nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒02‒28
25 papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. Do innovation dimensions matter in China’s cross-regional income differences? By Yang, Jingjing ; Khalil, Sana
  2. Inter-temporal patterns of R&D collaboration and innovative performance By Belderbos R.A. ; Carree M.A. ; Lokshin B. ; Fernandez J.
  3. Investment-specific vs Process Innovation in a CGE model of Environmental Policy By Claudio Baccianti ; Andreas Löschel
  4. Collaboration and Innovation Speed : Evidence from a Prize Data-Set, 1955-2010 By Shimizu, Hiroshi ; Hoshino, Yusuke
  5. Motivating innovation in a knowledge economy with tax incentives By Diego d'Andria ; Ivan Savin
  6. Defense Science and Technology Innovation Teams: Mechanisms and Indicators for Indigenous Innovation in China By WRIGHT, Darren J.
  7. "Innovation Height and Firm Performance:Using Innovation Survey from Japan" By Daiya Isogawa ; Kohei Nishikawa ; Hiroshi Ohashi
  8. Intangible investments and innovation propensity. Evidence from the Innobarometer 2013 By Sandro Montresor ; Antonio Vezzani
  9. Innovation and the Experience with Agricultural Patents Since 1990: Food for Thought By Douglas C. Lippoldt
  10. Innovation and Productivity in Services: Evidence from Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom By Bettina Peters ; Rebecca Riley ; Iulia Siedschlag ; Priit Vahter ; John McQuinn
  11. The Human Dimension in Chinese Defense Science, Technology, and Innovation: An Overview By CHEUNG, Tai Ming
  12. Invention and International Diffusion of Water Conservation and Availability Technologies: Evidence from Patent Data By Antoine Dechezleprêtre ; Ivan Haščič ; Nick Johnstone
  13. When are recruited competences supportive of innovation? Inter-industry differences in the importance of similarity and diversity By Sverre J. Herstad ; Tore Sandven
  14. Innovation and Trade in the Presence of Credit Constraints By Foellmi, Reto ; Legge, Stefan ; Tiemann, Alexa
  15. The returns to foreign R&D By Belderbos R.A. ; Lokshin B. ; Sadowski B.
  16. International R&D Spillovers and other Unobserved Common Spillovers and Shocks By Diego-Ivan Ruge-Leiva
  17. Measuring the U.S.-China Innovation Gap: Initial Findings of the UCSD-Tsinghua Innovation Metrics Survey Project By ANDERSON, Eric ; NAUGHTON, Barry ; CHEUNG, Tai Ming ; COWHEY, Peter ; XUE, Lan ; CHEN, Ling ; WANG, Gangbo
  18. Proximity, knowledge base and the innovation process: The case of Unilever’s Becel diet margarine By Mila Davids ; Koen Frenken
  19. Does Innovation Mediate Good Firm Performance? By Llanto, Gilberto M. ; del Prado, Fatima
  20. The Role of Firm RD Effort and Collaboration as Mediating Drivers of Innovation Policy Effectiveness By Giovanni Cerulli ; Roberto Gabriele ; Bianca Poti'
  21. Innovation and export in SMEs: the role of relationship banking By Serena Frazzoni ; Maria Luisa Mancusi ; Zeno Rotondi ; Maurizio Sobrero ; Andrea Vezzulli
  22. Complementarity among innovations for exporting in German manufacturing firms By Susanna Mancinelli ; Rosa Bernardini Papalia ; Silvia Bertarelli
  23. Dynamics in ICT cooperation networks in selected German ICT clusters By Christian Schröder
  24. The More Learning, the Better? The Curvilinear Relationship between Technological Learning and New Product Commercialization By Winkelbach, Andreas ; Walter, Achim
  25. The Evolving Organization of U.S. Innovation Agencies: An Overview By BONVILLIAN, William B.

  1. By: Yang, Jingjing ; Khalil, Sana
    Abstract: This paper studies the interlinks between innovation inputs and outputs and between innovation outputs and economic development. Using a panel data-set from 31 regions of China, we show that the difference in regional innovation output can be significantly explained by R&D manpower and expenditure, highly educated students, and public education spending, while GDP is linked to patent, high-tech export share, and new product sales. Our findings provide support for the use of government R&D subsidies and education rebate.
    Keywords: innovation; R&D; education; patents; economic development
    JEL: O1 O3
    Date: 2014–02–06
  2. By: Belderbos R.A. ; Carree M.A. ; Lokshin B. ; Fernandez J. (GSBE )
    Abstract: While prior studies have investigated the effect of collaborative RD with different partner types suppliers, customers, competitors and research institutions universities on firms innovative performance, the implications of dynamic patterns in these collaborations have not received attention. In a large panel of Spanish innovating firms operating in a broad range of industries during the period 2004-2011, we examine the differential effects of recently formed, persistent, and recently discontinued collaboration on innovative performance. Persistence is the most common pattern of collaboration, while discontinuities are most often observed for competitor collaboration. We find that it is persistent collaboration that has a systematically positive effect on performance. With the exception of recently formed collaboration with universities and research institutes, other temporal patterns of collaboration do not significantly improve performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.
    Keywords: Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D;
    JEL: O31 O32
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Claudio Baccianti ; Andreas Löschel
    Abstract: The European Union has implemented demand push and technology pull policies to foster innovation on the energy and resource efficiency of capital goods. The state of the art of general equilibrium modelling applied to environmental policy rarely treats product and process innovation separately and product quality is, in the best case, exogenous. We develop a dynamic multi-sector CGE model that distinguishes between R&D-based process innovation for all firms, endogenous product innovation in the capital good sector and adoption decisions with respect to the installation of new capital vintages in the rest of the economy. Our results support the previous literature in finding that aggregate innovation declines following an energy tax but whereas process innovation is reduced, product innovation actually rises. We find that demand pull policies are less effective than product-related R&D subsidies to reduce aggregate energy intensity.
    Keywords: Ecological innovation, Economic growth path, Industrial policy, Innovation, Innovation policy, Intangible assets, New technologies, Sustainable growth
    JEL: O31 O40 O41
    Date: 2015–02
  4. By: Shimizu, Hiroshi ; Hoshino, Yusuke
    Abstract: The anecdotal evidence has indicated that inter-organizational collaboration increases R&D productivity by providing access to outside complimentary assets for firms. Focusing on the length of time from launching R&D project to realizing its R&D outcomes, we call it innovation speed, this paper examines a prize data-set on industrial technology, including 434 award-winning R&D projects, and empirically examines the relationship between inter-organizational collaboration and innovation speed and explores how the relationship varies across different types of collaborations. After controlling time periods, technological areas, prize categories, and collaboration types, the data reveal that inter-organizational collaboration among non-business group firms is associated with shorter innovation speed. The curtailed time periods vary from 19.9% to 32.2% according to the models. However, such accelerated time periods are not observed in other collaboration types such as inter-firm collaboration and firm-academic collaboration.
    Date: 2015–01
  5. By: Diego d'Andria (Graduate College "Economics of Innovative Change", Friedrich Schiller University and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena ); Ivan Savin (Graduate College "Economics of Innovative Change", Friedrich Schiller University and Max Planck Institute of Economics, Jena )
    Abstract: In the past decades the role of profit sharing schemes (PSS) as a way to foster innovation in a principal-agent context, and more generally of innovation in economic growth, have been widely acknowledged and studied. However, surprisingly little has been done to analyze the interactions between tax policy, PSS and innovative activity, not least because of severe data limitations. In this study we propose an agent-based model to explore the effects of two distinct tax policies on innovation in a pure knowledge economy: a 'patent box' incentive and a tax incentive on compensation earned by agents as PSS. A distinct feature of this paper is that in contrast to the conventional assumption that firms (principals) decide on whether to innovate or not, we propose that this decision is actually taken by their employees (agents). We compare the two tax incentives under several distinct specifications and find that the tax incentive on PSS is more efficient than a 'patent box' incentive when the role of capital investments in R&D is negligible. With R&D investments in the form of a capacity constraint, both tax incentives are found to play a role in fostering innovation. In addition we find important effects on the incentives' rela- tive efficacy due to labor mobility and due to the ability of firms to benefit from knowledge spillovers.
    Keywords: agent-based model, innovation, knowledge economy, profit sharing schemes, tax incentives for R&D
    JEL: H2 O3 J33
    Date: 2015–02–20
  6. By: WRIGHT, Darren J.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, China, science and technology, research and development, defense innovation
    Date: 2015–01–01
  7. By: Daiya Isogawa (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo ); Kohei Nishikawa (Faculty of Economics, Setsunan University ); Hiroshi Ohashi (Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo )
    Abstract: This study evaluates the economic impact of product innovation by using firm-level data obtained from the Community Innovation Survey conducted in Japan. It accounts for possible technological spillovers from innovation activities, and examines the extent to which new-to-market product innovation contributes to firm performance. Casual observations on the data reveal that new-to-market product innovation is likely to (1) contribute higher sales for the firm with less cannibalization with existing products; (2) generate higher degree of technological spillovers to other innovations; and (3) be brought by those firms that corroborate with universities and other academic institutions. An econometric analysis on simultaneous equations confirms these observations. Policy implications are also discussed. --
    Date: 2015–02
  8. By: Sandro Montresor (University Kore of Enna, Italy ); Antonio Vezzani (European Commission JRC-IPTS )
    Abstract: This paper investigates the innovation impact of intangibles by considering the decision of firms to invest in a comprehensive set of them. By using a new survey on a large sample of firms in 28 EU (plus 8 non-EU) countries, we first identify the principal components of the resources firms invest in six kinds of intangibles. Their contribution to the firms’ propensity to introduce new products and/or processes is then estimated with a two-step model, which addresses the endogeneity of the focal regressors through theoretically consistent instruments. A firm’s innovativeness depends on its choice of using internal vs. external resources for its intangible investments more than on their actual amount, and on the kind of assets these investments are directed to. Intangibles need to be managed strategically in order to have an innovation impact and the policy support of this type of investment must take this strategic use into account.
    Keywords: Innovation; Intangibles; R&D
    JEL: O30 O33
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Douglas C. Lippoldt
    Abstract: This report considers developments in agricultural patents since 1990 and their economic implications. It first provides an overview of the international framework for intellectual property protection and of the general trends in the stringency of protection in OECD countries. It then presents developments in the number of patents originating from OECD and other countries that are granted in Europe and the United States, for all fields and for agriculture and food technologies. These illustrate the leading role played by OECD countries in the provision of successful applications, although non-OECD countries increased their share of the total between 1990 and 2010. Finally, econometric analysis is used to assess the relationships between patenting and selected indicators of innovation and economic performance. The results points to favourable economic developments associated with the patent reforms in the recent decades.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights, patents, performance, intellectual property protection, innovation, agriculture
    JEL: O34 Q16 Q17
    Date: 2015–02–23
  10. By: Bettina Peters (Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) ); Rebecca Riley (National Institute for Economic and Social Research of London ); Iulia Siedschlag (European Commission JRC-IPTS ); Priit Vahter (University of Tartu ); John McQuinn (Cambridge Econometrics )
    Abstract: This paper examines the links between innovation and productivity in service enterprises. For this purpose, we use micro data from the Community Innovation Survey 2008 in Germany, Ireland and the United Kingdom, and estimate an augmented structural model. Our results indicate that innovation in service enterprises is linked to higher productivity. In all three countries analysed, among the innovation types that we consider, the strongest link between innovation and productivity was found for marketing innovations. Our empirical evidence highlights the importance of internationalisation in the context of innovation outputs in all three countries. The determinants of innovation in service enterprises appear remarkably similar to the determinants of innovation in manufacturing enterprises.
    Keywords: Internationalisation of services; innovation; productivity
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2014
  11. By: CHEUNG, Tai Ming
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, China, science and technology, defense innovation, research and development, leadership hierarchy
    Date: 2015–01–01
  12. By: Antoine Dechezleprêtre ; Ivan Haščič ; Nick Johnstone
    Abstract: This paper identifies over 50 000 patents filed worldwide in various water-related adaptation technologies between 1990 and 2010, distinguishing between those related to water availability (supply) and water conservation (demand) technologies. The paper then analyses the innovation activity – including inventive activity by country and technology, international collaboration in technology development, and international diffusion of such water-related technologies. The results suggest that although innovation activity in water-related technologies has been increasing over the last two decades, this growth has been disproportionately concentrated on supply-side technologies. Moreover, most innovation worldwide occurs in countries with low or moderate vulnerability towards water scarcity. While this is a reflection of the fact that most developed economies do not face severe water stress, this result highlights the importance of international technology transfer and policies that facilitate broad diffusion of these technologies in water-stressed countries.<BR>Ce document identifie plus de 50 000 brevets déposés dans le monde entier entre 1990 et 2010 sur diverses technologies d’adaptation dans le domaine de l’eau, en distinguant entre les technologies concernant l’accès à l’eau (offre) et celles qui se rapportent à la conservation de l’eau (demande). Il analyse ensuite les activités d’innovation – en particulier les activités d’invention par pays et technologies, la collaboration internationale dans le développement des technologies et la diffusion internationale des technologies dans le domaine de l’eau. Bien que l’activité d’innovation dans le domaine des technologies hydriques ait augmenté pendant les deux dernières décennies, cette augmentation a porté de façon disproportionnée sur les technologies du côté de l’offre. Dans la majorité l’innovation a lieu dans des pays peu ou modérément vulnérables au risque de pénurie des ressources en eau. Cette situation, qui reflète certainement le fait que la plupart des pays les plus développés ne sont pas confrontés à un grave déficit hydrique, souligne l’importance des transferts internationaux de technologies et des politiques susceptibles de faciliter une large diffusion de ces technologies dans les pays déficitaires en eau.
    Keywords: water scarcity, climate change adaptation, innovation, innovation, adaptation au changement climatique, rareté de l'eau
    JEL: O3 O31 O38 Q25 Q28 Q55
    Date: 2015–02–10
  13. By: Sverre J. Herstad ; Tore Sandven
    Abstract: Building on recent evolutionary thinking, this paper links the present innovation performance of Norwegian firms to their past aggregate inflows of experienced employees through the labor market. In the upper part of OECDs technology intensity classification, firms strengthen their capacity to generate novelty sales by recruiting from within their own sector domains. By contrast, this form of recruitment is negatively associated with performance in low-tech industries. Aggregate inflows from related industries is generally supportive of performance, while inflows from prior employment in the research system is not. This underscores the dependence of industrial innovation on specialized competences and work practices that originate in the domain of industry itself; and, thus, the interdependencies between firms and larger industrial agglomerations.
    Keywords: Labor mobility, related variety, knowledge integration, innovation, Norway
    JEL: J24 O31 O34
    Date: 2015–02
  14. By: Foellmi, Reto ; Legge, Stefan ; Tiemann, Alexa
    Abstract: This paper examines how trade liberalization affects investments in R&D at the firm level. In a model where entrepreneurs are heterogeneous in their wealth endowment, they rely differently on external funds. In the presence of capital market imperfections, this implies heterogeneous access to external funds such that poor entrepreneurs run smaller firms, are less likely to invest in R&D, and more likely to exit the market. Decreasing trade costs resulting from tariff reductions exacerbate these characteristics. Using firm-level panel data on seven Latin American countries for 2006 and 2010, we find support for our theoretical predictions. While recent studies emphasize a positive impact of trade liberalization on firms' productivity-enhancing activities, we provide novel evidence showing that financial constraints can impair the effect on R&D efforts. To address potential endogeneity concerns, we verify our findings using external financial dependence based on U.S. firms. These results suggest that imperfect capital markets can prevent welfare gains from trade liberalization to materialize.
    Keywords: financial constraints; innovation; trade liberalization
    JEL: F14 O12 O16
    Date: 2015–02
  15. By: Belderbos R.A. ; Lokshin B. ; Sadowski B. (GSBE )
    Abstract: Extant research on RD internationalization has not examined how effective foreign RD investments are in generating positive returns for the investing firms, in particular in comparison and conjunction with the effects of domestic RD investments. We examine the effectiveness of international knowledge sourcing through foreign RD in an empirical analysis of the productivity effects of foreign and domestic RD investments in a large panel of firms based in the Netherlands. We argue that foreign and domestic RD will exhibit complementarity in their effects on productivity, but that the roles of domestic and foreign RD depend on the relative position of the home country with respect to the global technology frontier and the related relative opportunities for knowledge sourcing abroad. We estimate a dynamic panel data model derived from a knowledge stock augmented production function framework allowing for productivity convergence and declining returns to RD. We confirm that for firms active in industries in which the home country is behind the global technology frontier, foreign RD provides positive returns and has a complementary relationship with domestic RD. For industries at the global technology frontier, in contrast, domestic RD is the primary source of productivity growth.
    Keywords: Production; Cost; Capital; Capital, Total Factor, and Multifactor Productivity; Capacity; Management of Technological Innovation and R&D; Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes;
    JEL: O32 O33 D24
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Diego-Ivan Ruge-Leiva
    Abstract: Studies which are based on Coe and Helpman (1995) and use weighted foreign R&D variables to estimate channel-specific R&D spillovers disregard the interaction between international R&D spillovers and other unobserved common spillovers and shocks. Using a panel of 50 economies from 1970-2011, we find that disregarding this interaction leads to inconsistent estimates whenever knowledge spillovers and other unobserved effects are correlated with foreign and domestic R&D. When this interaction is modeled, estimates are consistent; however, they confound foreign and domestic R&D effects with unobserved effects. Thus, the coefficient of a weighted foreign R&D variable cannot capture genuine channel-specific R&D spillovers.
    Date: 2015–02
  17. By: ANDERSON, Eric ; NAUGHTON, Barry ; CHEUNG, Tai Ming ; COWHEY, Peter ; XUE, Lan ; CHEN, Ling ; WANG, Gangbo
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, united states, china, comparative, measure, innovation gap, science and technology
    Date: 2013–12–01
  18. By: Mila Davids ; Koen Frenken
    Abstract: The proximity concept refers to types of inter-organizational relationships that are expected to facilitate interactive learning and collaborative innovation. Different forms of proximity include geographical, cognitive, social, institutional and organizational proximity. Following an extensive case study of a new diet margarine developed by Unilever, we extent the proximity framework by theorizing how the relative importance of each proximity dimension depends on the type of knowledge being produced, where we distinguish between analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge. We argue that our theoretical framework in principle applies to product innovations in all science-based industries.
    Date: 2015–02
  19. By: Llanto, Gilberto M. ; del Prado, Fatima
    Abstract: Private firms invest in physical capital and human resource but they are also advised to invest in innovations to be more productive and profitable. Innovations refer to the development, deployment, and economic utilization of new products, processes, and services. It is important for firms to know whether investment in innovations is investment well-spent. Our empirical results provided an affirmative response to the question raised in this paper: "Does innovation mediate good firm performance?" Product and process innovations lead to increase in sales and profits and improve labor productivity. The paper also showed that firm size, age, and foreign equity are important factors leading firms to innovate.
    Keywords: innovation, Philippines, process innovation, product innovation, firm performance, small and medium enterprises (SMEs)
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Giovanni Cerulli ; Roberto Gabriele ; Bianca Poti'
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of firm RD policies sustaining RD investment and collaboration on company innovation performance. Individual and cooperative RD investments are considered as intermediate outcomes (input and behavioral additionality, respectively) contributing to the final outcome (presence of product innovation). We use a treatment random coefficient model to estimate the policy additionality on a panel dataset merging the third and the fourth wave of the Italian Community Innovation Survey (CIS). Results show a significant and positive policy impact on company propensity to product innovation only for the input additionality and for the interaction between the input and the cooperative additionality. This occurs when company cooperation scores overcome a certain threshold, in accordance with the theory which states that cooperation outcomes tend to increase when higher spillovers are .pursued by the firms.
    Keywords: RD collaborations, RD policy, additionality; average treatment effect
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Serena Frazzoni ; Maria Luisa Mancusi (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore ; Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore ); Zeno Rotondi ; Maurizio Sobrero ; Andrea Vezzulli
    Abstract: This paper assesses the role of relationship lending in explaining simultaneously the innovation activity of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME), their probability to export (i.e. the extensive margin) and their share of exports on total sales conditional on exporting (i.e. the intensive margin). We adopt a measure of informational tightness based on the ratio of firm’s debt with its main bank to firm’s total assets. Our results show that the strength of the bank-firm relation has a positive impact on both SME’s probability to export and their export margins. This positive effect is only marginally mediated by the SME’s increased propensity to introduce product innovation. We further discuss the financial and non-financial channels through which the intensity of bank-firm relationship supports SMEs’ international activities.
    Keywords: margins of export, bank-firm relationships, innovation, localized knowledge spillovers
    JEL: F10 G20 G21 O30
    Date: 2014–11
  22. By: Susanna Mancinelli ; Rosa Bernardini Papalia ; Silvia Bertarelli
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether firms’ joint implementation of product, process and organizational innovation may foster their propensity of exporting. We study the relationship of complementarity among innovation practices when exporting is the firms’ objective function, through the properties of supermodular functions. We propose a unified strategy to perform multiple inequality testing implied by the properties of supermodular functions. Bootstrapping is used when innovation variables are exogenous. When endogeneity of binary variables cannot be rejected complementarity is checked through propensity score matching and instrumental variable methods. Using data from CIS4, heterogeneous incentives of exploiting complementarity among German manufacturing firms’ innovation practices emerge by export destinations and when size specific conditions are satisfied.
    Keywords: Export propensity; complementarity among innovations; multiple hypothesis testing; binary choice model
    JEL: C12 C25 F14 O31
    Date: 2015–02–20
  23. By: Christian Schröder (Europäisches Institut für Internationale Wirtschaftsbeziehungen (EIIW) )
    Abstract: High innovation capability is indispensable for generating economic growth in developed economies. Cooperations in the innovation process are entered into by companies for reasons of risk diversification or costs and often considered to be an efficient strategy to increase a company’s knowledge basis. Regional economic literature very often believes that regional agglomeration of companies, i.e. cluster formation, will also lead to increased local networking, i.e. also to cooperations between companies or between company and research institutes in the innovation process. A social network analysis of the two German ICT regions performed with patent data was able to show that cluster formation coincides with a dynamic increase of cooperations measured by joint patent applications. However, the cooperations are characterized by integration of extra-regional companies and research institutes rather than being intraregional.
    Keywords: Regional science, Cluster, ICT, Knowledge spillover, Social network analysis, Innovation networks
    JEL: L10 O18 L63 L86
    Date: 2013–08
  24. By: Winkelbach, Andreas ; Walter, Achim
    Abstract: Managers entrusted with new product development (NPD) have to seek the optimal balance between prior competencies and learning activities to generate successful products. Yet prior NPD research has largely taken a positivistic view of learning despite an inkling that too much learning can lead to dysfunction. This study attempts to contribute the NPD literature by analyzing whether and, if so, when technological learning engenders shortcomings and affects new product commercialization. We use a multi-informant longitudinal design combining unique survey and patent data on a multi-industry sample of about 163 product-based R&D collaborations in Germany. The results of a Cox regression reveal that prior technological knowledge is pervasively important for NPD and confirm that an inverted U-shaped relationship holds between the likelihood of commercialization and technological learning. The inverted U-shaped relationship supports the characterization of learning as a double-edged sword that helps overcome rigidities but also has downsides if taken too far. Exploitive learning, in particular, is the later of the two to incur downsides. This draws attention to the inherent uncertainty and costs of experimentation when learning is geared to exploration. As expected, technological progress determines NPD, but the influence is negligibly small. We argue that inertia dominates NPD projects, at least in the short-term. Our findings mainly contribute to the NPD literature by demonstrating a differentiated learning-performance relationship. The results reveal whether and, if so, when, learning can become a drag to NPC and traps may occur. Managers are advised to ensure, at least, a fit between project requirements and prior competencies, but also to ensure adequate learning. Irrespective whether learning is geared to exploration or exploitation, it is advisable to maintain it at an appropriate level. This article suggests a patent-based instrument to monitor and manage learning efforts.
    Keywords: new product development,technological learning,prior technological knowledge,technological progress,patent data
    JEL: O31 O32 O34 D83
    Date: 2015
  25. By: BONVILLIAN, William B.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, Innovation history, policy history, science and technology, united states
    Date: 2013–12–01

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