nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒08‒07
33 papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. On the Economic Performance of Nascent Entrepreneurs By Gicheva, Dora; Link, Albert
  2. Mechanisms of Patent Licensing for Varietal Innovation By Sapkota, Pratikshya; Gallardo, Karina; McCluskey, Jill; Rickard, Bradley
  3. Process innovations, patent litigation and time effects By Barrenechea, Martin
  4. Producer-Funded Innovation: R&D Spillovers across Levy Programs By Xiao, Zhihua
  5. Innovation and imitation in a product-cycle model with FDI and cash-in-advance constraints By Chen, Hung-Ju
  6. The Impact of Innovation in the Multinational Firm By Eduardo Morales; Kamran Bilir
  7. External dimensions of smart specialisation: Opportunities and challenges for trans-regional and transnational collaboration in the EU-13 By Slavo Radosevic; Katerina Ciampi Stancova
  8. Success factors of innovation networks: Lessons from agriculture in Flanders By Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
  9. University Research Productivity and its Impact on the Regional Agricultural Economy: The Case of Colorado State University and the Colorado Economy By Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
  10. An empirical study of technological leadership and persistence in product innovation By Roberto Fontana; Diana Moriniello; Andrea Vezzulli
  11. Fighting Scarcity: Innovation & Comprehensive Strategies to Address Our Water Challenges By Huminston, Glenda
  12. The Impact of CAFE Standards on Innovation in the US Automobile Industry By Bento, Antonio M.; Roth, Kevin D.; Wang, Yiwei
  13. On the linkages in U.S. public R&D spending, knowledge capital and agricultural productivity growth: A Bayesian approach By Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Viens, Frederi G.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
  14. The structure of steel exports: Changes in specialisation and the role of innovation By Anthony de Carvalho; Naoki Sekiguchi
  15. Share of exports to low-income countries, productivity, and innovation: A replication study with firm-level data from six European countries By Joachim Wagner
  16. Climate change adaptation through agricultural R&D investments: Implications for food security and the environment By Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
  17. Non-Neutral Marginal Research Costs and Induced Innovation By Lee, Daegoon; Cowan, Benjamin W.; Shumway, C. Richard
  18. Designing Institutions for Diversity By Letina, Igor; Schmutzler, Armin
  19. Smart Agriculture in the 21st Century: A Discussion on Innovation, Biotechnology, and Big Data By Cougot, Dale
  20. Pricing Genius: The Market Evaluation of Innovation By David Galenson; Simone Lenzu
  21. Bioenergy, Food Security and Poverty Reduction: Mitigating tradeoffs and promoting synergies along the Water- Energy-Food Security Nexus By Mirzabaev, Alisher; Guta, Dawit; Goedecke, Jann; Gaur, Varun; Börner, Jan; Virchow, Detlef; Denich, Manfred; von Braun, Joachim
  22. Global Collateral: How Financial Innovation Drives Capital Flows and Increases Financial Instability By Ana Fostel; John Geanakoplos; Gregory Phelan
  23. Cognitive Biases in the Assimilation of Scientific Information on Global Warming and Genetically Modified Food By McFadden, Brandon R.; Lusk, Jayson
  24. Capturing Rents from Natural Resource Abundance: Private Royalties from U.S. Onshore Oil & Gas Production By Brown, Jason P.; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Weber, Jeremy G.
  25. A socio economic assessment of yield increasing GM wheat in Germany By Wree, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
  26. The Industrial Reorganization of US Agriculture as Reflected in Input-Output Accounts By Han, Yicheol; Goetz, Stephan J.
  27. Determinants of Entrepreneurial Intention By Burney, Shaheer; Davis, Alison F.
  28. An optimization model for technology adoption of marginalized smallholders: Theoretical support for matching technological and institutional innovations By Iskandar, Deden Dinar; Gatzweiler, Franz
  29. Assessing the impact of migration and remittances on technology adoption in rural Senegal By Kaninda Tshikala, Sam; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg
  30. What’s a Cup Worth?: A Hedonic Analysis of U.S. Retail Coffees Prices By Hoehn, John P.
  31. Brazil's Agricultural Total Factor Productivity Growth by Farm Size By Helfand, Steven M.; Magalhaes, Marcelo M.; Rada, Nicholas E.
  32. Skills mix for young entrepreneurs: The right way to go By Ibrahim, Kasirye; Madina, Guloba; Gemma, Ahaibwe; Elizabeth, Birabwa
  33. Promoting self-employment through entrepreneurship financing: Lessons from the Uganda Youth Venture Capital Fund. By Gemma, Ahaibwe; Ibrahim, Kasirye; Mildred, Barungi

  1. By: Gicheva, Dora (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the R&D performance of nascent and established technology-based small firms that receive a Phase II R&D award from the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Our empirical analysis is based on a two-stage selection probit model, which is used to estimate the probability of commercialization conditional on the Phase II project having not failed. Our model predicts, and our analysis confirms, that nascent firms are more likely to fail in their SBIR-supported R&D endeavors. Further, we find that nascent firms that do not fail have a higher probability of commercializing their developed technology.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship; R&D; commercialization; innovation; SBIR program
    JEL: L26 O31 O33 O38
    Date: 2015–07–21
  2. By: Sapkota, Pratikshya; Gallardo, Karina; McCluskey, Jill; Rickard, Bradley
    Keywords: Patent Licensing, Apple, Commercialization, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Barrenechea, Martin
    Abstract: In this work we extend the model developed in (Aoki and Hu, 2003) in order to cover cost reduction innovations, instead of product innovations originally developed on that article. The results show that smaller innovations are more licensable. Regarding the time factors, infringers like faster innovation and patentees prefer bigger innovations and longer imitation periods. Under some suitable situations, litigation time could support innovation and discourage infringement. However the patent life has ambiguous effects and may promote infringement.
    Keywords: Patents, innovation Policy, Applied Game Theory
    JEL: L0
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Xiao, Zhihua
    Abstract: Agricultural R&D investment is becoming an increasingly important policy issue as food prices push upwards and food security problems emerge. An important source of agricultural R&D funding is from producer check-offs, which are increasingly being used to fund applied agricultural research. Existing studies of producer-funded agricultural R&D indicate that there are high private and social rates of return to agricultural R&D investment by farmers, and thus that farmers are under investing in R&D. An important reason for underinvestment of producer-funded R&D is the spillovers across levy programs – the research benefits of one particular crop can flow to other crops via spillovers. The spillovers across levy programs are particularly important in jurisdictions, such as Canada, where agricultural R&D activity has been organized on a commodity-by-commodity basis. This study developed a theoretical model to capture farmers R&D investment decisions by explicitly specifying spillovers across levy programs.
    Keywords: Innovation, producer organizations, agricultural R&D, spillovers, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Chen, Hung-Ju
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of monetary policy on innovation and imitation in a North-South product-cycle model with foreign direct investment (FDI) and separate cash-in-advance (CIA) constraints on innovative R&D, adaptive R&D and imitative R&D. We find that if the CIA constraint is applied to innovative R&D, then an increase in the Northern nominal interest will raise the rate of Northern innovation and the extent of FDI while reducing the rate of Southern imitation and the North-South wage gap. Regarding the effects of the Southern monetary policy, the object that is liquidity-constrained plays a significant role. If adaptive (imitative) R&D is subject to the CIA constraint, then an increase in the Southern nominal interest rate will raise (reduce) the rate of Northern innovation and the extent of FDI while reducing (raising) the rate of Southern imitation. We also examine the responses of social welfare for Northern and Southern consumers to monetary policy.
    Keywords: CIA constraint; FDI; Imitation; Monetary policy; R&D.
    JEL: F12 F23 O31
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Eduardo Morales (Princeton University); Kamran Bilir (University of Wisconsin - Madison)
    Abstract: What is the private return to innovation? When firms operate production sites in multiple countries, improvements developed at one site may be shared across others for efficiency gain. We develop a dynamic model that explicitly accounts for such transfer within the firm, and apply it to measure innovation returns for a comprehensive panel of U.S. multinationals during 1989--2009. We find that the data, which include detailed measures of affiliate production and innovation, are consistent with innovation generating returns at firm locations beyond the innovating site. Accounting for cross-plant effects of innovation, our estimates indicate the average firm realizes between 10 and 30 percent of the return to its U.S. parent R&D abroad, suggesting single-plant estimates may understate firms' gain from innovation.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Slavo Radosevic (University College London); Katerina Ciampi Stancova (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The paper explores the issues of trans-regional and transnational collaboration in the context of smart specialisation in regions with the less developed research and development and innovation (R&D&I) systems, identified as the 13 countries (EU-13) that joined the European Union (EU) after 2004. The paper proposes a systematic methodological approach to trans-regional and transnational cooperation and discusses how this can be utilized to build innovation capacities and enhance innovation potential in selected regions. Specifically, paper addresses following questions: what is conceptual approach to trans-regional cooperation within the context of Smart Specialisation? What is the role of regional governments/national authorities? How regional authorities can deal with analysis of trans-regional opportunities, potential competitors and collaborators? Based on the analysis, what steps can policy-makers take to improve trans-regional cooperation? Our discussion is grounded in the key ’stylized facts’ related to EU-13 R&D&I activities, and the complex link between innovation and internationalization. Innovation systems in the EU-13 are fragmented and based on largely public R&D systems and innovation systems based on predominantly production oriented foreign direct investment (FDI). This structural weakness calls for stronger support for innovation oriented activities and for the integration of global value chains (GVCs) and FDI into local innovation systems. We distinguish and discuss the main obstacles to the internationalization of smart specialisation and discuss ways to overcome them. We highlight the policy action areas related to providing support for technology upgrading in relation to the internationalization of smart specialisation. The Paper concludes by offering a discussion of policies to improve trans-regional cooperation in less developed R&I systems in short and long term.
    Keywords: Inter-regional collaboration, smart specialisation, innovation policy, transnational collaboration, (global) value chains, regional development
    Date: 2015–07
  8. By: Lambrecht, Evelien; Kühne, Bianka; Gellynck, Xavier
    Abstract: Innovation has been identified as a critical asset for SMEs to survive (Hitt et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2001). However, SMEs that need to improve their innovation process often lack the essential resources to innovate when relying solely on their in-house activities (Batterink et al., 2010). A large body of literature therefore highlights the role of external partnerships, or networks (Lazzarini et al., 2001; Pittaway et al., 2004; Sawhney et al., 2006). Despite the increasing number of studies focusing on the relationship between networking and innovation, there is still considerable ambiguity and debate within literature regarding appropriate network characteristics for successful innovations (Nieto and Santamaria, 2007; Pittaway et al., 2004). Furthermore, the existing studies focus mostly on high tech companies (Edquist 2006, van Galen 2008). The objective of our study is to gain insight into the network characteristics critical for successful innovations within the agricultural sector in Flanders. The study is based on interviews and focus group discussions with farmers and network coordinators active in Flanders. In total, 109 respondents were consulted. This research is based on four innovation characteristics which seem crucial for each innovation (Kanter, 1988). For each of these innovation characteristics, we investigated how networks could contribute, via their network characteristics. The results showed that networks serves as a net for knowledge about e.g. new technologies, or changing legislation in order that farmers are faster aware of developments. When farmers have multiple contacts, they have a higher chance to discover new things. Thereby, it is important that knowledge providers are part of the network and connected with the different actors, and not only provide their information to the farmers as an external actor. Also the face-to-face communication within a network is an essential issue. Furthermore, coalition can play a crucial role for some innovations, as a lot of farmers are not able to implement their idea because for example the retailer or research institute is not supportive or interested. If the farmers set up a self-initiated coalition, it can be easier to initiate the innovative idea. Fourth, it is important that individual actors from the agricultural system revisit their actual role. Successful innovation processes often originate in situations where creativity is not limited within one unit. Based on the findings, recommendations for farmers as well as network coordinators are formulated to increase the innovation capacity.
    Keywords: Innovation, Networks, Success factors, Agriculture, Flanders, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Lee, Yoo Hwan; Graff, Gregory D.
    Abstract: Selected Poster (#7640): 2015 AAEA & WAEA Joint Meeting at San Francisco July 26-28th.
    Keywords: Knowledge production function, University tech transfer, Invention & innovation, Local economies., Community/Rural/Urban Development, Industrial Organization, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, O13, O31, O33, O34,
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Roberto Fontana; Diana Moriniello; Andrea Vezzulli
    Abstract: We study how technological leadership affects persistence in product innovation. Relying upon a database of 1818 products marketed between 1990 and 1999 by 265 firms active in three markets of the Local Area Network (LAN) industry we first construct a measure of technological leadership and then relate this measure to persistence in innovation. We find that leaders are systematically more persistent innovators than laggards. We also find that leaders in one market can also systematically innovate in a related and adjacent market. Finally, we find a positive correlation between prior patenting activity and persistence in product innovation.
    Date: 2015–07
  11. By: Huminston, Glenda
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015–02–19
  12. By: Bento, Antonio M.; Roth, Kevin D.; Wang, Yiwei
    Abstract: The Obama administration seeks to tighten the fuel economy standards in the US and the target is to almost double the miles per gallon (MPG) of vehicles by 2025 comparing to that of 2010. With this new aggressive movement, there is an ongoing discussion about whether auto makers could meet the new standards without providing consumers with vehicles that are much lighter and less powerful. In this paper, we investigate how historical changes in the fuel economy standards impacted technological innovation in the automobile industry and estimate the changes in the rate of innovation in response to the changes in the standards. By decomposing innovation growth into natural growth and growth induced by standard changes, we not only show that standard changes can increase innovation growth but are also able to quantify the induced growth rate with respect to the rate of changes in standards. Such method can provide a more precise prediction of the future technological innovation under new standards.
    Keywords: CAFE standards, technological growth, regulation and innovation, fuel economy, vehicle attributes, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, L2, L5, Q4, Q5,
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Viens, Frederi G.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
    Keywords: Total Factor Productivity, Agricultural R&D Expenditures, Agricultural R&D Stocks, Bayesian Hierarchical Model, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Anthony de Carvalho; Naoki Sekiguchi
    Abstract: This paper examines changes in the steel-related export structure of the ten largest steelmaking economies between 2004 and 2014, in terms of the steel products exported and the market destination for those exports. To shed light on how exporters’ patterns of specialisation have changed in the period since 2004, indices of “Revealed Comparative Advantage” (RCA) are developed for a number of low, medium and high value-added steel products, indicating that export specialisation patterns may be changing noticeably as some steel producers in emerging economies move up the value chain and begin exporting more sophisticated steel products. The paper also assesses the role of innovation, as measured by patents, in determining the export structure of countries, and finds a positive correlation between innovation activity and export specialisation in higher value-added steel segments.
    Keywords: trade, patents, comparative advantage
    JEL: F14 L6 O34
    Date: 2015–07–29
  15. By: Joachim Wagner (Leuphana University Lueneburg, Germany)
    Abstract: Crinò and Epifani (2012) report and discuss two empirical regularities they find in a representative sample of Italian manufacturing firms. First, there is a negative correlation between firms’ productivity and their export share to low-income destinations. Second, there is a negative correlation between firms’ innovation activity and their export share to low-income destinations. This note uses recently available comparable high quality firm level data for six European countries (including Italy) and similarly specified empirical models in an attempt to replicate these results. Replication failed completely. The link found between the share of exports to lowincome countries and either productivity or R&D intensity is never in line with the results from Crinò and Epifani (2012).
    Keywords: Exports, low-income destinations, productivity, innovation, EFIGE data
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2015–07
  16. By: Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Hertel, Thomas W.; Fuglie, Keith O.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation, Climate Change Adaptation, Total Factor Productivity Growth, Agricultural R&D Investments, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Lee, Daegoon; Cowan, Benjamin W.; Shumway, C. Richard
    Abstract: We test Hicks’ induced innovation hypothesis (IIH) in U.S. agriculture using a state-level panel dataset of input prices and quantities for the period 1960-2004. A two-stage cost minimization model where decisions of research investment allocation predates those of input allocations is set forth. Parametric relationships between expected relative price change and input quantity allocation that represent technical changes are obtained distinctively from those between current relative price change and input quantity allocation, which represent general factor substitutions. Our model allows both for time-varying, non-neutral research costs across states and time while only requiring that unobserved trends in relative costs of research are equal among states. Considerable evidence for the IIH is found for three of six input pairs.
    Keywords: Induced Innovation, Technical Change, Production, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Letina, Igor; Schmutzler, Armin
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the design of innovation contests when the quality of an innovation depends on the research approach of the supplier, but the best approach is unknown. Diversity of approaches is beneficial because of the resulting option value. An auction induces the social optimum, while a fixed-prize tournament induces insufficient diversity. The optimal contest for the buyer is an augmented fixed-prize tournament, where suppliers can choose from a set of at most two prizes. This allows the buyer to implement any level of diversity at the lowest cost.
    Keywords: auctions; contests; diversity; procurement; tournaments
    JEL: D02 D21 D44 L14 L22 L23
    Date: 2015–07
  19. By: Cougot, Dale
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  20. By: David Galenson (University of Chicago); Simone Lenzu (University of Chicago)
    Abstract: Economists have neglected a key issue for understanding and increasing technological change, in failing to study how talented individuals produce innovations. This paper takes a quantitative approach to this problem. Regression analysis of auction data from 1965-2015 reveals that the age-price profiles of Jackson Pollock and Andy Warhol – the two greatest painters born in the 20th century – closely resemble the age profiles of the two artists derived both from textbooks of art history and from retrospective exhibitions. The agreement of these sources confirms that the auction market assigns the highest prices to the most important art, and examination of the artists’ careers reveals that this art is the most important because it is the most innovative. These results lend strong support to our understanding of creativity at the individual level, with a sharp contrast between the extended experimental innovation of Pollock and the sudden conceptual innovation of Warhol.
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Mirzabaev, Alisher; Guta, Dawit; Goedecke, Jann; Gaur, Varun; Börner, Jan; Virchow, Detlef; Denich, Manfred; von Braun, Joachim
    Abstract: Modern bioenergy is a core ingredient of sustainable economic development as it plays an important role in poverty reduction and green growth. This makes bioenergy innovations critical, especially in developing countries where many households and rural communities rely on traditional bioenergy. Managing the multiple tradeoffs among bioenergy use, agricultural productivity, and ecosystem functions is a major development challenge. Addressing this challenge requires the identification of the drivers, tradeoffs and impacts of bioenergy production, trade and use in the Water, Energy and Food Security Nexus. The key objective of this paper is to provide an analytical framework and assess the track record of policy actions to stimulate modern bioenergy innovation in order to achieve multiple-win outcomes in terms of poverty alleviation, improved health and gender empowerment and environmental sustainability. We begin by describing the global trends and drivers in bioenergy production, trade and use. Secondly, we review the state of the art on impacts and links of bioenergy with the other Nexus components. Thirdly, we suggest a conceptual framework for evaluating the synergies and tradeoffs of bioenergy with other bioeconomic and economic activities along the Nexus. Follow-up empirical research at household and community levels in several developing countries will be based on this framework. Finally, a discussion on the conceptual framework is enriched by insights on the relevant actors, the tools and mechanisms specific to these actors for catalyzing innovations in the bioenergy for development.
    Keywords: bioenergy, poverty reduction, food security, decentralized energy, WEF Nexus tradeoffs and synergies, households and communities, innovations, Food Security and Poverty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O13, O33, Q01, Q42, B41,
    Date: 2014–07
  22. By: Ana Fostel (University of Virginia); John Geanakoplos (Yale University); Gregory Phelan (Williams College)
    Abstract: We show that cross-border financial flows arise when levels of financial innovation differ across countries. Financial integration is a way of sharing scarce collateral. The ability of one country to leverage and tranche assets provides attractive financial contracts to investors in the other country, and general equilibrium effects on prices create opportunities for investors in the sophisticated country to invest abroad. Foreign demand for collateral and for collateral-backed financial promises increases the collateral value of domestic assets, and cheap foreign assets provide attractive returns to investors who do not demand collateral to issue promises. Gross global flows respond dynamically to fundamentals, exporting and amplifying financial volatility.
    Date: 2015–07
  23. By: McFadden, Brandon R.; Lusk, Jayson
    Abstract: The ability of scientific knowledge to contribute to public debate about societal risks depends on how the public assimilates information resulting from the scientific community. Bayesian decision theory assumes that people update a belief by allocating weights to a prior belief and new information to form a posterior belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prior beliefs on assimilation of scientific information and test several hypotheses about the manner in which people process scientific information on genetically modified food and global warming. Results indicated that assimilation of information is dependent on prior beliefs and that the failure to update beliefs in a Bayesian fashion is a result of several factors including: misinterpreting information, illusionary correlations, selectively scrutinizing information, information-processing problems, knowledge, political affiliation, and cognitive function.
    Keywords: Bayesian updating, beliefs, climate change, biotechnology, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D83, Q16, Q54,
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Brown, Jason P.; Fitzgerald, Timothy; Weber, Jeremy G.
    Abstract: Innovation-spurred growth in oil and gas production from shale formations led the U.S. to become the global leader in producing oil and natural gas. Because most shale is on private lands, drilling companies must access the resource through private lease contracts that provide a share of the value of production – a royalty – to mineral owners. We investigate the competitiveness of leasing markets by estimating how much mineral owners capture geologically-driven advantages in well productivity through a higher royalty rate. We estimate that the six major shale plays generated $39 billion in private royalties in 2014, however, extraction firms capture most of the benefit from resource abundance, with a doubling of the ultimate recovery of the average well in a county leading to a 2 percentage point increase in the average royalty rate (an 11 percent increase). The low pass-through is consistent with firms exercising market power in private leasing markets.
    Keywords: royalty payments, oil, natural gas, mineral rights, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, L71, R11, Q32, Q35,
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Wree, Philipp; Sauer, Johannes
    Abstract: High Yield Genetically Modified Wheat (HOSUT) HOSUT lines are an innovation in wheat breeding based on genetic modification (GM) with an incremental yield potential of ca. 28 % compared to conventional wheat varieties. We apply the real option concept of Maximum Incremental Social Tolerable Irreversible Costs (MISTICs) to do an ex-ante assessment of the socioeconomic potential of HOSUT lines for Germany. We analyze the cost and benefits to farmer and society within two scenarios. Our results indicate that not authorizing HOSUT lines is correct if German society values the possible total irreversible costs of this technology to be € 10.44 and € 12.15 per citizen or more, depending on the scenario.
    Keywords: Real option, wheat, yield increasing, uncertainty, irreversibility, social costs, GMO, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Han, Yicheol; Goetz, Stephan J.
    Abstract: Agriculture has for the most part successfully met the food and material needs of people and industries. Generally, industries develop in rapid bursts that follow from economic innovations, instead of developing at a gradual and continuous pace. The development of agriculture is also closely linked to technological innovations and conditions elsewhere in the economy. However, few if any previous studies have examined how agriculture has reorganized in terms of industry input-output relationships. In this poster, We examine when and how agriculture has undergone changes within the US, through a comparative analysis of agricultural activities as reflected in input output tables over time.
    Keywords: Input-output accounts, Agriculture, Reorganization, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2015
  27. By: Burney, Shaheer; Davis, Alison F.
    Abstract: Abstract: This poster examines determinants of entrepreneurial intention using a novel dataset representing over 1,400 households generated by the Kentucky Entrepreneurship Survey. Whereas the literature discusses the potential role of entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and community entrepreneurial climate (CEC) in explaining entrepreneurship, this study provides an empirical model which tests these relationships by including in the econometric analysis both individual and environmental factors, which are quantified using a scale based on each respondent’s ranking of questions regarding their perception of ESE and CEC. Marginal effects from a probit regression suggest that innovativeness and previous experience are significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention in rural and urban areas, among other findings. The results have implications for entrepreneurship and small business development programming in Kentucky and beyond.
    Keywords: Rural, Entrepreneur, Community, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015
  28. By: Iskandar, Deden Dinar; Gatzweiler, Franz
    Abstract: The rural poor are often marginalized and restricted from access to markets, public services and information, mainly due to poor connections to transport and communication infrastructure. Despite these unfavorable conditions, agricultural technology investments are believed to unleash unused human and natural capital potentials and alleviate poverty by productivity growth in agriculture. Based on the concept of marginality we develop a theoretical model which shows that these expectations for productivity growth are conditional on human and natural capital stocks and transaction costs. Our model categorizes the rural farm households below the poverty line into four segments according to labor and land endowments. Policy recommendations for segment and location specific investments are provided. Theoretical findings indicate that adjusting rural infrastructure and institutions to reduce transaction costs is a more preferable investment strategy than adjusting agricultural technologies to marginalized production conditions.
    Keywords: Optimization, Rural Poverty, Technology Adoption, Theoretical Analysis, Transaction Cost, Environmental Economics and Policy, H53, Q12,
    Date: 2014–08
  29. By: Kaninda Tshikala, Sam; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg
    Abstract: Remittances are viewed by the new economics of labor migration theory as a substitute for formal or informal credit that may enable households to overcome liquidity constraints and invest in new technologies and activities. To test this hypothesis, this paper analyzes the impact of migration and remittances on the adoption of modern agricultural technologies in rural Senegal. Survey data were analyzed using a three stage least squared model. The results reveal that both internal and international migrations have a positive impact on the adoption of new technologies. However, only households with international remittances were more likely to adopt modern technologies
    Keywords: Migration, remittances, Technology adoption, 3SLS, Senegal, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Hoehn, John P.
    Abstract: The marginal retail value of coffee attributes are estimated for the U.S. marketHedonic implicit prices identify the marginal market values of alternative products and market strategies. Results indicate that Estate and Fair Trade designations detract, rather than add, value to coffees sold in U.S. retail markets. Organic certification offers no net value-added relative to natural production. Market premiums for origin labeling are limited to coffee exporting areas with long-standing reputations for high quality coffee. There are positive and economically significant rewards to flavor characteristics, roast type and recent innovations in single-serve packaging. Overall, the greatest value opportunity for coffee supplier is in the cup, not in ancillary, non-flavor characteristics.
    Keywords: hedonic, coffee, organic, market, attributes, Lancaster, country of origin, labeling, Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development, Marketing, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q11, Q13, Q17, Q21,
    Date: 2015–05–19
  31. By: Helfand, Steven M.; Magalhaes, Marcelo M.; Rada, Nicholas E.
    Abstract: The role of farm size has recently come to the forefront of agricultural development debates. Agricultural development policy often focuses on small farms given evidence of their role in poverty reduction and of higher yields. Yet policy has also focused on large farms due to their share of output, efficiency gains from vertical and horizontal integration, and potential employment generation. Brazil offers an interesting case study because of its wide spectrum of farm sizes and the country’s dual agricultural policy focus towards large commercial “agribusiness” enterprises, led by the Ministry of Agriculture, and “family farms,” led by the Ministry of Agrarian Development. Our purpose is to examine the role that farm size may have in Brazil’s agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) growth, which has accelerated at one of the world’s fastest rates over the last twenty years. The data are drawn from the agricultural censuses of 1985, 1995/96, and 2006, aggregated at the municipality level into five farm-size classes. The findings of this study point to heavy technical efficiency losses across all size classes, creating a substantial drag on national agricultural TFP growth. Moreover, because farms in the middle of the size distribution achieved the slowest technical change and TFP growth – bookended by faster growth in the smallest and largest farm-size classes – we identify an unexpected and unexplored source of inefficiency, namely medium-sized farms.
    Keywords: agriculture, Brazil, efficiency change, farm size, technical change, total factor productivity (TFP), Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015
  32. By: Ibrahim, Kasirye; Madina, Guloba; Gemma, Ahaibwe; Elizabeth, Birabwa
    Abstract: Provision of skills training has been identified by Government of Uganda as one of the major initiatives to be undertaken to make youth more enterprising and address the skills mismatch employers are grappling with. A review of evidence on skills provision shows that a combination of skills training yield higher impacts on labour market outcomes than training in a single skill alone. In addition, training targeted at every stage of entrepreneurial development (mind-set, incubation, start-up, growth and expansion) are vital in sustaining businesses venture over the long-term with emphasis on peer-to-pear mentoring.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics,
    Date: 2015–02
  33. By: Gemma, Ahaibwe; Ibrahim, Kasirye; Mildred, Barungi
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Financial Economics, Industrial Organization, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital, Marketing, Production Economics, Public Economics, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–06

This nep-ino issue is ©2015 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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