nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒09‒18
35 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Enhancing Dynamism and Innovation in Japan's Business Sector By Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
  2. Fresh Brain Power and Quality of Innovation in Cities: Evidence from the Japanese patent database By HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
  3. How do Native and Migrant Workers Contribute to Innovation? A Study on France, Germany and the UK By Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
  4. Knowledge Spillovers in Cities: The Creation and Transmission of Knowledge By J. Stiller; D. Assmann
  5. Le rôle de la syndication des capital-investisseurs dans le financement de l’innovation, The Role of Venture Capitalists Syndication in the Financing of Innovation By Philippe DESBRIERES
  6. Essays on innovation and investment decisions under imperfect competition By Joachim Keller
  7. Designing and enabling interfaces for collaborative knowledge creation and innovation. From managing to enabling innovation as socio-epistemological technology By Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
  8. Gender Gap in Patenting Activities: Evidence from Iran By Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi; Seyed Kamran Bagheri
  9. The role of geographical proximity in the international knowledge flows of European firms: an overview of different knowledge transfer mechanisms By Chaminade , Cristina; Plechero , Monica
  10. Aggregate implications of innovation policy By Ariel Burstein; Andrew Atkeson
  11. Does Foreign Entry Spur Innovation? By Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
  12. Stochastic Frontier I & D of fractal dimensions for technological innovation By Maria Ramos-Escamilla
  13. Innovation and growth with financial, and other, frictions By Chiu, Jonathan; Meh, Cesaire; Wright, Randall
  14. The Geography and Structure of Global Innovation Networks: Global Scope and Regional Embeddedness By Chaminade , Cristina; De Fuentes , Claudia; Harirchi , Gouya; Plechero , Monica
  15. How Regulation Affects Innovation: The Smart Grid Case At Urban Scale By V. Antoniucci; C. D'Alpaos; G. Marella
  16. Innovation and Access to Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Global Systems Perspective By Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak; Matus, Kira Jen Mendelsohn; Moon, Suerie; Timmer, Vanessa Joanna; Clark, William C.; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Diaz Anadon, Laura; Harley, Alicia Grace
  17. Industrial Agglomeration and Use of the Internet By Chia-Lin Chang; Michael McAleer; Yu-Chieh Wu
  18. Service innovation for sustainability: paths for greening through service innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  19. Location Determinants of high Growth Firms By Li, Minghao; Goetz, Stephan J.; Partridge, Mark; Fleming, David A.
  20. Technology invention and diffusion in residential energy consumption. A stochastic frontier approach By Giovanni Marin; Alessandro Palma
  21. Thinking - In and Outside - The Box: Asynchronous and Substitutable, Hyper-complexity and Predictability, Risk and Value, Sustainability and Permanence, Disruption and Destruction By S. Roulac
  22. Impact Of Indoor Environmental Quality And Innovation Features On Residential Property Price And Rent In Malaysia: A Review By M.Mohd Ghaza Rahman; M.Mohd Raid; A.'Che Kasim; K. Hussin
  23. European Universities during the Crisis: A Public Policy Perspective, with a Brief Excursion to the US By Ritzen, Jo
  24. Is the evolution of India’s Outward FDI consistent with Dunning’s Investment Development Path sequence? By Swati Virmani; Edmund Amann
  25. Innovation for Vulnerable Farmers: Drought and Water Scarcity Adaptation Technologies. By Clark, William C.; Harley, Alicia Grace; Holbrook, Noel Michele
  26. Corruption and bureaucracy in entrepreneurship By Antonio Lecuna
  27. What do We Know of the Mobility of Research Scientists and of its Impact on Scientific Production. By Fernandez-Zubieta, Ana; Geuna, Aldo; Lawson, Cornelia
  28. The Philippines in the Electronics Global Value Chain: Upgrading Opportunities and Challenges By Rafaelita M. ALDABA
  29. Opportunity-motivated entrepreneurs’ growth expectations in Latin America and the moderating effect of education and exports By Antonio Lecuna
  30. Mobile banking and mobile money: a highly instrument against corruption. By Sidibe, Tidiani
  31. Creating future-proof learning environments - A study on educational objectives and conceptual decision-making By P. Le Roux
  32. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Expanding Networks for Inclusive Entrepreneurship By David Halabisky
  33. Entrepreneurial Activities in Europe - Informal Entrepreneurship By Marco Marchese
  34. Production Function of the Mining Sector of Iran By Seyyed Ali Zeytoon Nejad Moosavian
  35. Multiple forms of applications and impacts of a design theory -ten years of industrial applications of C-K theory By Armand Hatchuel; Pascal Le Masson; Benoit Weil; Marine Agogué; Akin Kazakçi; Sophie Hooge

  1. By: Randall S. Jones; Myungkyoo Kim
    Abstract: Innovation is key to boosting economic growth in the face of a rapidly ageing population. While Japan spends heavily on education and R&D, appropriate framework conditions are essential to increase the return on such investments by strengthening competition, both domestic and international, and improving resource allocation. Upgrading corporate governance would encourage firms to maximise profits and invest their large cash reserves. To promote open innovation in a global framework, it is necessary to improve universities and expand their role in business R&D, while increasing international collaboration in R&D from its current low level. Venture capital-backed firms and start-ups should play a key role in commercialising innovation. To make venture investment a growth driver, it is important to expand the role of business angels and foster entrepreneurship. SMEs, which account for 70% of employment, should contribute more to innovation.
    Keywords: product market regulation, venture capital, Japan, innovation, Abenomics
    JEL: O13 O38 O53
    Date: 2015–09–02
  2. By: HAMAGUCHI Nobuaki; KONDO Keisuke
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether freshness of knowledge increases the quality of innovation by using the Japanese patent database. Agglomeration is generally believed to foster the creation of new knowledge through knowledge spillover, such as active face-to-face communication; however, expansion of common knowledge within research communities may discourage high-quality innovation. Taking this into consideration, we attempt to examine the turnover effects of knowledge workers across cities by looking at the interregional migration of university graduates. We find that the quality of innovation as measured by the number of patent citations tends to be higher in cities with bigger migration flows of university graduates. More importantly, we find that metabolizing agglomeration plays an important role for high-quality innovative activities.
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
    Abstract: This paper uses the French and the UK Labour Force Surveys and the German Microcensus to estimate the effects of different components of the labour force on innovation at the sectoral level between 1994 and 2005. The authors focus, in particular, on the contribution of migrant workers. We adopt a production function approach in which we control for the usual determinants of innovations, such as R&D investments, stock of patents and openness to trade. To address possible endogeneity of migrants we implement instrumental variables strategies using both two-stage least squares with external instruments and GMM-SYS with internal ones. In addition we also account for the possible endogeneity of native workers and instrument them accordingly. Our results show that highly-educated migrants have a positive effect on innovation even if the effect is smaller relative to the positive effect of educated natives. Moreover, this positive effect seems to be confined to the high-tech sectors and among highly-educated migrants from other European countries.
    Keywords: innovation, migration, skills, human capital
    JEL: O31 O33 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–07–31
  4. By: J. Stiller; D. Assmann
    Abstract: We analyze knowledge spillovers in a search-theoretic spatial equilibrium framework with workers who are heterogeneous in knowledge type. Knowledge spillovers result from random face-to-face interactions between workers in the city. The outcome of those interactions crucially depends on the combination of the interacting individuals' knowledge types. In contrast to previous work, we explicitly model knowledge spillovers as the interplay of two channels: knowledge transmission (imitation) and knowledge creation (innovation). Our results show that if the role of innovation is sufficiently important, individuals choose an excessively narrow range of partners to interact with, leading to lower than socially optimal creation of new ideas, which results in socially inefficient city sizes.
    Keywords: Agglomeration; Innovation; Knowledge; Learning; Matching
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  5. By: Philippe DESBRIERES (IAE DIJON - Université de Bourgogne (CREGO))
    Abstract: (VF) La pratique de la syndication est notablement développée dans le métier du capital-investissement, quel que soit le stade de développement, le secteur d’activité et la nationalité de l’entreprise financée. La syndication s’explique autant par des arguments financiers (partage des risques entre capital-investisseurs ; gouvernance du management de l’entreprise financée...) que par la nécessité d’une part, d’accéder à des ressources (informations, compétences) en matière de sélection et de surveillance des investissements et, d’autre part, de partager, voire créer, des connaissances. L’objectif de cette synthèse de la littérature est d’étudier dans quelle mesure cette pratique favorise ou contraint l’innovation et son financement dans les firmes entrepreneuriales. (VA) Syndication is a highly developed practice in the venture capital industry, whatever are the stage of development, the industry sector and the nationality of the financed company. It can be explained by financial arguments (sharing of risks between venture capitalists; governance of managemers of the financed firm) as well as by the necessity, on the one hand, to reach resources (information, skills) regarding selection and control of the investments and, on the other hand, to share or create knowledge. The objective of this survey is to study to what extent this practice favor or limit innovation and its financing within entrepreneurial firms.
    Keywords: capital-investissement, syndication, innovation, financement;Venture Capital, Syndication, Innovation, Financing
    JEL: G24 L26 O31
    Date: 2015–05
  6. By: Joachim Keller
    Abstract: Innovation incentives are imperfectly provided in market settings: When deciding on their innovation activity, firms tend to focus on the maximization of their private benefits, poorly internalizing social benefits. This thesis analyzes how policy intervention could be designed in order to align private and social incentives. <p><p>In the three papers of this thesis, I will consider three environments where firms' choices in a laissez-faire situation may be socially inefficient. The inefficiencies arise because of learning externalities, free riding when the innovation decision is made by a group of participants, or because firms are not willing to invest in a new activity that has a higher social than private value.<p><p>In the first thesis paper, I deal with the strategies of firms in innovative consumer product markets characterized by demand uncertainty. I analyze the timing and location decision of firms in that context.<p><p>In the second thesis paper, I consider the investment incentives of financial market infrastructures (FMIs). FMIs comprise the set of institutions that allow financial market participants to engage with each other. I assess the innovation incentives for different forms of ownership (user-owned versus third-party owned) and identify infrastructure service provision equilibria. <p><p>In the third thesis paper, I address the question of how a government should allocate a subsidy budget over time in order to maximize the innovation activity in an industry.
    Keywords: Competition; Production (Economic theory); Demand (Economic theory); Demand functions (Economic theory); Concurrence; Production; Demande (Théorie économique); Demande, fonctions de (Théorie économique); Demand Uncertainty; Information Spillovers; Ownership; Investment Incentives; Financial Service Providers; Innovation Incentives; Timing of Entry; Entry; Subsidies; Cooperatives
    Date: 2013–11–29
  7. By: Peschl, Markus F.; Fundneider, Thomas
    Abstract: knowledge creation and innovation. We refer to these artifacts as Enabling Spaces, and they comprise architectural, technological (ICT), social, cognitive, organizational, cultural, as well as emotional dimensions. The paper claims that innovation is a highly challenging social and epistemological process which needs to be facilitated and enabled through supporting (infra-)structures. Our starting point is that innovation can no longer be understood as a mechanistic knowledge creation process. The process of enabling is introduced as an alternative to such traditional approaches of innovation. Enabling is the main design principle that underpins Enabling Spaces and ICT plays an important role in it. These concepts will be illustrated by a case study and concrete examples. The paper culminates in the derivation of a set of design principles, ICT based and otherwise, for Enabling Spaces.
    Keywords: artifact, design, enabling space, extended cognition, innovation, meaning, situated cognition, space
    JEL: Z0
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Mojgan Samandar Ali Eshtehardi; Seyed Kamran Bagheri
    Abstract: This study investigated gender differences in innovative behaviour and technological change in Iran by using data on patents granted to Iranians in Iran and their demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis was used to compare gender involvement and cooperation in patent activities. In addition, an econometric analysis was employed to investigate the statistical significance of the gender differences. The results showed that although females have participated much less than males, the percentage of female inventors has an upward trend over the study period; that might be mainly due to higher womenùs propensity to engage in team-collaboration that has increased over time. Moreover, the results demonstrated that the probability of female involvement in innovative activities was significantly higher when a state-run company or university was involved while it was lower in the case of private institutions involvement. Compared to other technological sectors, in IPC section D (TEXTILES; PAPER) there was a higher male inter-gender collaboration in favour of significantly higher female participation and contribution. Moreover, after section D, in IPC section A (HUMAN NECESSITIES) the probability of female presence as patentees was higher compared to other sectors. Moreover, unequal geographical distribution among provinces was detected. Potential factors contributing to this disparity remain an open question for further studies.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Patent, Iran, Technological change
    Date: 2015–05–09
  9. By: Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University); Plechero , Monica (DEAMS – University of Trieste, Italy & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The paper provides an overview of the international knowledge flows in Europe particularly looking at the drivers and consequences of such flows as well as the general trend. It distinguishes between different types of mechanisms for the acquisition and transfer of knowledge from trade to research and technological collaboration, mobility of human capital and FDI. The paper is empirical in nature and targeted to a wider audience. The analysis reveals that proximity matters significantly for the mobility of human capital as well as for the establishment of collaborative networks. In both cases, intra-Europe knowledge flows are more important that extra-Europe knowledge flows, thus pointing to the role of the European market facilitating these forms of exchange. The patterns of offshoring of R&D as well as trade networks are rather different- more global than intra-European. In other words, trade and investment networks are more dispersed globally than mobility of human capital and research and technological networks.
    Keywords: Exports of high tech products; international research collaboration; international mobility of researchers; offshoring of R&D; Europe
    JEL: F20 O30
    Date: 2015–09–08
  10. By: Ariel Burstein (UCLA); Andrew Atkeson (University of California)
    Abstract: We examine the quantitative impact of changes in innovation policies on growth in aggregate productivity and output in a fairly general specification of a growth model in which aggregate productivity growth is driven by investments in innovation by imperfectly competitive firms. Our model nests several commonly used models in the literature. We present simple analytical results isolating the specific features and/or parameters of the model that play the key roles in shaping its quantitative implications for the aggregate impact of policy-induced changes in innovative spending in the short-, medium- and long-term. We find that the implicit assumption made commonly in models in the literature that there is no social depreciation of innovation expenditures plays a key role not previously noted in the literature. Specifically, we find that the elasticity of aggregate productivity and output over the medium term horizon (i.e. 20 years) with respect to policy-induced changes in the innovation intensity of the economy cannot be large if the model is calibrated to match a moderate initial growth rate of aggregate productivity and builds in the assumption of no social depreciation of innovation expenditures. In this case, the medium term dynamics implied by the model are largely disconnected from the parameters of the model that determine the model's long run implications and the socially optimal innovation intensity of the economy.
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Jan Svejnar; Katherine Terrell
    Abstract: Our estimates, based on large firm-level and industry-level data sets from eighteen countries, suggest that FDI and trade have strong positive spillover effects on product and technology innovation by domestic firms in emerging markets. The FDI effect is more pronounced for firms from advanced economies. Moreover, our results indicate that the spillover effects can be detected with micro data at the firm-level, but that using linkage variables computed from input-output tables at the industry level yields much weaker, and usually insignificant, estimated effects. These patterns are consistent with spillover effects being rather proximate and localized.
    JEL: F2 M16 O16 P23
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Maria Ramos-Escamilla
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the study variables such as gdp, employment levels, the level of R & D and technology that will serve as the basis for stochastic modeling of production possibilities frontier in the goodness of fractal dimensions Ex Ante and Ex Post a priori to determine the levels of causality immediately and check its accuracy and power of indexing, using high frequency data and thus address the response this assumption of stochastic frontiers with level N of partitions in time.
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Chiu, Jonathan; Meh, Cesaire; Wright, Randall
    Abstract: The generation and implementation of ideas are crucial for economic performance. We study this in a model of endogenous growth, where productivity increases with innovation, and where the exchange of ideas (technology transfer) allows those with comparative advantage implement them. Search, bargaining, and commitment frictions impede the idea market, however, reducing efficiency and growth. We characterize optimal policies involving subsidies to innovative and entrepreneurial activity, given both knowledge and search externalities. The role of liquidity is discussed. We show intermediation helps by financing more transactions with fewer assets, and, more subtly, by ameliorating holdup problems. We also discuss some evidence.
    Keywords: Innovation, Growth, Liquidity, Intermediation, Search, Bargaining,
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Chaminade , Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University and INGENIO, CSIC, Spain); De Fuentes , Claudia (Sobey School of Business, Saint Mary’s University, Canada); Harirchi , Gouya (DEAMS, University of Trieste, Italy); Plechero , Monica (DEAMS – University of Trieste, Italy & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The increasing de-localization of innovation activities to and from emerging economies has triggered a growing interest among scholars of diverse disciplines in understanding the drivers and consequences of the increased globalization of innovation activities; In doing so, a variety of concepts have been used, from global value chain to global production networks and global innovation networks. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of what we know about the structure and the geography of these global innovation networks, by looking, in particular, at the geographic concepts that underpin current work on global innovation networks as well as the spatial implications of the increased globalization of innovation activities.
    Keywords: global innovation networks; regional embeddedness; network structure; network geography
    JEL: O19 O33 R11
    Date: 2015–09–08
  15. By: V. Antoniucci; C. D'Alpaos; G. Marella
    Abstract: Purpose: The paper discusses energy saving policies implemented in Italy in the last ten years and shows their ineffectiveness in promoting innovation in new energy systems, such as Smart Grids.The economic fundamentals involved in energy consumption are investigated with specific reference to high rise – high density settlements and their prevalent building typology, i.e. tall buildings. The paper discusses how the energy demand and consumption of a single building can affect the energy trade-off of entire cities.Approach – We examine current local and national policies- for energy consumption reduction, then we discuss how Italian urban planning should adopt ad hoc regulation in order to pursue innovative systems of energy saving. We also - debate on the present absence of procedures to evaluate these policies’ effects on market demand in both new building construction and deep energy retrofit. Finally we argue the inadequacy of Italian national and local legislation in promoting Smart Grids as innovative systems of electric energy production, distribution and consumption.Findings – We represent the stat of art in the Italian legislation for energy saving and we offer a theoretical framework to verify the effectiveness of these measures. Furthermore we propose a new way to promote innovative systems of energy production for high density settlements. In this respect, due to technological and facility management characteristics tall buildings are an opportunity to experiment smart grids at neighborhood level. Beyond the construction engineering advances, we present how regulation should help to improve innovation.Research limitations/implications – The paper is mainly exploratory and identifies some issues for further research. Data on housing market demand related to public incentives must be collected to measure the effectiveness of local norms. Furthermore, selected case studies must be investigated to verify the energy demand at diverse urban density: this survey is preliminary to the definition of protocols for both technological and regulatory interventions.Originality/values – The paper is the first attempt in Italy to present the role of town planning norms in the promotion of Smart Grids and, in general, to match innovative distributed energy systems to legislation in planning. Furthermore the present contribution highlights the potential of specific building typologies, e.g. tall buildings, in the promotion of Smart Grids.
    Keywords: Energy Saving; Skyscrapers; Smart Grids; Sustainability; Urban Planning
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  16. By: Chan, Gabriel Angelo Sherak; Matus, Kira Jen Mendelsohn; Moon, Suerie; Timmer, Vanessa Joanna; Clark, William C.; Murthy, Sharmila L.; Diaz Anadon, Laura; Harley, Alicia Grace
    Abstract: This workshop report is a summary of themes discussed by five panels during a daylong workshop on “Innovation and Access to Technologies for Sustainable Development: A Global Perspective†at Harvard University on April 24,2014. The workshop brought together a diverse group of scholars to explore how the technological innovation needed for sustainable development can be promoted in ways that assure equitable access in current and future generations. Three key themes that emerged from the workshop include:(1) The central role of power, politics and agency in analyzing technological innovation and sustainable development -an important aspect of this includes the articulation of the roles of actors and organizations within frameworks and models of innovation systems.(2) The importance of focusing both on supply-push and demand-pull mechanisms in innovation scholarship and innovation policy.(3) The need to focus on more innovation scholarship around the goals of sustainable development.
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Chia-Lin Chang (Department of Applied Economics, Department of Finance, National Chung Hsing University, Taiwan); Michael McAleer (Econometric Institute, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute, The Netherlands, Department of Quantitative Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, and Institute of Economic Research, Kyoto University.); Yu-Chieh Wu (Department of Applied Economics. National Chung Hsing University Taichung, Taiwan)
    Abstract: Taiwan has been hailed as a world leader in the development of global innovation and industrial clusters for the past decade. This paper investigates the effects of industrial agglomeration on the use of the internet and internet intensity for Taiwan manufacturing firms, and analyses whether the relationships between industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage for industries are substitutes or complements. The sample observations are based on 153,081 manufacturing plants, and covers 26 2-digit industry categories and 358 geographical townships in Taiwan. The Heckman selection model is used to adjust for sample selectivity for unobservable data for firms that use the internet. The empirical results from two-stage estimation show that: (1) for the industry overall, a higher degree of industrial agglomeration will not affect the probability that firms will use the internet, but will affect the total expenditure on internet usage; and (2) for 2-digit industries, industrial agglomeration generally decreases the total expenditure on internet usage, which suggests that industrial agglomeration and total expenditure on internet usage are substitutes.
    Keywords: Industrial agglomeration and clusters, Global innovation, Internet penetration, Manufacturing firms, Sample selection, Incidental truncation.
    JEL: D22 L60
    Date: 2015–08
  18. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: The purpose of this work is to examine the extent to which services and service innovation can contribute to sustainable development in its environmental dimension. The supposed immateriality of services seems to argue in favour of their natural sustainability. This is actually just a myth – one we examine the roots of, and which we refute. This calling into question of the naturally-green-servicesmyth does not, however, mean that the greening of the economy cannot rely on services. On the contrary, greening also fundamentally depends on innovation dynamics being implemented in or by services.
    Date: 2015–05
  19. By: Li, Minghao; Goetz, Stephan J.; Partridge, Mark; Fleming, David A.
    Abstract: County-level location patterns of INC5000 companies provide one map of American entrepreneurship and innovativeness, and understanding the local factors associated with these firms' emergence is important for stimulating regional economic growth and innovation. We draw on the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship to motivate our regression model, and augment this theory with additional regional features that have been found to be important in the firm-location literature. Zero-inflated negative binomial regressions indicate that these firms exist in counties with larger average establishment size, higher educational attainment, and more natural amenities. Income growth, a mix of higher-paying industries, and more banks per capita are associated with a smaller presence of these types of firms, all else equal. We conclude that the local conditions favoring high growth firms are likely to be different from those favoring new firms in general, and that these conditions differ significantly in urban and rural areas and by industrial sectors.
    Keywords: Firm location, Firm revenues, High growth firms, INC5000 firms, Negative Binomial regression
    JEL: L26 R1
    Date: 2015–08–25
  20. By: Giovanni Marin (IRCrES-CNR, Milano (Italy)); Alessandro Palma (IEFE-Bocconi, Milano (Italy))
    Abstract: Traditional large appliances absorb a large share of residential electricity consumption and represent important targets of energy policy strategies aimed at achieving energy security. Despite being characterized by rather mature technologies, this group of appliances still offers large potential in terms of efficiency gains due to their pervasive diffusion. In this paper we analyse the electricity consumption of a set of four traditional ‘white goods’ in a panel of ten EU countries observed over 21 years (1990-2010), with the aim of disentangling the amount of technical efficiency from the overall energy saving. The technical efficiency trend is modelled through a set of technology components representing both the invention and adoption process by the means of specific patents weighted by production and bilateral import flows, which allows to overcome the rigid Stochastic Frontier framework in modelling the effect of technical change. Our results show that the derived energy demand and inefficiency trends are both related to changes in the amount of available technology embodied in energy efficient appliances. The effect is significant both in its domestic and international components and suggests an active role of innovation and trade policies for achieving efficiency targets which directly impact the amount of electricity consumed by households.
    Keywords: energy efficiency, technological diffusion, electrical appliances, stochastic frontier analysis, residential sector
    JEL: O33 Q55 Q41
    Date: 2015–09
  21. By: S. Roulac
    Abstract: Most property practioners are innocent of the prospects for and consequences of innovation, presuming that real estate involvements somehow are exempts from the forces of Creative Destruction and Disruptive Innovation. Notably, two of the most successful IPOs in recent times, AirBnb and Uber have profound real estate implications. The former now accounts for an inventory of lodging facilities larger than any hotel brand. The latter's assault on car ownership could realign spatial patterns, property values, and regional economic status. How innovation threatens established interests and creates new opportunities, and thereby impacts the property markets, is the subject of this paper. The elements of the property process in the context of the supply chain and value chain are examined through the prism of change patterns over time, present vulnerabilities, future consequences and implications. The many facets of the property boxÑits creation, function, placement, productivity, financing, experience, operations, management, profitability, valueÑare considered in the context of the six primary technologies: transportation, information, communications, knowledge/meaning, energy/power, money, that determine the demand for property goods and services and shape our places. This research builds on numerous prior studies by the author of these phenomena, extending over four decades, and integrates the implications of such powerful themes as the Internet of Things, Predictive Analytics, Big Data, Personalization and Customization, SaaS Business Models, Place Competition, Gamification, Amplification, and more.
    Keywords: Development; Economics; Innovation; Real Estate; Technology
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  22. By: M.Mohd Ghaza Rahman; M.Mohd Raid; A.'Che Kasim; K. Hussin
    Abstract: Green building concept, a trend in developed nations, has spread to Malaysia. The green features improve the functions of buildings and promises higher returns. Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and Innovation (IN) are among six criteria of Green Building Index (GBI) that building owner needs to attain for its building to be certified as â€green" in Malaysia. The benefit of IEQ is to create conducive indoor environment for building occupants for living and working. While IN is to meet the objectives of GBI through green building design initiatives and sustainable construction practices. The research question is does IEQ and IN features give direct impact to residential property price? Therefore, this paper will review the broad literature regarding the impacts of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) and innovation (IN) for residential property and its implication to market price and rent. The early hypothesis of this paper anticipate that innovation (IN) and indoor environmetal quality (IEQ) features will indirectly increase residential property market price and rent in spite of the lack of comparative financial data. From this paper, it is hope that the positive impacts of these features will encourage building owners, developers and other main development actors to put these criteria into the same consideration as other criteria in GBI as one of the way to compensate the impact of the building towards economic, environment and social features.
    Keywords: Green Building Features; Green Building Index (GBI); Indoor Environmental Quality; Innovation; Property Price And Rental
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  23. By: Ritzen, Jo (IZA and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: The crisis slowed down the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy (for the EU to become the most competitive region in the world). The crisis has aggravated the divergence between the North West of Europe and Southern Europe in labor productivity imparted by the knowledge economy. At the same time, equality of opportunity for participation in higher education seems to have been well-preserved in the EU Member States. This is in contrast to the US with its substantial higher private costs for university education. The relative stagnations in university education and research during the crisis is similar in Europe as in the US. Asian countries may – as a result – have improved their position in innovation. The room for maneuver of Governments of EU Member States to deal with universities (as with other public expenditures) was severely limited by the agreed upon maximum levels of the budget deficit and Government debt. Political institutions appear to determine the "code" for higher education expenditures. The quality of the minister responsible for higher education and the level of "trust" in the country may also the room for maneuver in setting university policy.
    Keywords: economic crisis, university policy, university funding, equity, innovation, labor productivity, trust
    JEL: H2 H6 I22 I23 I24 I28 O31 O38 O43 O51 O52
    Date: 2015–09
  24. By: Swati Virmani; Edmund Amann
    Abstract: This paper examines whether India’s Outward Foreign Direct Investment (OFDI) pattern is consistent with Dunning’s Investment Development Path (IDP) sequence using macro data over the period 1980-2010. We test whether the level of development - proxied by GDP per capita - is the main factor explaining OFDI, and augment the IDP by studying other major determinants such as Exports, Inward FDI (IFDI), Human Capital, and R&D using the Cointegration and Error Correction Model techniques. Our results support the main proposition of the IDP, but also highlight the importance of other factors. We also find that OFDI Granger-causes R&D, suggesting a possibility of reverse technology spillover.
    Keywords: Outward FDI, Investment Development Path, Error Correction Model, Granger Causality, Reverse Technology Spillovers
    JEL: F21 F23 O30
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Clark, William C.; Harley, Alicia Grace; Holbrook, Noel Michele
    Abstract: This report is a summary of themes discussed during a two-day workshop on “Innovation for Vulnerable Farmers: Drought and Water Scarcity Adaptation Technologies.†The workshop was held at Harvard University on September 11–12, 2014. It brought together a diverse group of scholars to explore how actors in the agriculture innovation system can better promote the needs of small and marginal farmers.
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Antonio Lecuna (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship has been associated with three categories of factors: (1) macroeconomic factors, such as unemployment and income; (2) factors related to government institutions, such as corruption and political stability; and (3) competitiveness-related factors, such as the capacity for innovation and the number of procedures required to start a business. In this study, I find that all three categories are equally significant and that a combination of these three categories generates the most significant statistical results. The findings also reveal that two specific indicators are consistently more significant than the others. I posit that better control of corruption and a lower unemployment rate are associated with increasing levels of entrepreneurial activity as measured by business registrations and entrepreneur participation rates. Furthermore, interaction tests between the control of corruption and competitiveness-related factors found that simultaneous decreases in corruption and the number of procedures required to start a business provide added value, jointly boosting entrepreneurial activity. Panel data from 55 nations for the 2004–2009 period support these findings.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, institutions, public policy, economic development
    Date: 2014–12
  27. By: Fernandez-Zubieta, Ana; Geuna, Aldo; Lawson, Cornelia (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this chapter we review the literature on the analysis of researcher mobility and productivity highlighting recent changes in the research system - internationalization, inter-sector mobility and collaboration and career diversification which make researcher mobility more relevant for the dynamics of knowledge creation and dissemination. Our review reveals that to date we still know little about the consequences and motivations of increased mobility for individual researchers. We contribute by presenting a typology of researcher mobility, and considering the relevance of multiple mobility events throughout a researcher career. Finally, we review the modeling problems related to analyzing the effect of mobility on academic performance at the individual level, and suggest various solutions.
    Date: 2015–06
  28. By: Rafaelita M. ALDABA (Philippine Department of Trade and Industry)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent and depth of participation of the Philippines in the electronics global value chains (GVC) using Trade in Value Added (TiVA) and extensive margin indicators. While the Philippines remains strong in semiconductors, it is lagging behind other ASEAN countries. According to the TiVA database, the level of participation of the Philippines in the electronics GVC increased substantially between 1995 and 2009. The extensive margins show that the Philippines has been regaining its position in regional production networks as indicated by the rising number of exported products to the region. Attracting more electronic manufacturing services (EMS) companies would be crucial in sustaining the position of the Philippines in regional production networks. The gradually declining trend in the number of imported parts indicates the need to diversify and upgrade the industry’s GVC participation through market upgrading characterised by moving from semiconductors into EMS, particularly in areas with high growth potential such as auto electronics, power electronics, electronic data processing, and consumer electronics. Strengthening competitiveness in semiconductor devices and EMS is necessary to transform and deepen the industry position in the GVC. The upgrading process will require human resources development, establishing an innovation ecosystem, efficient logistics and infrastructure, and developing a parts, supplies, and materials sector to support the industry.
    Keywords: : global value chain, electronics, Philippines
    JEL: F10 L63
    Date: 2015–09
  29. By: Antonio Lecuna (School of Business and Economics, Universidad del Desarrollo)
    Abstract: Scholars have articulated a number of arguments regarding the beneficial effects of opportunity-motivated (as opposed to necessity-driven) entrepreneurs, and this study delves somewhat deeper into this topic. First, this study uses the expectation of job creation over five years as a metric to measure the benefits of entrepreneurship and employs this metric as a dependent variable defined as growth expectation. Second, this study utilizes a sample of 111,194 entrepreneurs to estimate how growth expectation is affected by the interaction between opportunity motivation and five entrepreneurial competencies: opportunity-alertness, self-efficacy, networking, risk-willingness, and education. Third, because the most significant interaction effect resulted from the interaction between opportunity-motivation and education, this combination is further explored with respect to the additional effect of three firm characteristics: operational phase, export orientation and innovation orientation. In the context of a relatively homogenous group of 19 Latin American countries, the results suggest that opportunity-motivated entrepreneurs’ numbers of years of schooling and an export-oriented firm provides added value and jointly boosts growth expectations, as reflected in expected increases in the number of employees
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, start-up, small business, innovation, growth expectation
    Date: 2014–12
  30. By: Sidibe, Tidiani
    Abstract: Furthermore, the use of mobile banking in WAEMU has contributed significantly to the enhancement of people's access to the finan-cial rate service which establishes in 2013 to 49.5% for a rate banking strict sense, 12.2%. This innovation has allowed Nigeria to significantly reduce corruption in the agricultural sector and, to his former agriculture minister to be named "Forbes african of the Year" and subsequently elected President of the ADB. Thus, States may of course explore the use of such an instrument, whose transparency and traceability are well established, as part of transactions with third parties (tax payments, customs invoices, payments of grants, etc. ) to reduce power, as desired, the propensity to corruption, financial crime and consequently move towards optimization of its budget items (income and expenditure).
    Keywords: Mobile banking , mobile money, establishment of electronic money, fiat money , corruption.
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2015–09–15
  31. By: P. Le Roux
    Abstract: Changes in the demographical composition of student numbers, their educational expectations and advances in didactic formats require that educational institutions review the link between their physical learning environments and their educational visions. In general, educational visions respond to Ã’changing social demands and technological developments, innovations in the industry, new insights within knowledge domains, and last but not least, results from educational researchÓ (NHTV, 2014). The purpose of the current on-going study is to research changes and developments in educational goals and objectives (in response to the educational vision), and rank conceptual decision-making on creating responsive and future-proof learning environments in order of relevance and applicability to the specific educational vision in question. The current research design applies multiple methodological approaches. Part of this approach consists of a similar methodology as was discussed in earlier research on the application value of a process model for supporting decision-making in property and real estate management education (Le Roux, 2014) as was presented and the 2014 ERES conference in Bucharest, Romania. As such, this process model for supporting decision-making on organisational accommodation is applied as a central structuring element in determining educational objectives for / with new learning environments. In addition to the application of this process-model for supporting decision-making, literature on quality function development is applied to assist in the ranking of conceptual choices for elaborating and implementing solutions for future-proofing learning environments. The originality and value of the current research lies in the combination of multiple research methodologies in facilitating evidence-based decision-making on future-proof strategies and approaches to creating more responsive learning environments. This is particularly true in terms of the application of the theoretical knowledge associated with quality function deployment (QFD) in learning environments.
    Keywords: Decision-making; Educational Vision; Learning Environment; Quality Function Deployment; Responsive
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2015–07–01
  32. By: David Halabisky
    Abstract: This Policy Brief explains what entrepreneurial networks are, and how disadvantaged or under-represented groups can join them. Online networks in particular offer the added advantage of removing physical distances. The document also shows that by linking target groups with the business community, and helping the networks set up and widen their scope, the policy can provide real support.
    Date: 2015–03
  33. By: Marco Marchese
    Abstract: This policy brief was produced by the OECD and the European Commission. This policy brief focuses on the informal self-employed and informal entrepreneurs, which together comprise what we define as “informal entrepreneurship”. The policy brief provides estimates of the size of the informal economy and informal entrepreneurship in the EU, investigates its main causes and impacts on the economy, and finally presents a policy framework for formalisation strategies based on the distinction between deterrence, incentives and persuasion measures.
    Date: 2015–07
  34. By: Seyyed Ali Zeytoon Nejad Moosavian
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to estimate the production function and examine the structure of production in the mining sector of Iran. Several studies have already been conducted in estimating production functions of various economic sectors; however, less attention has been paid to mining sectors. After examining the stationarity of variables using augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-Perron tests, this study estimated the production function of the mining sector of Iran under different scenarios using the co-integration method and time-series data for 1976-2006. The unconstrained Cobb-Douglas production function in Tinbergen form provided better results in terms of theoretical foundations of economics, statistics, and econometrics. These results show that the structure of the mining sector of Iran is both capital-intensive and labour-intensive. Based on the findings of this study, the elasticity of production with respect to capital and labour have been 0.44 and 0.41, respectively. In addition, the coefficient of time variable, as an indicator of technological progress in the production process, is statistically significant representing a positive effect of technological changes on the output of Iran's mining sector.
    Date: 2015–09
  35. By: Armand Hatchuel (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Marine Agogué (HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL); Akin Kazakçi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Sophie Hooge (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: C-K theory has been developed by Armand Hatchuel and Benoit Weil and then by other researchers since 1990s. In this paper we show that its very abstract nature and its high degree of universality actually supported a large variety of industrial applications. We distinguish three types of applications: 1) C-K theory provides a new language, that supports new analysis and descriptive capacity and new teachable individual models of thoughts; 2) C-K theory provides a very general framework to better characterize the validity domain and the performance conditions of existing methods, leading to potential improvement of these methods ; 3) C-K theory is the conceptual model at the root of new design methods that are today largely used in the industry.
    Keywords: innovation,C-K THEORY , design
    Date: 2016

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