danube region, research and innovation, synergies, transnational cooperation, EU funds
    Date: 2014–07
  32. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: At the core of Wilson et al.´s paper stands the question of intentional change. We propose to extend this notion by introducing concepts from the domains of innovation and knowledge creation. By going beyond their ACT approach we present a comprehensive framework for a theory of change culminating in the change strategy of “learning from the future as it emerges”.
    Keywords: Design | Innovation | Epistemologie | Innovation | future | epistemology | Presencing | emergent innovation | learning | double-loop learning
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  33. By: Yao Amber Li (Department of Economics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Institute for Emerging Market Studies, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Keith Head (Sander School of Business, University of British Columbia); Asier Minondo
    Abstract: Using data on academic citations, career and educational histories of mathematicians, and disaggregated distance data for the world's top 1000 math departments, we study how geography and ties affect knowledge flows among scholars. The ties we consider are coauthorship, past colocation, advisor-mediated relationships, and alma mater relationships (holding a Ph.D. from the institution where another scholar is affiliated). Logit regressions using fixed effects that control for subject similarity, article quality, and temporal lags, show linkages are strongly associated with citation. Controlling for ties generally halves the negative impact of geographic barriers on citations; the distance effect became insignificant after 2004.
    Keywords: network, distance, border, geography, knowledge flows, academic citations, genealogy, matching
    JEL: O3 F1 R1
    Date: 2015–09
  34. By: Wadinlada Thuratham (Khon Kaen University); Dararat Khampusaen (Khon Kaen University)
    Abstract: Technology-enhanced language learning (TELL) has played an importantly integral tool in providing EFL students with valuable language experiences in language classrooms. Since the introduction of recording machine for pronunciation in 1970s’, teaching and learning innovation has been advanced and moved forward with an interesting pace. It is however an unanswered question whether teaching innovation can make any true advantages to Asian students who have typically been familiar with a spoon-feeding learning approach. This study focuses on technology-enabled lessons as a supplemental teaching tool for teaching English writing to EFL university students in a Thai university. Additionally, a discussion is developed on the benefits found in using technology (e.g., web-based lessons, blogs, electronic feedback, and Microsoft Office Word) as a part of writing activities. The researcher is particularly interested in investigating on how Asian students harness technology when they have always been passive learners in schools. The paper thus further illustrates the importance of promoting learner autonomy in Asian EFL context and elaborates the main factors contributing to its development. The author also criticizes on the effectiveness of TELL in an Asian university for future advancement in EFL education.
    Keywords: TELL, learning autonomy, Asian students, writing
    JEL: I23 I29 Z00
  35. By: Philip Ulrich Sauré
    Abstract: This paper highlights a novel mechanism that generates global imbalances. It develops a general equilibrium trade model with one of two countries having a comparative advantage in a sector whose production is characterized by (i) rapid, anticipated demand growth and (ii) large up-front R&D costs. International funding of the accruing R&D costs generates capital inflows in the R&D stage, which are balanced by subsequent outflows. Importantly, sector-level growth does not generate growth differentials between countries, typically regarded as rationales of global imbalances. Additionally, it is shown that a trade surplus can coincide with appreciations of the real exchange rate. I argue that Switzerland's trades surplus, which was driven to record heights during 2010-2014 by pharmaceutical exports, exemplifies this mechanism. Calibrating the model to Swisstrade flows underpins this argument.
    Keywords: Unbalanced trade, setupcosts , R&D costs
    JEL: F12 F41
    Date: 2015
  36. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Bottaro, Gloria; Hartner-Tiefenthaler, Martina; Rötzer, Katharina
    Abstract: Context: Radical constructivism (RC) is seen as a fruitful way to teach innovation, as Ernst von Glasersfeld’s concepts of knowing, learning, and teaching provide an epistemological framework fostering processes of generating an autonomous conceptual understanding. Problem: Classical educational approaches do not meet the requirements for teaching and learning innovation because they mostly aim at students’ competent performance, not at students’ understanding and developing their creative capabilities. Method: Analysis of theoretical principles from the constructivist framework and how they can be used as a foundation for designing a course in the field of innovation. The empirical results are based on qualitative journal entries that were coded and categorized according to Charmaz’s grounded theory approach. Results: It is shown that there is a close relationship between learning and innovation processes. The proposed investigated course design based on RC incorporates the following concepts: the course setting is understood as a framework to guide understanding; students work in teams and are subjective constructors of their own knowledge; instructors take on the role of coaches, guiding students through an innovation process as co-creators. Such a framework facilitates dynamic processes of assimilation and accommodation, as well as perturbation through the “other,” which potentially lead to novel, and viable, conceptual structures crucial for sustainable innovation. Constructivist Content: The paper argues in favor of RC principles in the context of teaching and learning. The proposed course setting is oriented at von Glasersfeld’s understanding of knowing, learning, and teaching (vs. training. It outlines theoretical and practical aspects of these principles in the context of a course design for innovation. Furthermore, it shows the importance of von Glasersfeld’s concept of intersubjectivity for processes of accommodation and the generation of (novel) autonomous conceptual structures. The interplay between creating coherence, perturbation, and irritation through interacting with the “other” (in the form of co-students and instructors) is assumed to be vital for such processes, as it leads to the creation of not only novel but also viable conceptual structures, therefore re-establishing a relative equilibrium critical for sustainable innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, teaching, learning, course design, co-creation, Enabling Space, radical constructivism.
    JEL: A23
    Date: 2014
  37. By: Guillaume ASSOGBA; Samuel KLEBANER
    Abstract: This paper aims to investigate new theoretical approaches for explaining the concept of French filiere. By using the institutional meso-economics policy point of view (Jullien, 2011), we highlight a gap between the latest French policies for structuring industries into filieres and the objective pursued by such policies. Our demonstration is organized as follow. First, using the institutional meso-economics view, we’ll provide a theoretical definition of the filiere as a particular set of industries technologically closes, sought by the politics. Second, we introduce the instruments used by public authorities within the definition of filiere policies (like the CNI and the “34 plans de la Nouvelle France”). Finally, we show some shortcomings of such policies, both at practical and conceptual order.
    Keywords: industrial policy, filiere, meso-economics, institutions, innovation policy
    JEL: B52 L16 L52
    Date: 2015
  38. By: Perry Singleton (Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University, 426 Eggers Hall, Syracuse, NY 13244)
    Abstract: The growth of the US Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) program has raised questions about whether the program targets the disabled population effectively. To address these questions, this study examines the direct effect of health on SSDI outcomes. The effect is identified by a new antiretroviral therapy introduced in late 1995 and early 1996 to treat the human immunodeficiency virus. Administrative data on SSDI applications come from the Disability Research File. According to the analysis, the new therapy had an immediate and persistent effect on program entry. By 1997, the therapy decreased HIV-related applications by 35.2 percent and new awards by 36.7 percent. The therapy did not substantially increase program exits for work and, instead, decreased program exits through death. By 1999, the therapy increased HIV-related expenditures by $43.6 million, reflecting a decrease in mortality among existing beneficiaries who continued to receive benefits.
    Keywords: Health, HIV, Social Security, Disability Insurance
    JEL: H51
    Date: 2015–09
  39. By: Glaeser, Edward L; Ponzetto, Giacomo AM; Zou, Yimei
    Abstract: Should China build mega-cities or a network of linked middle-sized metropolises? Can Europe's mid-sized cities compete with global agglomeration by forging stronger inter-urban links? This paper examines these questions within a model of recombinant growth and endogenous local amenities. Three primary factors determine the trade-off between networks and big cities: local returns to scale in innovation, the elasticity of housing supply, and the importance of local amenities. Even if there are global increasing returns, the returns to local scale in innovation may be decreasing, and that makes networks more appealing than mega-cities. Inelastic housing supply makes it harder to supply more space in dense confines, which perhaps explains why networks are more popular in regulated Europe than in the American Sunbelt. Larger cities can dominate networks because of amenities, as long as the benefits of scale overwhelm the downsides of density. In our framework, the skilled are more likely to prefer mega-cities than the less skilled, and the long-run benefits of either mega-cities or networks may be quite different from the short-run benefits.
    Keywords: cities; growth; migration; networks
    JEL: F15 O18 R10 R58
    Date: 2015–09
  40. By: Olga Kokshagina (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: This article investigates portfoliomanagement in double unknown situations. Double unknown refers toa situation in which the level of uncertainty is high and both technology and markets are as-yet-unknown. This situation can be an opportunityfor new discoveries, creation of new performance solutions and giving direction to portfolio structuring. The literature highlights that the double unknown situation is a prerequisite to designinggeneric technologies that are able to address many existing and emerging markets and create value across a broad range of applications. The purpose of this paper is to investigatethe initial phases of generic technology governance and associated portfolio structuring in multi-project firms.We studiedthree empirical contexts of portfolio structuring at the European Semiconductor provider STMicroelectronics. The results demonstrate that 1) portfolio management for generic technologies is highly transversal and comprises creating both modules to address market complementarities and the core element of a technological system – the platform and 2) the design of generic technologies requires "cross-application" managers who are able to supervise the interactions among innovative concepts developed in different business and research groups and who are responsible for structuring and managing technological and marketing exploration portfolios within the organizational structures of a company.
    Keywords: Design theory,Generic technology,Innovation management
    Date: 2015–05–31
  41. By: Ries, J. M.; Grosse, E. H.; Hochrein, S.
    Date: 2015
  42. By: Don Drummond; Evan Capeluck; Matthew Calver
    Abstract: Recent economic and fiscal projections produced by the Centre for the Study of Living Standards suggest that revenue growth over the next 23 years in most provinces and territories will be insufficient to maintain recent i ncreases in health expenditures while holding other spending constant on a real per capita basis. Motivated by these fiscal challenge s , we present a series of policy recommendations for Canada’s governments at all levels to foster greater economic growth. Higher GDP not only offers a means to raise government revenues, it also directly raises the well - being of Canadians. We consider options to boost economic growth in two broad ways. First, by boosting Canada’s productivity performance through policies pro moting private and public investment, education, technological innovation and diffusion, and trade. Second, by tapping into Canada’s underutilized labour supply, particularly by assisting women, older workers, persons with disabilities , Aboriginal people, and immigrants in successfully participating in the workforce. The recommendations in this report are guided by the Organization of Economic Co - operation and Development’ s green growth and inclusive growth frameworks and by the idea that government should take a more active role in supporting the economic activities of individuals and businesses.
    Keywords: Inclusive Growth, Green Growth, Fiscal Projections, Public Policy, Productivity Growth, Canada, Labour Supply, Provinces, Territories, Research and Development, Investment, Human Capital, Education, Internal Trade, International Trade, Immigration, Emigration, Old Age, Ageing, Aboriginal Peoples, Disabilities, Labour Force Participation, Inequality
    JEL: E62 H68 O40 J20
    Date: 2015–09
  43. By: Cook, William; Whittle, Richard
    Abstract: This study seeks to estimate whether individuals’ risk and time preferences are predictive of self employment status and entry. Prior Work: The low risk aversion of those who are self employed is well established in theory and empirical evidence, there is less evidence however on whether risk seeking in existing employees predicts future self employment entry and virtually no empirical research on the links between time preference and self employment. Approach: This study uses a quantitative approach by estimating a series of statistical models that estimate the relationship between an individuals’ risk and time preferences and whether they are (or subsequently become) self employed using a national longitudinal dataset. Results: We find that the self employed are more likely to have low risk aversion. When restricting our analysis to those who are initially employees we find that , low risk aversion combined with a preference for short term gains are most predictive of a transition into self employment. Implications and Value: This study informs the general question as to whether entrepreneurship is linked to personality traits with new evidence on the link between risk and time preference and self employment entry, in doing so it points towards attitudes toward risk and time preference that need to be encouraged if entrepreneurship is to be developed within countries and firms.
    Keywords: Risk Preference, Time Preference, Decision Making, Economics, Entrepreneurship
    JEL: C0 J0 M0
    Date: 2015
  44. By: Fabienne Abadie (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Christian Boehler (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: After having identified a short list of candidate indicators for assessing the impact of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) in the first and second reports on outcome indicators for MAFEIP, the next step in this project was to develop a quantitative approach that could be suited to establishing a link between candidate indicators and the EIP on AHA objectives. This report therefore conceptualises a model for estimating the impact of the Partnership's activities on its targets for health and sustainability of health and care system using the outcome indicators that were previously identified. In accordance with the EIP on AHA headline target of increasing the average healthy life expectancy of European citizens by two years by 2020, we took the methods to calculate Healthy Life Years (HLY) as a starting point, but adapted them to better accommodate the needs of MAFEIP. The rationale for this adaptation was to ensure the resulting model can adequately estimate the health impacts achieved by EIP on AHA commitments, and also to utilise data on indicators that are most frequently reported across EIP on AHA participants. The resulting model is based on a Markov process with three generic health states ('baseline health', 'deteriorated health' and 'death'), which can draw upon data from primary and secondary outcome indicators across populations, interventions, commitments and geographic domains. We discuss how the model's flexibility that allows it to be applied to different contexts could be enhanced further through the optional inclusion of additional health states or extensions for incorporating additional secondary indicators. We also discuss how to use the model for estimating the impact of activities delivered within the EIP on AHA on the sustainability of health and care systems in terms of the incremental impact of the interventions on health and care expenditure. We propose that the model should be implemented as a web-based monitoring tool to enable stakeholders within commitments to independently assess the impact of their respective interventions on health and sustainability of health and care systems, with the support and guidance of IPTS.
    Keywords: EIP, Active and Healthy Ageing, EIP on AHA, indicators, monitoring, framework
    JEL: I11 I18 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–05
  45. By: Susana Bernardino (Politécnico do Porto/ISCAP/CECEJ, Porto); J. Freitas Santos (Politécnico do Porto/ISCAP/CECEJ e Universidade do Minho/NIPE)
    Abstract: Purpose – This research aims to understand the role played by social entrepreneurs’ personality traits on the choice between the traditional donation model and social crowdfunding (CF) to finance social projects. Design/methodology/approach – Social CF is examined as an instrument to capture funds for social projects, and the particular case of the Portuguese Social Stock Exchange (PSSE) is presented. The approach is quantitative in nature and the data were collected through a questionnaire that was emailed to non-governmental organizations in Portugal and founders of the projects listed on PSSE. Logistic regression was employed to predict the probability that a social entrepreneur would use PSSE rather than traditional financing. The predictor variables were based on the big five personality traits. Findings – Our investigation reveals that the agreeableness and neuroticism factors were not even considered in the results of the factorial analysis, which indicates the minor importance of these personality traits in the funding decisions of the Portuguese social entrepreneurs. The same applies to the factors of openness to new experiences and extraversion, which, although considered in the logistic analysis, showed no statistical significance. Finally, the conscientiousness personality trait seems to be the only factor that might explain the use of the PSSE platform. Originality/value – Studies on the profile of the social entrepreneurs that use CF for financing social projects are relatively rare, specifically in the context of Social Stock Exchange platforms. Additionally, there is a need to carry out more empirical evidence about the effect of social entrepreneurs’ personality traits on the decision to finance social projects through social CF platforms vis-a-vis the traditional donation model.
    Keywords: Social Entrepreneurship, Social Crowdfunding, Social Entrepreneur’s Personality traits, Social Ventures, Portuguese Social Stock Exchange.
    Date: 2015
  46. By: Han Phoumin (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia)
    Abstract: Only about one-third of households in Cambodia have access to commercial energy. Full rural electrification remains far from being achieved, and energy services are mainly delivered through fuel-based engines or generators to produce electricity that can then be stored in batteries, while biomass rather than electricity is used to power many small industrial processes. The current electricity cost in Cambodia is very high, ranging from US$0.15/kWh in Phnom Penh to US$1.00/kWh in rural areas. This high cost of electricity in rural areas provides an opportunity for the Solar Home System (SHS) to be competitive, although the installed system price of SHS remains high despite a decline in global SHS prices. This study aims to (i) review the current Renewable Energies (RE) policies in Cambodia, and (ii) analyse the cost structure through the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) of HSH compared with current electricity costs in rural areas. The results indicate that the LCOE of SHS (without any government subsidy) is about 50 percent cheaper than the current electricity price in rural areas. When factoring in a government subsidy of US$100 per SHS unit, the LCOE of SHS drops to about one third of the current electricity price in rural areas. These results imply that promoting SHS would enable rural households to cut spending on electricity, thus increasing deposable incomes and social wellbeing of rural communities. Policy support for SHS is needed from the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC) to ensure that the upfront costs remain comparable to other countries. It is therefore important for the state-owned electricity utility, Electricité du Cambodge, and the Rural Electricity Department to look into the whole value chain of SHS from procurement through to installation. In order to achieve savings it may be necessary to make large purchases directly from manufacturers, and increase transparency in the bidding and procurement process, together with the removal of import taxes on Renewable Energy equipment, including SHS. Furthermore, providing training to local technicians and small business entrepreneurs will be necessary to promote the solar energy business in rural Cambodia. This will help to drive down the unit costs of SHS, and promote the widespread use and application of SHS in rural Cambodia.
    Keywords: : Government policy, Solar Home System, Solar PV, rural electrification
    JEL: Q42 L11 Q48
    Date: 2015–09

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