nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒05‒02
eighteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. Religion and Innovation By Benabou, Roland; Ticchi, Davide; Vindigni, Andrea
  2. The Effect of State Taxes on the Geographical Location of Top Earners: Evidence from Star Scientists By Enrico Moretti; Daniel Wilson
  3. The Climate Policy Hold-Up: Green Technologies,Intellectual Property Rights, and the Abatement Incentives of International Agreements By Goeschl, Timo; Perino, Grischa
  4. The Berlin Stock Exchange in Imperial Germany – a Market for New Technology? By Lehmann, Sibylle; Streb, Jochen
  5. Rationales of public procurement of innovation: When demand-side instruments address supply-side failures By Julien CHICOT; Mireille Matt
  6. Adoption d’innovations par les agriculteurs : rôle des perceptions et des préférences By Caroline Roussy; Aude Ridier; Karim Chaib
  7. Institutional Framework, Corporate Ownership Structure, and R&D Investment: An International Analysis By Felix J. Lopez-Iturriaga; Emilio Lopez-Millan
  8. A study of technological capability among product based telecom start-ups in India: Role of knowledge, learning and bricolage By Aeron, Prageet; Jain, Rekha
  9. Is innovation activity persistent among small firms in developing countries? Evidence from Vietnam By Trinh, Long
  10. Innovation, Inequality and a Golden Rule for Growth in an Economy with Cobb-Douglas Function and an R&D Sector By Welfens, Paul J. J.
  11. Intellectual Property Protection in India and Implications for Health Innovation: Emerging Perspectives By Basant, Rakesh; Srinivasan, Shuchi
  12. PATSTAT revisited By Tarasconi, Gianluca; Kang, Byeongwoo
  13. China’s road to a global scientific powerhouse By Dabo Guan; David M. Reiner; Zhu Liu
  14. Social Innovation Europe: Country Summary: Poland. Social Innovation in Poland By Klimczuk, Andrzej
  15. Analysing the role of consumers within Technological Innovation Systems towards sustainability: the case of Alternative Food Networks By Filippo Randelli; Benedetto Rocchi
  16. World Corporate Top R&D Investors: Innovation and IP bundles By Hélène Dernis; Mafini Dosso; Fernando Hervas; Valentine Millot; Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Antonio Vezzani
  17. Innovation and Collaboration Patterns between Research Establishments By INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
  18. Does Labour Mobility Foster Innovation? Evidence from Sweden By Braunerhjelm, Pontus; Ding, Ding; Thulin, Per

  1. By: Benabou, Roland (Princeton University); Ticchi, Davide (IMT Lucca); Vindigni, Andrea (IMT Lucca)
    Abstract: In earlier work (Bénabou, Ticchi and Vindigni 2013) we uncovered a robust negative association between religiosity and patents per capita, holding across countries as well as US states, with and without controls. In this paper we turn to the individual level, examining the relationship between religiosity and a broad set of pro- or anti-innovation attitudes in all five waves of the World Values Survey (1980 to 2005). We thus relate eleven indicators of individual openness to innovation, broadly defined (e.g., attitudes toward science and technology, new versus old ideas, change, risk taking, personal agency, imagination and independence in children) to five different measures of religiosity, including beliefs and attendance. We control for all standard socio-demographics as well as country, year and denomination fixed effects. Across the fifty-two estimated specifications, greater religiosity is almost uniformly and very significantly associated to less favorable views of innovation.
    Keywords: innovation, creativity, science, technical progress, ideas, risk-taking, growth, religion, beliefs, attitudes, values, tolerance, dogma, culture
    JEL: D83 O31 O43 Z1 Z12
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Enrico Moretti; Daniel Wilson
    Abstract: Using data on the universe of U.S. patents filed between 1976 and 2010, we quantify how sensitive is migration by star scientist to changes in personal and business tax differentials across states. We uncover large, stable, and precisely estimated effects of personal and corporate taxes on star scientists’ migration patterns. The long run elasticity of mobility relative to taxes is 1.6 for personal income taxes, 2.3 for state corporate income tax and -2.6 for the investment tax credit. The effect on mobility is small in the short run, and tends to grow over time. We find no evidence of pre-trends: Changes in mobility follow changes in taxes and do not to precede them. Consistent with their high income, star scientists migratory flows are sensitive to changes in the 99th percentile marginal tax rate, but are insensitive to changes in taxes for the median income. As expected, the effect of corporate income taxes is concentrated among private sector inventors: no effect is found on academic and government researchers. Moreover, corporate taxes only matter in states where the wage bill enters the state’s formula for apportioning multi-state income. No effect is found in states that apportion income based only on sales (in which case labor’s location has little or no effect on the tax bill). We also find no evidence that changes in state taxes are correlated with changes in the fortunes of local firms in the innovation sector in the years leading up to the tax change. Overall, we conclude that state taxes have significant effect of the geographical location of star scientists and possibly other highly skilled workers. While there are many other factors that drive when innovative individual and innovative companies decide to locate, there are enough firms and workers on the margin that relative taxes matter.
    JEL: H71 J01 J08 J18 J23 R0
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Goeschl, Timo; Perino, Grischa
    Abstract: The success of global climate policies over the coming decades depends on the diffusion of 'green' technologies. This requires that international environmental agreements (IEAs) and trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPs) interact productively.Using a simple and tractable model, we highlight the strategic reduction in abatement commitments on account of a hold-up effect. In anticipation of rent extraction by the innovator signatories might abate less than non-signatories turning the IEA 'brown'. Self-enforcing IEAs have fewer signatories and diffusion can reduce global abatement under TRIPs. Countries hosting patent holders extract rents from TRIPs, but may be better off without them.
    Keywords: International climate policy; diffusion of innovations; intellectual property rights; hold-up problem.
    Date: 2015–04–20
  4. By: Lehmann, Sibylle; Streb, Jochen
    Abstract: Analysing 474 cases of firms going public in the German capital between 1892 and 1913, we show that innovative firms could rely on the Berlin stock market as a source of financing. The data also reveal that initial public offerings (IPO) of innovative firms were characterized by particularly low underpricing, comparatively high first trading prices, and no long-run underperformance. We interpret these empirical results as evidence for the surprising fact that contemporary investors had rational expectations.
    Keywords: industrialisation; innovation; IPO; stock exchange
    JEL: G14 N23
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Julien CHICOT (Economie Appliquée de Grenoble, INRA); Mireille Matt (Economie Appliquée de Grenoble, INRA)
    Abstract: Public procurement of innovation (PPI) has recently gained a renewed impetus and interest in most OECD countries as well as in the academic literature. A number of scholarly typologies of PPI instruments has been elaborated to understand better their nature and impacts. However, no unified framework that would help understanding and justifying their variety has been provided in the academic literature on PPI, and their economic justification is rather weak. Consequently, our research question is the following: how could an analytical framework unifying the existing literature in terms of economic justification be built? The research methodology consists in a two-step literature survey: first, a comprehensive review of the general literature on innovation policy in order to identify the various theoretical justifications of PPI instruments and to elaborate an analytical framework; second, an analysis of the specific literature on PPI through this analytical framework. Based on the literature survey, the paper considers three groups of rationales for PPI instruments: those respectively on the demand and supply sides, and those relating to traps in users-producers interactions. By combining them, four justification-based categories of PPI instruments and eight subcategories are defined. This framework allows to unify the various typologies in the literature on PPI, and to link design concerns to economic rationales. Moreover, some PPI instruments appear to be hybrid, i.e. justified by both supply- and demand-side rationales.
    Keywords: PUBLIC PROCUREMENT, INNOVATION, PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION, PPI, marché public, administration, marchéinnovation
    JEL: H5 O3
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Caroline Roussy; Aude Ridier; Karim Chaib
    Abstract: One way to reconcile the issues of productivity and environmental protection for field crops farmers is the implementation of systemic agroecological innovations. These innovations are complex combining traditional agricultural tools, such as the lengthening of rotations, with innovative production techniques such as precision agriculture. The adoption of these innovations creates additional uncertainty for farmers. Several studies have shown that risk aversion is a major break in the adoption of agricultural innovations. But others individual agronomic, economic and psychosocial determinants also affect the adoption decision process. However, among the determinants identified in the literature, few seem common and generalized to all production context. Other determinants, not directly observable, influence the adoption decision. This article presents a literature review to identify the role of observable and unobservable determinants, such as perceptions and preferences, in the adoption process of agroecological innovations.
    Keywords: adoption, agroecological innovation, stated preferences, perceptions, risk
    JEL: Q1 Q5 D8 D03
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Felix J. Lopez-Iturriaga (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Emilio Lopez-Millan (University of Valladolid)
    Abstract: We combine agency theory with the law and finance approach to analyze how the legal protection of investors and the corporate ownership structure affect the corporate investment in research and development (R&D). We use information from 1,091 firms from the five most R&D intensive industries in 19 developed countries. Our results show that the better protection of investors’ rights by the institutional environment has a positive influence on corporate R&D. We also find that corporate ownership concentration works as a substitute for legal protection. This finding means that the R&D investment of the firms in the countries with poor legal protection increases as long as the ownership becomes more concentrated. Our results also show that the identity of shareholders has a relevant effect: Whereas banks and nonfinancial institutions as shareholders result in lower R&D, institutional investors as shareholders increase the corporate investment in R&D.
    Keywords: Institutional setting, ownership structure, corporate R&D, legal protection
    JEL: G32 O32
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Aeron, Prageet; Jain, Rekha
    Abstract: Present work explores the development of new products among telecom start-ups in India. This paper weaves together threads of literature including innovation, bricolage, learning and knowledge acquisition and technological capability. We employ a qualitative research method and works through the data collected from seven independent start-ups. Our work proposes a process model for the evolution of technological capability as a result of complex interplay between existing knowledge, bricolage, new knowledge acquisition, and combinative capabilities. Paper further identifies gap focused learning and market focused learning as the two dominant learning mechanisms and also develops a conceptualization for studying architecture among the telecom related firms.
    Keywords: New product development; Bricolage; Learning; Technological capability.
  9. By: Trinh, Long
    Abstract: Using firm-level panel data collected in Vietnam bi-annually from 2005 to 2013, this paper examines whether innovation is persistent among small firms in Vietnam. The empirical results obtained from dynamic random effect probit and dynamic random effect ordered probit show that the innovation activity is persistent among these small firms. Our estimation results also show slightly different roles of human capital of firm’s owner and employees in innovation activities. While the owner’s human capital is associated with creating a new product, employees’ human capital is positively correlated with upgrading the existing products or production procedure. However, we do not find evidence on the roles of unobserved heterogeneity in explaining this persistence. Our results are consistent with results found in the literature for firms in developed economies.
    Keywords: Innovation, Persistence of Innovation, Unobserved heterogeneity, Dynamic Random Effect Probit Model, Dynamic Random Effect Ordered Probit Model, Small and Medium Enterprises, Vietnam
    JEL: C23 C25 L20 O31 O33
    Date: 2015–04–14
  10. By: Welfens, Paul J. J. (University of Wuppertal)
    Abstract: The innovative approach presented introduces a modified neoclassical growth model which includes a new bias of technological progress in a quasi-endogenous growth model in which part of labor is used in the research & development sector. The combination of a macroeconomic production function and a new progress function, plus the assumption that the output elasticity of capital is positively influenced by the size of the R&D sector, sheds new light on innovation and growth as well as income inequality: Thus there is a new approach for explaining Piketty's historical findings of a medium term rise of the capital income share in industrialized countries – both in the earlier and later part of the 19th century and in 1990-2010. A rising share of capital income can be explained within this approach by the increase in the output elasticity of capital, which has been developed in a new way, namely in the context of R&D. In the approach presented herein, the golden rule issues are also highlighted and it is shown that choosing the right size of the R&D sector will bring about maximum sustainable per capita consumption. While the basic new model is presented for the case of a closed economy, one could easily accommodate both trade and foreign direct investment and thereby get a better understanding of complex international investment, trade and FDI dynamics – including with respect to the envisaged Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership.
    Keywords: innovation, growth, inequality, golden rule, Piketty
    JEL: O11 O32 O40 D63
    Date: 2015–04
  11. By: Basant, Rakesh; Srinivasan, Shuchi
    Abstract: With the advent of TRIPS, the IP regimes have changed in most WTO member countries. India also came up with its own version of TRIPS compatible IP regime which has been hailed by some as a ‘model’ regime for developing countries, while others are not convinced that it will provide the right incentives for medical innovation and enhance access to healthcare. This paper undertakes a review of available studies to provide a perspective on the role of IP protection in developing healthcare innovations. Broadly, the relevant literature in the context of India has followed two strands: some studies focus on the implications of the new IP regime on access to healthcare, while others explore the implications of IP on innovation in general and medical innovation, in particular. Interestingly, the two strands do not converge. Moreover, many studies view IP driven innovations as a constraint on access, as these are expected to be monopolized by the IP owner. We argue that there is merit in viewing healthcare access and innovation as complementary processes. This is particularly the case when one defines ‘health innovation’ more broadly to include:(a) Product innovations in drugs; (b) Process innovations in pharmaceutical industry; (c) New drug delivery mechanisms , bio-enhancers and dosage forms; (d) Product innovations in medical equipment and devices; (e) Innovations in the delivery of health services; and (f) Policy innovations to enhance access to healthcare.
  12. By: Tarasconi, Gianluca; Kang, Byeongwoo
    Abstract: This study provides a comprehensive summary of and guidance for using the EPO Worldwide Patent Statistical Database (PATSTAT), one of the most widely used patent databases for researchers. We highlight the three most important issues that PATSTAT users must consider when performing patent data analyses and suggest ways to deal with those issues. Although PATSTAT is chosen in this study, the issues that we discuss are also applicable to other patent databases.
    Keywords: Developed countries, Europe, Patents, Intellectual property, Information technology, Information retrieval, PATSTAT, Patent data analysis, Innovation studies
    JEL: O39 Y20 Z00
    Date: 2015–04
  13. By: Dabo Guan; David M. Reiner; Zhu Liu
    Abstract: Drawing on the wider ‘catching up’ literature, we examine the rapid growth in Chinese spending on science and technology, which, in spite of its growing infrastructure, remains heavily reliant on foreign inputs. We examine both the economic and political drivers behind China’s scientific development, making a distinction between domestic investments and international technology trade. Firms provide over two-thirds of total R&D funding, most of which has been spent on ‘high-tech’ sectors for export production. The fastest growing research area is in environmental sciences and energy technology. China’s technology imports are shifting away from ‘technologies for production’, towards ‘technologies for innovation’, encouraged by the national development strategy on enhancing scientific research capacities. In particular, we present evidence from China’s imported technology contracts. Energy is the second largest sector after manufacturing in terms of imported technology contracts.
    Keywords: China, R&D, science and technology, spillovers, imported technology contracts
    JEL: I23 I28 O31 O32 O38 N35 N75
    Date: 2014–04–20
  14. By: Klimczuk, Andrzej
    Abstract: The history of social innovation in country, challenges being addressed by social innovation. the key actors, who is promoting social innovation. A few of the key projects that illustrate social innovation.
    Keywords: Social Innovation
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Filippo Randelli (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa); Benedetto Rocchi (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: In recent years, an increasing number of studies have stressed the relevance of the consumer experience in the research of new trajectories towards sustainability. On the early stage of an innovation process the purchase continue to be strategic for the market creation although consumers should not be conceived only as selector of different commercial options. This paper argues for a broader application of Technological Innovation System (TIS) conceptual framework and proposes an analytical approach that explicitly considers consumers and producers as interacting and then coevolving actors. In this view the transition towards sustainability is not exclusively a production based innovation process and also the interactive relation between consumers and producers may foster the transition towards a new socio-technical regime. The conceptual framework will be introduced and exemplified with the case of Alternative Food Networks, a TIS in the food industry, based on a meta-analysis of the literature.
    Keywords: Technological Innovation Systems, Consumers, Alternative Food Networks, Agriculture
    JEL: D12 O31 Q55
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Hélène Dernis (OECD); Mafini Dosso (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Fernando Hervas (European Commission JRC-IPTS); Valentine Millot (OECD); Mariagrazia Squicciarini (OECD); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission JRC-IPTS)
    Abstract: This report presents original data and statistics on the innovation output of world top corporate R&D investors. Essentially descriptive in nature, it presents statistics about the technological profiles of companies, their trademark strategies for new products and services and about the extent to which these two forms of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are bundled to protect and appropriate the returns from investment in knowledge-based assets. The report provides interesting insights about the innovation strategies of this sample of world leading corporate R&D investors and opens the door to further research and analysis about companies' global strategies for knowledge development and exploitation. The main target audience of this report is the policy and research communities, as well as analysts with an interest in supporting evidence-based policy making in the area of innovation and industrial policies. This joint EC-OECD report builds on the efforts to collect up-to-date, reliable and comparable company data on the top corporate R&D investors worldwide carried-out by the European Commission since 2004 (the EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard publication) and on the solid knowledge and experience of the OECD in developing and providing robust and state of the art indicators on science, technology and industry (see for example OECD's STI Scoreboard publications).
    Keywords: Patent, Trademark, IP bundle, Scoreboard, Top corporate R&D investors
    Date: 2015–03
  17. By: INOUE Hiroyasu; NAKAJIMA Kentaro; SAITO Yukiko
    Abstract: This study empirically investigates the determinants of the productivity of knowledge creation by collaboration. By using the Japanese patent database, we extracted establishment-level patent co-invention information and found the following results. First, we find an inverse U-shaped pattern in the relationship between the similarity of knowledge stocks and the quality of patents. That is, moderate diversity in knowledge stocks between establishments rather than extreme similarity or extreme diversity is important for knowledge creation. Second, focusing on the differences in technology class, we find an inverse U-shaped pattern except in the lowest technologies, and the peak of the inverse U-shape is larger in the higher technologies. This implies that the common knowledge between establishments is important in the higher technologies. Third, we find that the physical distance between collaborating establishments has a negative effect on the quality of patents.
    Date: 2015–04
  18. By: Braunerhjelm, Pontus (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Ding, Ding (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Thulin, Per (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: By utilising a Swedish unique, matched employer-employee dataset that has been pooled with firm-level patent application data, we provide new evidence that knowledge workers’ mobility has a positive and strongly significant impact on firm innovation output, as measured by firm patent applications. The effect is particularly strong for knowledge workers that have previously worked in a patenting firm (the learning-by-hiring effect), but firms losing a knowledge worker are also shown to benefit (the diaspora effect), albeit more weakly. Finally, the effect is more pronounced when the joining worker originates in another region.
    Keywords: Labour mobility; knowledge diffusion; innovation; social networks
    JEL: J24 O31 R23
    Date: 2015–04–24

This nep-ino issue is ©2015 by Steffen Lippert. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.