nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒08‒01
forty-two papers chosen by
Uwe Cantner
University of Jena

  1. Innovation and imitation: effects of intellectual property rights in a product-cycle model of skills accumulation By Chen, Hung-Ju
  2. Venture capital and innovation strategies By Da Rin, M.; Penas, M.F.
  3. Innovation Radar: Identifying Innovations and Innovators with High Potential in ICT FP7, CIP & H2020 Projects By Giuditta De Prato; Daniel Nepelski; Giuseppe Piroli
  4. The Diffusion of Process Innovation: The Case of Drip Irrigation in California By Taylor, Rebecca; Zilberman, David
  5. Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Coherence and Biotechnology Innovation Performance By Sanchez, Leonardo; Ng, Desmond
  6. Market size and innovation: An application to the French seed market for large crops By Charlot, Sylvie; Dridi, Chokri; Lemarié, Stéphane
  7. Should We Give Up After Solyndra? Optimal Technology R&D Portfolios under Uncertainty By Mort Webster; Karen Fisher-Vanden; David Popp; Nidhi Santen
  8. Drivers, effects and peculiarities of innovation activities in the food industry: a comparison across EU Member States using CIS data By Ciliberti, Stefano; Bröring, Stefanie; Martino, Gaetano
  9. The Public R&D and Productivity Growth in Australian Broadacre Agriculture: A Cointegration and Causality Approach By Khan, Farid; Salim, Ruhul
  10. The Effects of R&D on Agricultural Productivity of Australian Broadacre Agriculture: A Semiparametric Smooth Coefficient Approach By Khan, Farid; Salim, Ruhul
  11. A Discussion on Innovation, Biotechnology, and Big Data By Vilsack, Tom; Reed, Cory; Fraley, Robert; Thatcher, Mary kay
  12. Designing institutions for diversity By Igor Letina; Armin Schmutzler
  13. Innovation and Collaboration: Our Role in Strengthening the Rural Economy By Guevara, Thomas
  14. Trading processing for goods:a different view from the past on Italian trade flows? By Ludovico Bracci; Silvia Fabiani; Alberto Felettigh
  15. Innovation and Marketing Strategies for GI Products: The Case of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese as Ingredient By Mancini, Mariacecilia; Consiglieri, Claudio
  16. The Dynamics of Development: Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Reallocation By Roberto Fattal Jaef; Francisco Buera
  17. Endogenous Technical Change and Groundwater Management: Revisiting the Gisser-Sanchez Paradox By Kim, C.S.; Fuglie, Keith O.; Wallander, Steve; Wechsler, Seth
  18. Institutional Environments for Enabling Agricultural Technology Innovations: The role of Land Rights in Ethiopia, Ghana, India and Bangladesh By Schädler, Manuel; Gatzweiler, Franz W.
  19. Quality versus Quantity Effects of Pesticides: Joint Estimation of Quality Grade and Crop Yield By Kawasaki, Kentaro; Lichtenberg, Erik
  20. Diffusion of Green Technology: A Survey By Allan, Corey; Jaffe, Adam B; Sin, Isabelle
  21. Organizational Barriers to Technology Adoption: Evidence from Soccer-Ball Producers in Pakistan By Atkin, David; Chaudhry, Azam; Chaudry, Shamyla; Khandelwal, Amit; Verhoogen, Eric A
  22. Are we measuring what we think we are measuring? Recent experience in using DNA fingerprinting and implications for tracking varietal adoption and assessing impacts By Maredia, Mywish K.; Reyes, Byron A.
  23. Wind Turbine Shutdowns and Upgrades in Denmark: Timing Decisions and the Impact of Government Policy By Cook, Jonathan A.; Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia
  24. Existence, Uniqueness, and Comparative Statics in Contests By Martin Kaae Jensen
  25. The Effect of Indonesian Farmer Preferences for Crop Attributes in the Adoption of Horticultural Crops: A Best-Worst Scaling Approach By Supehatin; Umberger, Wendy J.; Yi, Dale; Stringer, Randy; Minot, Nicholas
  26. Políticas de Inovação e Capacidades Estatais Comparadas: Brasil, China e Argentina By Ana Célia Castro
  27. Does Internet Use Affect Public Perceptions of Technologies in Livestock Production? By Matin, Anahita Hosseini; Goddard, Ellen
  28. Identifying Factor Substitution and Energy Intensity in the U.S. Agricultural Sector By Suh, Dong Hee
  29. The Malthusian Trap and Development in Pre-Industrial Societies: A View Differing from the Standard One By Tisdell, Clem; Svizzero, Serge
  30. Credit, Technology Adoption and Collective Action in Tanzania’s Smallholder Dairy Sector By Twine, Edgar; Rao, Elizaphan; Baltenweck, Isabelle; Omore, Amos
  31. Aquifer Depletion in the face of Climate Change and Technical Progress. By Quintana-Ashwell, Nicolas E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.
  32. Fostering entrepreneurial education in Agribusiness through experiential learning By Cavicchi, Alessio; Rinaldi, Chiara; Santini, Cristina
  33. Waste to Worth: Sustainable Processing Solutions By McHugh, Tara
  34. Nevada Ranchers Attitudes Toward the Trichomoniasis Vaccine By Salaghe, Florina; Harris, Thomas R.
  35. Factors Influencing Adoption of VSH Queens in the Honey Bee Breeding Industry By Leiby, Julie; Westra, John
  36. Gender-specific Risk Preferences and Fertilizer Use in Kenyan Farming Households By Sheremenko, Ganna; Magnan, Nicholas
  37. Information Technology's Impacts on Productivity, Welfare and Social Change: General Observations By Tisdell, Clem
  38. The economic impact of climate change on cash crop farms in Quebec and Ontario By An, Ning; Thomassin, Paul J.
  39. Fiscal Episodes, Technological Progress and Market Power By António Afonso; João Tovar Jalles
  40. Disentangling the Links between Energy and Agricultural Markets: The Shale Gas Phenomenon By Pérez-Domínguez, Ignacio; Araujo-Enciso, Sergio-René; Santini, Fabien
  41. Creating Youth Employment through Entrepreneurship Financing: The Uganda Youth Venture Capital Fund By Gemma, Ahaibwe; Ibrahim, Kasirye
  42. Gender and Dynamics of Technology Adoption: Evidence from Uganda By Mishra, Khushbu; Abdoul, Sam G.; Miranda, Mario J.; Diiro, Gracious M.

  1. By: Chen, Hung-Ju
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of stronger intellectual property rights (IPR) protection in the South on innovation, imitation, the pattern of production and wage inequality based on a North-South product-cycle model with foreign direct investment (FDI) and skills accumulation. This quality-ladder model features innovative R&D in the North and imitative R&D in the South. Two types of innovation are considered: innovation targeting all products and innovation targeting only imitated products. We find that for both types of innovation, strengthening IPR protection reduces the innovation rate and raises the imitation rate. There is also an increase in the proportion of Northern unskilled labor and a decrease in Northern wage inequality. As for the pattern of production, the extent of FDI may decrease while the extent of Northern production may increase.
    Keywords: Imitation; IPR; R&D; Skills; Wage inequality.
    JEL: F12 F23 O31
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Da Rin, M. (Tilburg University, TILEC); Penas, M.F. (Tilburg University, TILEC)
    Abstract: Venture capital is a specialized form of financial intermediation that often provides funding for costly technological innovation. Venture capital firms need to exit portfolio companies within about five years from the investment to generate returns for institutional investors. This paper is the first to examine the association of venture capital funding with a company’s choice of innovation strategies. We employ a unique dataset of over 10,000 innovative Dutch companies, some of which received venture financing. The data include detailed information on patent applications, innovation activities, financing sources, and other company characteristics. We find that companies backed by venture capital focus on the buildup of absorptive capacity, by engaging in in-house R&D, while at the same time acquiring external knowledge. We interpret this finding as a consequence of the time horizon of venture capital firms. Our results suggest that the correlation between venture capital funding and the build-up of absorptive capacity is not only due to a selection effect. We derive implications of these findings for corporate strategy and public policy.
    Keywords: Venture Capital; Entrepreneurship; Innovation Strategy; Research & Development; Public Policy
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Giuditta De Prato (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Daniel Nepelski (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Giuseppe Piroli (European Commission – DG Employment, Social Affairs & Inclusion)
    Abstract: The European Commission's Framework Programme constitutes an important share in R&D expenditures in Europe. A number of FP7 projects certainly produce cutting-edge technologies and a significant percentage of these technologies could be commercialized. However, there is a general feeling that not all these technologies and innovations with commercial potential reach the market. The question is why? The Innovation Radar (IR) is a support initiative that focuses on the identification of high-potential innovations in the ICT FP7, CIP and H2020 projects and the key organization in delivering these innovations to the market. The current report documents the details of the IR methodology and the results of its first application. The results of the pilot exercise show that ICT FP7 projects deliver a substantial number of innovations. On average, there are nearly two new or substantially improved products or services developed within each ICT FP7 project. However, further nurturing is needed to bring them to the market and exploit their commercial potential.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, innovation assessment, FP7, H2020
    Date: 2015–07
  4. By: Taylor, Rebecca; Zilberman, David
    Keywords: Process innovation, Technology diffusion, Drip irrigation, Historical analysis, Crop Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q16, N52,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Sanchez, Leonardo; Ng, Desmond
    Keywords: Innovation, Coherence, Industry Structure, Agribusiness, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2015–05–26
  6. By: Charlot, Sylvie; Dridi, Chokri; Lemarié, Stéphane
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the impact of market size on innovation in the seed industry. The analysis is based on a panel dataset that covers 19 large crops in France during the period 1989-2012. Our econometric analysis is based on a negative binomial specification and we conduct both cross section as well as panel data analysis. We show that the French crop area always has a positive and significant effect on the number of innovations introduced each year. Market size of foreign countries may be either positive or negative revealing synergy or substitution effects. When hybrid crops are considered, the innovation is mainly determined by a positive and very significant fixed effect, crop area having no more influence. This last result can be interpreted as market size being mainly dependent on crop area for non-hybrid crop and dependent of price mark-up for hybrid crops.
    Keywords: Seed Innovation, Market Size, Crops, Count Data, France, Agribusiness, Industrial Organization, C01, L66, O31, Q16,
    Date: 2015–05
  7. By: Mort Webster; Karen Fisher-Vanden; David Popp; Nidhi Santen
    Abstract: Global climate change and other environmental challenges require the development of new energy technologies with lower emissions. In the near-term, R&D investments, either by government or the private sector, can bring down the costs of these lower emission technologies. However, the results of R&D are uncertain, and there are many potential technologies that may turn out to play an effective role in the future energy mix. In this paper, we address the problem of allocating R&D across technologies under uncertainty. Specifically, given two technologies, one with lower costs at present, but the other with greater uncertainty in the returns to R&D, how should one allocate the R&D budget? We develop a multi-stage stochastic dynamic programming version of an integrated assessment model of climate and economy that represents endogenous technological change through R&D decisions for two substitutable non-carbon backstop technologies. Using the model, we demonstrate that near-term R&D into the higher cost technology is justified, and that the amount of R&D into the high cost technology increases with both the variance in the uncertainty in returns to R&D and with the skewness of the uncertainty. We also present an illustrative case study of wind and solar photovoltaic technologies, and show that poor R&D results in early periods do not necessarily mean that investment should not continue.
    JEL: O38 Q42 Q48 Q54 Q55
    Date: 2015–07
  8. By: Ciliberti, Stefano; Bröring, Stefanie; Martino, Gaetano
    Abstract: Innovation is a clear target of the Europe 2020 growth strategy. It has been widely postulated that cooperation is especially important for innovation in the food industry because it has traditionally been regarded as a “low tech” sector. This paper analyses how different forms of cooperation affect innovation activities in the EU’s food industry. In particular, the study addresses the question of how cooperation between companies and key chain agents influences innovative activity. To do so, we analysed data at the country level drawn from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS). The aggregated data allowed us to investigate national system-level processes that must be considered the outcomes of micro-level decisions and policies. A random effect linear model is formulated and estimated to analyse the panel data obtained from five CIS waves. The model indicates that cooperation with universities positively affects innovative activity and, surprisingly, that government financial support has not been an effective instrument to foster innovation by food companies.
    Keywords: Innovation, food industry, cooperation, supplier integration, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  9. By: Khan, Farid; Salim, Ruhul
    Abstract: This study investigates the nexus between research and development expenditure and productivity growth in Australian broadacre agriculture using country-level time-series data for the period 1953 to 2009. Using standard time-series econometrics data are analysed to examine the dynamic relationships between research and development expenditure (R&D) and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. Findings here provide econometric evidence of a co-integrating relationship between R&D and productivity growth, and a unidirectional causality emergent from R&D to TFP growth. Moreover, employing variance decomposition and impulse response function the dynamic properties of the model are explored beyond the sample periods. Findings suggest that R&D can be readily linked to the variation in productivity growth beyond the sample periods. Further, forecasting result suggests a significant out-of-sample relationship exists between the public R&D and productivity in broadacre agriculture. We used a novel method MIRR which is conceptually superior than the conventional IRR to obtain a credible estimate of returns on public research investment. We found MIRR of 10.06% per year for the reinvestment rate of 3% per year. Therefore, results establishing long run relationship between productivity and R&D in Australian agriculture shed light on the future policies in R&D investments in Australia.
    Keywords: Public Research & Development (R&D), Productivity, Australian Broadacre Agriculture, Cointegration, Internal Rates of Return, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015–02
  10. By: Khan, Farid; Salim, Ruhul
    Abstract: This article analyses the role of research and development (R&D) in Australia's broadacre farming by using the semi-parametric smooth coefficient model proposed by Hastie and Tibshirani (1993) and Li et al (2002) and a state-level dataset covering the period 1995 to 2007. While the conventional production function approach only captures the direct effects of R&D, this methodology captures both the direct impact of a change in R&D on output and the indirect impact through changes in efficiency of use of factor inputs in the production process. The empirical results show that once both the direct and indirect effects are taken into consideration, R&D investments significantly increase outputs. The results also show that there are substantial variations in the effects of R&D on output across the states. Such variations need to be taken into account when designing policies for investing public R&D in agriculture.
    Keywords: Broadacre Agriculture, Semi-parametric smooth coefficient model, Productivity, Research and Development, Farm Management, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, C14, C23, D24,
    Date: 2015–07
  11. By: Vilsack, Tom; Reed, Cory; Fraley, Robert; Thatcher, Mary kay
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2015–02–19
  12. By: Igor Letina; Armin Schmutzler
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the design of innovation contests when the quality of an innovation depends on the research approach of the supplier, but the best approach is unknown. Diversity of approaches is beneficial because of the resulting option value. An auction induces the social optimum, while a fixed-prize tournament induces insufficient diversity. The optimal contest for the buyer is an augmented fixed-prize tournament, where suppliers can choose from a set of at most two prizes. This allows the buyer to implement any level of diversity at the lowest cost.
    Keywords: Contests, tournaments, auctions, diversity, procurement
    JEL: L14 L22 L23
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Guevara, Thomas
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  14. By: Ludovico Bracci (Istat); Silvia Fabiani (Banca d'Italia); Alberto Felettigh (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: The new international standards for national accounts and balance of payments statistics (ESA 2010 and BPM6) introduced a new treatment of goods sent abroad for processing without changing ownership, now considered as an exchange of services. In this paper we explore to what extent this innovation affects the structural analysis of Italian trade flows, in particular along the geo-sectoral dimension. We also draw, for the first time, a detailed picture of exports and imports of processing services in order to shed light on how Italian firms participate, through this channel, in global value chains. Our findings largely validate the geo-sectoral interpretations based on the previous statistical standards. The data reveal that Italy is historically a net exporter of processing services, especially for high-technology products; flows are highly concentrated across destinations and sectors.
    Keywords: trade, processing services, global value chains.
    JEL: F10 F14
    Date: 2015–07
  15. By: Mancini, Mariacecilia; Consiglieri, Claudio
    Keywords: GIs, TTIP, IPRs, Parmigiano Reggiano PDO, Grana Padano PDO, Food Processing, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade, Marketing,
    Date: 2015–04
  16. By: Roberto Fattal Jaef (The World Bank); Francisco Buera (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago)
    Abstract: Development dynamics are characterized by sustained improvements in TFP, protracted increases in investment rates, and a broad transformation in the struc- ture of production. Low income countries are characterized by small average firm size, slow firm growth over the life-cycle, and significant dispersion of marginal products. In this paper we present a quantitative theory that jointly matches the behavior of firms in under-developed economies and key properties of develop- ment paths. We work with a model that features endogenous innovation decisions by entrepreneurs, reallocation of factors due to idiosyncratic productivity shocks, and selection in and out of entrepreneurship. We construct a low-TFP stationary equilibrium with dispersion in marginal products that is driven by idiosyncratic distortions. We then trigger development through a reform that liberalizes the economy from all frictions. Our quantitative theory can account well for cross- sectional and life-cycle patterns in distorted economies, and can generate develop- ment paths with rising TFP and investment dynamics, consistent with the data. Ignoring either endogenous innovation or selection in and out of entrepreneurship would lead to counter-factual transition paths, similar to those of the standard neoclassical growth model.
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Kim, C.S.; Fuglie, Keith O.; Wallander, Steve; Wechsler, Seth
    Abstract: Traditional models of groundwater economics, as well as many current iterations of those models, assume that optimal aquifer depletion occurs with a fixed irrigation technology. As noted by Koundouri (2004), this assumption is one of several that contributes to the Gisser-Sanchez Effect (GSE), one of the most controversial theoretical/empirical results in groundwater management literature since it appeared in a seminal paper in 1980. The GSE states that economic benefits from managing the groundwater use for irrigation would be insignificant when the storage capacity of groundwater stock is relatively large and the demand for groundwater is highly inelastic. In this paper, we show that the elasticity of the groundwater demand curve decreases over time as increasing extraction costs drive movement to more efficient irrigation technologies. In addition, this shifting of the demand curve is even greater when incorporating a model of induced technical change through endogenous R&D expenditures. Using this model, we show that the GSE does not exist when the assumption of a fixed irrigation technology is relaxed.
    Keywords: Gisser−Sanchez, consumptive water use, application rate, induced irrigation technology, optimal government subsidy rate, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Schädler, Manuel; Gatzweiler, Franz W.
    Abstract: Land rights are essential assets for improving the livelihoods of the rural poor. This literature based paper shed light to some land rights issues that are crucial for the effectiveness and sustainability of implementing technological innovations in marginalized rural areas of Ethiopia, Ghana, India and Bangladesh. By analysing country specific land right regimes, this paper aims to understand what institutional conditions might constitute barriers to the effective implementation of technological innovations and how they might be overcome. Land rights issues considered in this paper include public and private ownership of land in Ethiopia, customary and statutory law in Ghana, and gender equality and land rights in India and Bangladesh. A better understanding of institutional barriers for the effective implementation of technological innovations is a precondition for complementing technological with enabling institutional innovations and for improving priority setting, targeting and sequencing in the implementation of productivity increasing development measures.
    Keywords: Marginality, agriculture, technological innovations, institutions, land rights, tenure security, gender equality, customary law, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–10
  19. By: Kawasaki, Kentaro; Lichtenberg, Erik
    Abstract: While the capacity of pesticides to protect output from losses is well established, the contribution of pesticides to prevention of quality damage has been less extensively documented. The relative importance of the quality and quantity effects of pesticides has received even less attention. We investigate the relative effects of the three major classes of pesticides—insecticides, herbicides, and fungicides—on the quantity and quality of output. To do so, we build on our previous work to develop a new econometric estimator for estimating quality and quantity of output simultaneously when quality is measured in terms of discrete grades. We apply that estimator using a panel of data from Japanese wheat production for the period 1995-2006. The estimated parameters of the model indicate that the quality effects of fungicides and fertilizer are substantial: Increases in quality account for two-fifths of the overall marginal revenue product of fertilizer and close to a fifth of the overall marginal revenue product of fungicides. The magnitude of the effect of fertilizer on wheat quality attests to the importance of kernel size and weight in determining grade. Similarly, the magnitude of the effect of fungicides on wheat quality speaks to the importance of disease control in wheat production.
    Keywords: grading standards, pesticides, fertilizers, productivity, climate change, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C33, C35, Q10,
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Allan, Corey; Jaffe, Adam B; Sin, Isabelle
    Abstract: This paper surveys the existing literature on diffusion of environmentally beneficial technology. Overall, it confirms many of the lessons of the larger literature on technology diffusion: diffusion often appears slow when viewed from the outside; the flow of information is an important factor in the diffusion process; networks and organisations can matter; behavioural factors such as values and cognitive biases also play a role. With respect to policy instruments, there is some evidence that the flexibility of market-based instruments can have a beneficial impact on technology diffusion, but there are also numerous cases in which regulations have forced the adoption of new technologies. There would be significant benefit to increased investment in studies that look at questions such as the role of information provision, networks and framing issues in households’ and firms’ adoption decisions.
    Keywords: Technology diffusion, technology transfer, policy instruments, green technology, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O33, Q55, Q56,
    Date: 2014–03
  21. By: Atkin, David; Chaudhry, Azam; Chaudry, Shamyla; Khandelwal, Amit; Verhoogen, Eric A
    Abstract: This paper studies technology adoption in a cluster of soccer-ball producers in Sialkot, Pakistan. We invented a new cutting technology that reduces waste of the primary raw material and gave the technology to a random subset of producers. Despite the arguably unambiguous net benefits of the technology for nearly all firms, after 15 months take-up remained puzzlingly low. We hypothesize that an important reason for the lack of adoption is a misalignment of incentives within firms: the key employees (cutters and printers) are typically paid piece rates, with no incentive to reduce waste, and the new technology slows them down, at least initially. Fearing reductions in their effective wage, employees resist adoption in various ways, including by misinforming owners about the value of the technology. To investigate this hypothesis, we implemented a second experiment among the firms that originally received the technology: we offered one cutter and one printer per firm a lump-sum payment, approximately equal to a monthly wage, conditional on them demonstrating competence in using the technology in the presence of the owner. This incentive payment, small from the point of view of the firm, had a significant positive effect on adoption. We interpret the results as supportive of the hypothesis that misalignment of incentives within firms is an important barrier to technology adoption in our setting.
    Keywords: manufacturing firms; organizations; soccer/football; technology adoption
    JEL: D2 L2 O1 O3
    Date: 2015–07
  22. By: Maredia, Mywish K.; Reyes, Byron A.
    Abstract: Varietal adoption based on household surveys has mostly relied on farmers’ response to varietal identification. This method can give biased estimates if farmers are unable to identify improved varieties as a group or by name, or give names that do not match with the improved variety list. To tackle these potential problems requires time intensive data collection such as including follow-up questions in the survey instrument, visiting the field to observe plant characteristics, or collecting sample materials (i.e., photos, seeds/plant tissues) from the farmers for later verification by experts. Each of these approaches has implications on the cost of data collection and the accuracy with which they can correctly identify a variety. This paper reports the results of two pilot studies conducted in Ghana and Zambia to test different approaches of collecting variety-specific adoption data, and to validate them against the benchmark of DNA-fingerprinting to determine which method is most effective in measuring varietal adoption. Results suggest large variations in the estimates of adoption rates obtained by these different methods, compared to DNA fingerprinting results. This paper also highlights some potential challenges of varietal identification when multiple released varieties are discovered to be essentially the same based on the DNA fingerprints or when released varieties share the same DNA fingerprint as some landrace materials included in the reference library. The Implications of these results on the effectiveness of alternate methods of varietal identification, including DNA fingerprinting are discussed.
    Keywords: technology adoption data, improved varieties, cassava, common beans, Ghana, Zambia, DNA fingerprinting, survey methodology, International Development, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C81 Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data, Data Access, C83 Survey Methods, Sampling Methods, O3 Technological Change, Research and Development,
    Date: 2015
  23. By: Cook, Jonathan A.; Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia
    Abstract: Shutting down and/or upgrading existing productive assets are important economic decisions for the owners of those assets and are also the fundamental decisions that underlie the development of new, growing industries. This paper develops a dynamic structural econometric model of wind turbine owners' decisions about whether and when to add new turbines to a pre-existing stock, scrap an existing turbine, or replace old turbines with newer versions (i.e., upgrade). We apply our model to owner-level panel data for Denmark over the period 1980-2011 to estimate the underlying profit structure for wind producers and evaluate the impact of technology and government policy on wind industry development. Our structural econometric model explicitly takes into account the dynamics and interdependence of shutdown and upgrade decisions and generates parameter estimates with direct economic interpretations. Results from the model indicate that the growth and development of the Danish wind industry was primarily driven by government policies as opposed to technological improvements. The parameter estimates are used to simulate counterfactual policy scenarios in order to quantify the effectiveness of the Danish feed-in-tariff and replacement certificate programs. Results show that both of these policies significantly impacted the timing of shutdown and upgrade decisions made by turbine owners and accelerated the development of the wind industry in Denmark.
    Keywords: wind energy, dynamic structural econometric model, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q42, L90,
    Date: 2015
  24. By: Martin Kaae Jensen
    Abstract: Many important games are aggregative allowing for robust comparative statics analysis even when a game does not exhibit strategic complements or substitutes (Acemoglu and Jensen (2013)). This paper establishes such comparative statics results for contests improving upon existing results by (i) allowing payoff functions to be discontinuous at the origin, and (ii) allowing for asymmetric rent-seeking contests and patent races. A leading example where (i) is relevant is the classical Tullock contest (Tullock (1980)). The paper also studies existence and uniqueness of equilibria extending the results of Szidarovszky and Okuguchi (1997) and Cornes and Hartley (2005) to patent races.
    Keywords: Comparative statics, Uniqueness, Existence, Contest, Rent-seeking, Aggregative game, Local solvability condition.
    JEL: C61 D80 D90 E20 I30
    Date: 2015–07
  25. By: Supehatin; Umberger, Wendy J.; Yi, Dale; Stringer, Randy; Minot, Nicholas
    Abstract: The main objective of this study is to provide insight on how Indonesian farmer preferences for crop attributes influence their adoption decisions. Results from a Latent Class (LC) cluster analysis, using the individual scores for each of the Best-Worst (BW) scaling attributes, indicate there are four clusters of farmers, each distinct in their relative preferences for crop attributes and socio-demographic characteristics. The multinomial endogenous treatment regressions show that preference cluster effect varies across models. For the binary adoption model, we find an insignificant preference cluster effect. We find a significant preference cluster effect both for the intensity of adoption and the timing of adoption models. The effects of farmers’ crop preference cluster, however, are different across those models. The findings allow more targeted programming and the development of information on specific cropping attributes that are most likely to encourage farmers to adopt new crops that have a high probability of offering benefits, including improved livelihoods for farmers.
    Keywords: Farmer Preferences, Crop Attributes, Horticultural Crop Adoption, BW Scaling, Agribusiness, Farm Management, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12, Q13, Q16,
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Ana Célia Castro
    Abstract: A capacidade estatal de formular, conduzir, implementar e, em alguns casos, avaliar as políticas de ciência, tecnologia e inovação é o tema deste trabalho. O objetivo é comparar as capacidades estatais e políticas de Brasil, China e Argentina, para demarcar vantagens e desvantagens comparativas institucionais. Uma das principais conclusões do estudo é que a existência de um consenso estruturado sobre quais setores devem ser incentivados pelo Estado empreendedor, onde se encontra a fronteira tecnológica nestes setores e quais países chegaram a ela depende: i) da existência de uma retaguarda de instituições capazes de realizar estudos prospectivos e retrospectivos efetivamente considerados no processo de tomada de decisões; ii) do exercício contínuo de prospectiva tecnológica, sujeito a processos periódicos de revisão; iii) da capacidade de ter em conta os conflitos de interesse, mas igualmente de neutralizá-los, quando da construção do consenso estruturado; e, finalmente, iv) de um sistema financeiro de inovação enraizado, além de efetivo. Duas condições parecem essenciais para a coordenação do processo de modernização dos países: visões de futuro estruturadas e capacidades estatais para implementá-las. Não se trata de um contínuo de habilidades ou competências, mas de uma variedade de processos de tomada de decisão sobre estratégias de longo prazo, e de coordenação na elaboração e na implementação de políticas tecnológicas. The state capacity to formulate, supervise, and implement (and in some cases to evaluate) science, technology, and innovation policy is the subject of the present work. The goal is to compare state and policy capacity in Brazil, China, and Argentina to point out comparative institutional advantages and disadvantages. One of the study’s main conclusions is the existence of a structured consensus on what sectors the enterprising state should incentivize and promote, on where the frontier is located, and whether these countries are at the frontier of innovation depends on: the existence of a rearguard of institutions capable of undertaking prospective (and retrospective) studies that are effectively considered in the decision-making process; the continuous exercise of foresight or technological foresight, subject to processes of periodic revision; the capacity to take account of conflicts of interest, but equally to neutralize them when building structured consensus; and finally to count on a well-established but effective financial innovation system. Two conditions seem important as far as the governance of the modernization process is concerned: visions of the future and state capacities to implement them. What is at issue is not a continuous set of abilities or expertise but a variety of decision-making processes on long-term strategy and coordination in the development and implementation of technology policies.
    Date: 2015–07
  27. By: Matin, Anahita Hosseini; Goddard, Ellen
    Abstract: Novel technology applications such as cloning and genetic modification in livestock production have not been widely supported by the public. In this study the relationships between attitudes towards animals, internet use and potential uses of genomics (and vaccination) in beef and pork are examined. The public’s attitudes towards animals, based on an AAS score developed by Herzog et al. (1991) could affect how the public sees the use of genomic technologies in livestock production. Media coverage of technology, including use of the internet, may also play a role in attitudes towards new technologies. Public attitudes might impact acceptance of genomic technologies and influence their adoption by producers, hence influencing societal welfare. Understanding some of the factors influencing attitudes can assist in the development and adoption of technologies. Tobit and multinomial regressions for members of the Canadian public suggest that internet use (for the purposes of searching out information on science and technology) is a positive indicator of higher animal attitudes scores (being more protective of animals) which suggests that internet use has both a negative (indirectly through animal attitudes) and a positive (direct) relationship with the use of genomic technologies in livestock production (through the sign of the variable in the attitude towards genomics equations). Respondents’ individual characteristics such as gender, knowledge of genomics applications prior to survey, income level, etc., are also related to their risk/benefit assessment of this livestock production technology.
    Keywords: Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2014–05
  28. By: Suh, Dong Hee
    Keywords: Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Tisdell, Clem; Svizzero, Serge
    Abstract: Presents a simple economic theory explaining how some agriculturally based preindustrial societies (for example, in the Neolithic period) developed despite most of their population being subject to Malthusian dynamics. Their development depended on a dominant class (limited in size) extracting the economic surplus which could be used (among other things) to accumulate capital and advance knowledge and thereby, add to this surplus. Cities facilitated this process. Extraction of the surplus prevented increased population from dissipating it and curtailing development. Several early extractive and non-inclusive societies were long lasting. This is at odds with the theories of some contemporary development economists.
    Keywords: Institutional economics, Malthusian trap, Neolithic development, population dynamics, social inequality and development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O1, P4, N00,
    Date: 2015–01–29
  30. By: Twine, Edgar; Rao, Elizaphan; Baltenweck, Isabelle; Omore, Amos
    Abstract: The study investigates the role of technology adoption and collective action in the demand for credit among dairy farmers in rural Tanzania. Using survey data from four districts in Tanga and Morogoro regions, the incidence of credit is found to be seven percent. Logit and tobit models based on a conceptual framework that assumes endogenously determined interest rates and nonseparability of production and consumption credit, are applied to the data. Interest rates are found to be exogenous and statistically insignificant in the demand for credit. The logit model shows collective action to positively influence the decision to borrow, but technology adoption is insignificant. From the tobit model, both collective action and technology adoption positively influence the amount of funds borrowed. We use these results to examine the observed failure of rural savings and credit cooperative societies to lend to smallholder dairy farmers and livestock keepers in general in Tanzania.
    Keywords: Credit, technology adoption, collective action, smallholder dairy farmers, Tanzania, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q13, Q14, Q16,
    Date: 2015–05
  31. By: Quintana-Ashwell, Nicolas E.; Peterson, Jeffrey M.
    Abstract: A dynamic optimization framework is applied to the problem where groundwater stock and the state of technology and the climate are the state variables and groundwater pumping is the control variable and the objective is to maximize the net present value of the stream of rents from irrigation over the life of the aquifer. Dynamical systems govern the evolution of the aquifer, the climate, and the rate of technical progress. These dynamical systems may be dependent upon periodic groundwater allocations, as in the case of the aquifer, or independent of the periodic allocations as in the case of climate and technical change. Alternative plans are considered where the planner ignores one or more of the state variables when prescribing an extraction path. The ``information effect'' in these plans is assessed by comparing extraction, depletion, and rents from irrigation paths. A well accepted formulation of hydrologic dynamics for the aquifer is employed and simple dynamic trends for climate and technology are developed. A simplified example of the model incorporating only deterministic aquifer and technical change dynamics is presented as a linear-quadratic optimal control problem. Numerical results from Sheridan County, KS, suggest that prescribing a pumping schedule ignoring the dynamics of climate change is most costly. Furthermore, once on the optimal path, relatively large savings in groundwater may be achieved with relatively small portions of profits foregone.
    Keywords: Aquifer, Ogallala, Optimal Control, Dynamic Optimization, Irrigation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–05–27
  32. By: Cavicchi, Alessio; Rinaldi, Chiara; Santini, Cristina
    Abstract: This work examines the relationship between experiential learning and entrepreneurial education in the Agribusiness field. After having outlined the challenges that higher education has to meet business and students’ needs, the work outlines emerging insights from research that contributse to underline how effective could be an academic approach focused on experience. An overview of the latest development in the methodological field is presented; the paper, finally introduces the measures and initiative undertaken at the European level for promoting entrepreneurial education and initiatives by implementing experiential learning methods.
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2015–05
  33. By: McHugh, Tara
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2015–02–20
  34. By: Salaghe, Florina; Harris, Thomas R.
    Abstract: Nevada Ranchers Attitudes Towards the Trichomoniasis Vaccine - Survey Results - Past surveys of Nevada ranchers have showed that cattle producers have not adopted the necessary management practices designed to limit the incidence of Trichomonaisis (Trich), a “venereal disease of beef herds caused by the protozoan Tritrichomoniasis Foetus” (Bhattacharyya et al.,1997). This disease is very common in the Western United States and Florida because of free range commingling of herds on large tracts of public land. Trich is contracted during breeding (from bulls to cows and viceversa) and it does not have any obvious signs, making it difficult to identify and isolate the infected animals in order to prevent spread. When a bull is infected, it will be infected for life and there are no vaccines or treatments available to the cattle producers. There are however tests that can help identify the infected bulls. Tests are not available for cows. A T. foetus vaccine was developed by the University of Nevada in cooperation with Ford Dodge Laboratories and the USDA granted a conditional license to market the vaccine in 1989. This vaccine is only effective for cows and it helps limit the disease and the loss of cattle crop. Although the vaccine has been available for over twenty years, the rates of adoption are still lagging, while the disease incidence in the state is increasing, raising concerns of industry leaders and local authorities. In order to gather information on the factors and characteristics that influence the decision making process, a survey of Nevada cattle producers was conducted during 2012 and 2013. In this study we investigate the data collected and develop an adoption model to see how ranch specific factors, familiarity with the treatment, individual characteristics and attitudes toward risk influence the probability of adopting the vaccine. The goal of this paper is to find what influences their decision on whether to vaccinate or not, and what are the policy issues that need to be addressed in order to enhance its adoption or the adoption of alternative public land management practices. We incorporate subjective risk attitudes and estimate the probabilities of adoption for three different groups of respondents: users, potential users and nonusers. The importance of our analysis stems from the large economic impact that the disease has on the profitability of ranchers, as it reduces calf crops and increases culling. Since our dependent variable is categorical and has a natural ordering, we start by estimating an ordinal logistic regression. The most common critique of this model is that it often violates the implicit parallel line assumption and gives biased parameter estimates. In order to address this concern we estimate two additional, less restrictive models: an unconstrained generalized ordered logit model with alternative variant coefficients, and a partially constrained generalized ordered model where three of the parameters are unconstrained. The vector of parameters estimated using the partially constrained and the unconstrained generalized ordered model, can be interpreted as coefficients from binary logit models where we collapse the categories of our dependent variable into two groups. Allowing for the risk aversion coefficient to vary by alternative gives a better picture of what exogenous changes can be used to influence the management practices of different categories of adopters. For example, it shows that being risk averse pushes respondents away from being in extreme categories (Users and Nonusers). Ranchers are more likely to at least consider adopting the vaccine in the future conditional on the degree of risk aversion. The biggest effect of risk attitudes is to make nonusers move to the potential users category and consider future adoption of the technology. We find that the most effective variable that can push people from being potential users to adopting the vaccine is the familiarity with the disease treatment. So if ranchers have not adopted the vaccine yet but are considering doing it in the future, more information on the treatment might persuade them to move towards adoption. According to our survey results, the targeted channels of information should be specialty magazines and veterinarians. The majority of the respondents list these two as their primary sources of information together with “other ranchers” in the area. Since the primary reason that respondents list for not vaccinating their herd is the believe of not having a Trich problem and not enough information on the vaccine, policy makers should focus their attention on diffusing information about the T. foetus vaccine and increasing awareness of the risk of contracting the disease. Information on the incidence of the disease in the area might help ranchers more accurately assess the risk of not adopting the necessary management practices. Another policy implication that might be of interest is that the rates of adoption might be improved by making some of the management practices, such as testing of bulls mandatory. We have seen that people that transport cattle out of state are more likely to vaccinate and one of the reasons for doing so might be that some of the neighboring states have made testing mandatory.
    Keywords: biotechnology, generalized ordered logit, ranching, rates of adoption, risk attitudes, trichomoniasis, Agribusiness, Health Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2015
  35. By: Leiby, Julie; Westra, John
    Abstract: The Varroa mite is a threat to honey bees and beekeepers across the U.S. and is suspected to be one contributor to colony collapse disorder (CCD). In 2006, Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) bees were developed in response to this problem in the beekeeping industry. The hygienic behavior of VSH bees helps reduce susceptibility of colonies to Varroa mites, results in stronger colonies and decrease susceptibility to CCD. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that significantly influence the adoption of VSH technology. A probit model is used to identify factors these factors. Results indicate risk aversion, education and income significantly influence adoption decision.
    Keywords: probit, queen honey bees, technology adoption, Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH), Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Risk and Uncertainty, R51, R58, O21, O23, R11, R38,
    Date: 2014
  36. By: Sheremenko, Ganna; Magnan, Nicholas
    Abstract: The adoption of new technologies, such as fertilizer, plays an important role in improving agricultural production in Africa. Fertilizer is a risky input and its adoption by farmers is often very low. Farmers’ risk attitudes are often considered to be the reason behind low fertilizer adoption. Typical empirical research ignores the family dynamics that affects household’s agricultural choices. This paper uses a collective household model to estimate the effects of experimentally derived risk preferences of both spouses in farming households interacted with relative women’s bargaining power on fertilizer use. We find that empowered females who are more risk and loss averse use less fertilizer, than disempowered females in collective households. More loss averse male household heads opt for using more affordable type of fertilizer to avoid higher losses in the event of a negative shock. More risk averse and loss averse female household heads are also less likely to use riskier types of fertilizer.
    Keywords: Collective household model, Loss aversion, New agricultural technology adoption, Non-linear probability weighting, Risk aversion, Women empowerment., International Development, Risk and Uncertainty, O13, O14, O33, O55,
    Date: 2015
  37. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: There has been a rapid increase in global expenditure on information technology and there is still much to learn about its effects on productivity, welfare and social change. At the macro-level, it has been estimated that Internet-related value accounts for as much as 7% of GDP of some OECD economies. As discussed, two basic methods have been used to estimate the contribution of ICT to the growth in GDP. Estimates of this vary considerably but it seems that ICT’s contribution is increasing. Currently, GDP is expected to increase by about 1% for a 10% rise in ICT-capital. All industries have had added value as a result of the introduction of ICT but the overall aggregate effect is largest for the tertiary (service) sector. It is shown how the Internet can increase economic productivity (1) by reducing input costs and (2) raising allocative efficiency within enterprises. Other ways in which Internet access can increase economic welfare are via reduced market transaction costs and a decline in material and transport costs as well as by increasing the variety of available commodities. These aspects are analyzed and discussed critically. Attention is also given to the employment consequences of the use of ICT, associated health issues, and the impacts of ICT on social interaction and the environment. It is suggested that the use of the Internet for consumption may exceed it use for production. Additional matters touched on are the consequences for economic performance of ICT in education and research and in the health industry, as well as the comparative benefit of ICT to rural residents compared to city-dwellers. In conclusion, it is noted that not all IT depends on the Internet and that non-Internet IT has had little economic attention.
    Keywords: economic welfare, education and ICT, ICT, information technology, Internet, market transaction costs, productivity, social change, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O3, D2, D6,
    Date: 2014–07
  38. By: An, Ning; Thomassin, Paul J.
    Abstract: This paper examines the economic impact of alternative climate change scenarios on representative cash crop farms in Quebec and Ontario. Mixed Integer Dynamic Linear Programming models are used to determine the annual optimal land and labor allocations over a 30 year time horizon. In the modeling process, five climate scenarios are modeled, along with different combinations of CO2 enhancement and water limitation. Parameters, such as crop prices, costs of production, and crop yields, are simulated and projected into the future using various methods, such as Monte Carlo simulation, Crystal Ball Predictor and DSSAT cropping system model. Rotation and diversification constraints, as well as participation in public risk management programs are also incorporated into the optimization procedures. The results show that the economic impact of climate change varies by scenario, with the CO2 effect and water limitation having a more significant effect than the specific climate scenarios. Technology development, as well as the public insurance programs can contribute to the reduction of economic vulnerability.
    Keywords: Climate change, economic impacts, technological change, institutional change, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2015
  39. By: António Afonso; João Tovar Jalles
    Abstract: We assess the impact of fiscal adjustments (and technology) on the evolution of markups in a panel of 14 OECD countries. We allow for smooth changes in the technological parameters by generating measures of TFP compatible with markups and assess the interaction between the two variables. Our results with narrative action-based data show counter-cyclicality since negative fiscal shocks increase markups. Moreover, in times of economic contraction the degree of counter-cyclicality of negative (positive) government spending (tax) shocks is larger than during economic expansions. In addition, markups have a pro-cyclical behaviour after a productivity shock. However, when identifying fiscal consolidations using changes of the cyclically adjusted primary balance, one obtains expansionary effects and a pro-cyclical behaviour in terms of markups and aggregate demand shocks.
    Keywords: imperfect competition, TFP, fiscal consolidation, local projection, business cycle, impulse response functions, GMM
    JEL: D4 E3 E6 H6
    Date: 2015–07
  40. By: Pérez-Domínguez, Ignacio; Araujo-Enciso, Sergio-René; Santini, Fabien
    Abstract: Technological developments in recent years, especially the 'fracking' technique, have allowed for a economically profitable extraction of shale gas, evolving into an increasingly important source of energy in the United States. Agriculture is increasingly more linked energy markets, traditionally through the input side (i.e. energy and fertilizer costs), but since the 2000s also through the production of biofuels. To analyse the potential effects on agricultural markets of the 'shale gas boom', a scenario analysis is carried out with the Aglink-Cosimo model. This scenario depicts a situation where the North America (US and Canada) benefits from certain energy price advantage versus the rest of the world. Our analysis shows a sizeable gain in competitiveness for US crop producers, with average production costs in the US decreasing considerably over the baseline period. These lower costs of production are expected to trigger lower producer prices and higher production, especially for energy intensive crops such as maize, sorghum and sugar beet. However, the presence of uncertainty regarding the future development of crude oil prices can considerably affect these margins.
    Keywords: shale gas, agriculture, fertilizer markets, energy, modelling, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2015–07–26
  41. By: Gemma, Ahaibwe; Ibrahim, Kasirye
    Abstract: Youth unemployment continues to be a developmental challenge not only in Uganda but in several sub Saharan countries. At least 64 percent of the total unemployed persons are youth aged 18-30 years. As the government struggles to look for solutions to the unemployment challenge, one approach has been the promotion of self-employment through the establishment of National Youth Funds. Specifically, the Youth Venture Capital Fund (UYVCF) worth UGX 25bn (about US$ 10 million) was introduced in 2011 and more recently, in September 2013, government significantly boosted youth schemes by allocating UGX 265 billion (about US$ 100 million) to the Youth Livelihood Programme (YLP) over a five-year period. The major pillars of these initiatives are: enterprise development, job creation and business skills training and development. Using the UYVCF as a case study, this study examines the level and determinants of youth participation in the fund and evaluates the operations of the fund against the initial guidelines and design as stipulated in the Aide memoire1 between the Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development (MFPED) and the participating banks. The study majorly relied on secondary data provided by Centenary Bank, the largest commercial bank participating in the fund and was complemented by a survey of beneficiaries as well as potential beneficiaries. The data sourced from the commercial bank provides an overview of the fund beneficiaries by basic socio economic characteristics while the field survey data was used to compare the activities of beneficiaries vis a vis non-beneficiaries. Results indicate that participation in the youth fund program is positively and significantly influenced by the age cohort of the youth entrepreneur (the older youth aged 26-35 years are more likely to access the fund compared to the younger youth (18-25 years), location of the business (urban based businesses have a higher chance of accessing the fund), type of business enterprise (those in services are more likely to access the fund loan) and business maturity. Although there has been some positive effect of the fund on business expansion, we do not find significant evidence of the youth fund effect on jobs creation. It was also discovered that the major role players are not entirely fulfilling their mandates and some have sidetracked from the initial objectives. On the policy front, we propose that for the youth fund to have a lasting impact on its intended objectives, the promotion of youth entrepreneurship should be approached comprehensively (not only the credit component) and it should target productive sectors with high employment creation potential. A strong institutional framework and elimination of obstacles to self-employment are other recommendations arising out of the study.
    Keywords: Youth, Youth Fund, Employment Creation, and Entrepreneurship, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Industrial Organization, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Public Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2015–05
  42. By: Mishra, Khushbu; Abdoul, Sam G.; Miranda, Mario J.; Diiro, Gracious M.
    Keywords: technology adoption, gender gap, dynamic estimation, panel data, food insecurity, Uganda, SSA, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Risk and Uncertainty, D1, J16, O12, O33, Q16,
    Date: 2015

This nep-ino issue is ©2015 by Uwe Cantner. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.