nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒02‒22
twenty-one papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. On the Failure of R&D Projects By Link, Albert; Wright, Mike
  2. Layers of co-existing innovation systems By Johannes Meuer; Christian Rupietta; Uschi Backes-Gellner
  3. Economic Growth, Patent Race, and the Distribution of R&D Firms By Tetsugen Haruyama
  4. The dark side of R&D collaborations By Enrico Guzzini; Donato Iacobucci
  5. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions By Grillitsch, Markus; Martin, Roman; Srholec, Martin
  6. Outside directors on the board, competition and innovation By Buchwald, Achim; Thorwarth, Susanne
  7. The Global Effects of R&D Tax Incentives: Evidence from Micro-Data By Knoll, Bodo; Baumann, Martina; Riedel, Nadine
  8. The Effect of Initial Public Offerings on Firm Innovation By Matthew Crail Johnson
  9. Proximity, knowledge base and the innovation process The case of Unilever’s Becel diet margarine By Davids, Mila; Frenken, Koen
  10. Empirical study on how social media promotes product innovation By Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu
  11. Governance, Firm Size and Innovative Capacity: Regional Empirical Evidence for Germany By Jahn, Vera; Berlemann, Michael
  12. Innovation and corporate employment growth revisited By Herstad , Sverre J.; Sandven , Tore
  13. The Benefits of International Co-authorship in Scientific Papers: The Case of Wind Energy Technologies By Julie Poirier; Nick Johnstone; Ivan Haščič; Jérôme Silva
  14. How much does ICT contribute to innovation output? An analysis of the ICT component in the innovation output indicator By Annarosa Pesole
  15. Imitate, or innovate and collaborate? On innovation strategy choices in the urban economy By Herstad, Sverre J.
  16. Designing an Optimal 'Tech Fix' Path to Global Climate Stability: Integrated Dynamic Requirements Analysis for the 'Tech Fix' By Paul David; Adriaan van Zon
  17. The role of universities in the location of innovative start-upsa By Giorgio Calacagnini; Ilario Favaretto; Germana Giombini; Francesco Perugini; Rosalba Rombaldoni
  18. Collaborative Research and Rate of Interests By Chatterjee, Rittwik; Chattopadhyay, Srobonti
  19. Human capital, basic research, and applied research: three dimensions of human knowledge and their differential growth effects By Werner, Katharina; Prettner, Klaus
  20. R&D returns, spillovers, and firm incentives : evidence from China By Goh, Chorching; Li, Wei; Xu, Lixin Colin
  21. The Use of Intellectual Property in Brazil By Vivian Barcelos; Marina Filgueiras Jorge; Bruno Le Feuvre; Felipe Lopes; Sergio Medeiros Paulino de Carvalho; Vera Pinheiro; Julio Raffo; Leonardo Ribeiro

  1. By: Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Wright, Mike (Imperial College and University of Ghent)
    Abstract: There is an extensive literature on the success/failure of firm-funded R&D projects but growing policy interest focuses on publicly-funded R&D projects. Using data from 1,878 Phase II R&D projects funded through the U.S. Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program, of which 624 had been discontinued prior to technical completion, we provide for the first time findings on the success/failure of publicly-funded firm-performed R&D projects. We find that prior R&D experience with the technology being funded by SBIR projects, the amount of the SBIR award, and having a female PI, other factors held constant, is negatively related to the probability of project failure. In contrast, firm size is positively associated with project failure. We discuss the implications of these findings for practice, policy, and further research.
    Keywords: R&D; project failure; innovation; SBIR; public sector
    JEL: L26 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–02–16
  2. By: Johannes Meuer (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Christian Rupietta (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich); Uschi Backes-Gellner (Department of Business Administration, University of Zurich)
    Abstract: The innovation systems approach, which has taken a prominent position in the academic literature, has also influenced policy-makers around the globe. Most research analyses innovation systems taking a national, regional or sectoral perspective, following a 'technological imperative'. Yet changes in institutional conditions and the importance of non-technological innovation question the accuracy and the relevance of the existing boundaries of innovation systems. These developments ask for a better understanding of how innovation systems integrate within and across different levels. Drawing on a novel combination of configurational and econometric analysis, we analyse 384 Swiss firms and identify five co-existing innovation systems: two generic innovation systems, the autarkic and the knowledge-internalisation; one regional innovation system, the protected hierarchy; and two sectoral innovation systems, the public sciences and the organised learning. The generic innovation systems entail the 'Science, Technology and Innovation' (STI) and the 'Doing, Interacting and Using' (DUI) learning modes. These systems are structurally distinct and do not integrate. In contrast, all regional and sectoral innovation systems integrate the learning modes of the generic innovation systems and complement them with idiosyncratic elements. The perspective on co-existing innovation systems that we develop here indicates the existence of two layers of innovation systems: a 'central' layer that hosts generic innovation systems and that constitutes the foundation for a second 'surface' layer that hosts regional and sectoral innovation systems. We discuss the implications of layers of co-existing innovation systems for policy-makers and future research.
    Keywords: Innovation systems, technological and organisational innovation, firms' learning behaviour, institutional frameworks, fsQCA, SUR model
    Date: 2015–01
  3. By: Tetsugen Haruyama (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: The paper constructs a general equilibrium model model where the rate of technical progress and the distribution of R&D expenditure by heterogeneous research firms are simultaneously determined. Using the model, we explore the effects of the following policy measures on those two endogenous variables: (i) subsidies to flow variable R&D costs, (ii) subsidies to flow fixed R&D costs, (iii) an increase in entrant firms into a series of patent races, and (iv) an increase in the supply of human capital as inputs to R&D. Contrasting results are demonstrated. For example, subsidies to flow variable R&D costs promote technical progress and induce the exit of R&D firms with low R&D productivity. That is, the policy accelerates technological progress through R&D by "elite" firms. On the other hand, the opposite result holds if subsidies are applied to flow fixed R&D costs.
    Keywords: R&D, Patent race, technical progress, heterogeneous firms, firm distribution
    Date: 2015–01
  4. By: Enrico Guzzini (Università degli Studi eCampus); Donato Iacobucci (Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: Collaboration with firms and public research institutions (PRI) is expected to raise the innovative performance of firms. Collaboration is also likely to increase the cost of innovation because of leakages of strategic information, appropriability and coordination problems. When collaborating with PRI the latter problem is expected to be stronger thus raising the probability of project failure. The aim of this paper is to investigate if and to what extent collaboration in R&D projects raises the probability of failure: i.e. abandoning or delaying innovative projects. It also aims at verifying if and to what extent the collaboration with PRI increases the likelihood of failure. We use data from the fourth Italian Community Innovation Survey (CIS 4) which collected data for the three-year period 2002-2004. The empirical results support the hypothesis that collaboration significantly impacts the probability of abandoning or delaying innovative projects, thus raising the cost of innovation. Collaboration with PRI does not raise the likelihood of failure more than what observed for the collaboration with other partners. Moreover, delaying is influenced by cost factors (such as the lack of financial resources) and knowledge factors (such as the lack of qualified personnel); abandonment is significantly associated with market factors (such as uncertain demand).
    Keywords: R&D collaboration; project failure; public research institutions
    JEL: O32 L14
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Grillitsch, Markus (CIRCLE, Lund University); Martin, Roman (CIRCLE, Lund University); Srholec, Martin (CIRCLE, Lund University & CERGE-EI, Charles University and Economics Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic)
    Abstract: The literature on geography of innovation suggests that innovation outcomes depend on the type of knowledge base employed by firms. While knowledge bases are distinct categories with regards to the nature and the rational of knowledge creation, existing studies also stress that innovation usually involves more than one knowledge base. In fact, new ideas often occur when analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge intertwines. It remains unclear, though, which combinations of knowledge bases are most conducive to innovation at the level of the firm, and how this is influenced by the knowledge bases available in the regional milieu. Therefore the contribution of this paper is threefold: i) to measure knowledge bases of firms and their regional heterogeneity in a more comprehensive way than the existing empirical literature has been able to do so far, ii) to quantitatively assess the impact of combinations of knowledge bases on innovation output, iii) to analyze the interplay between firm- and region-level knowledge bases (and combinations thereof) in generating innovations. Empirically, the paper applies econometric analysis on firm- and region-level data from Sweden. The knowledge base of firms is captured using detailed occupational data derived from linked employer-employee datasets that is merged at the firm-level with information from Community Innovation Surveys. The empirical analysis reveals in a quantitative way the extent to which the knowledge base combinations affect innovativeness of firms.
    Keywords: Knowledge bases; knowledge combination; regions; innovation performance; microdata; cross-level interaction; Sweden
    JEL: O30 O31 R10
    Date: 2015–02–08
  6. By: Buchwald, Achim; Thorwarth, Susanne
    Abstract: We investigate the influence of non-executive outside directors on firms' innovative performance for a sample of 1,393 listed firms in the EU - 15 member states plus Norway and Switzerland in the period 2005 to 2010. Our results show that the fraction of non-executive outside directors on the board is associated with a significant decrease in the number of patent applications if competition in the market is low. This may indicate that restrictive monitoring and lower advising competences of outside directors mitigate executives' incentives to innovate. In industries with effective competition, the negative influence of outsiders is offset by the pressure to focus on innovation strategies.
    Keywords: Competition,Corporate Governance,Innovation,Patents,Board Composition,Outside Directors
    JEL: G34 L14 L25 M21 O31
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Knoll, Bodo; Baumann, Martina; Riedel, Nadine
    Abstract: Recent years have seen an unprecedented increase in the provision of R&D tax incentives. A growing empirical literature suggests that R&D tax incentives are instrumental in raising domestic R&D activity. In policy debates this fi nding is often interpreted to lend support to the notion that R&D tax incentives increase national welfare by internalizing knowledge spillovers to other agents in the economy and raising ineffi ciently low R&D levels. Our paper stresses that much of the observed increase in R&D activities in response to R&D tax incentives is in fact related to R&D activities that are attracted from abroad. Using unique panel data on R&D activities of European multinational fi rms, we test for a potential impact of both, R&D tax incentives in the affi liate's host country and R&D tax incentives at other locations of the multinational group. In line with theoretical predictions, we fi nd a positive impact of domestic R&D subsidies and a negative one for foreign subsidies provided at other group locations. Quantitatively, the fi ndings suggest that around 80% of the observed increase in R&D activities is related to relocations of R&D across country borders.
    JEL: H25 H71 D62
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Matthew Crail Johnson (Big Innovation Centre)
    Date: 2015–02
  9. By: Davids, Mila (School of Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology); Frenken, Koen (Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University & CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The proximity concept refers to types of inter-organizational relationships that are expected to facilitate interactive learning and collaborative innovation. Different forms of proximity include geographical, cognitive, social, institutional and organizational proximity. Following an extensive case study of a new diet margarine developed by Unilever, we extent the proximity framework by theorizing how the relative importance of each proximity dimension depends on the type of knowledge being produced, where we distinguish between analytical, synthetic and symbolic knowledge. We argue that our theoretical framework in principle applies to product innovations in all science-based industries.
    Keywords: innovation; proximity; knowledge; science-based industries; multinational enterprise; management
    JEL: F23 L66 N30 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–02–15
  10. By: Idota, Hiroki; Bunno, Teruyuki; Tsuji, Masatsugu
    Abstract: Social media such as SNS, Twitter, and the blogs has been spreading all over the world, and a large number of firms recognize social media as new communication tools for obtaining information on consumer needs and market for developing new goods and services and promoting marketing. In spite of increasing its use in the reality, academic research on whether or how social media contributes to promoting product innovation is not enough yet. This study thus attempts to analyze empirically how social media use enhances product innovation based on the survey data to Japanese firms using statistical method such as ordered probit analysis. This study finds that consumers' cooperation via social media is indispensable for effective social media use of firms. All of three managerial orientations such as prototyping, corporate initiatives, and cooperation with consumers are effective to using social media for innovation. Firms use social media effectively for communicating tools not only outside but also inside the firm. Social media is found to support firms to obtain the market trend, and consumer needs and reputation of existing products, and to promote product innovation.
    Keywords: social media,product Innovation,ordered probit analysis,factor analysis,R&D orientation
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Jahn, Vera; Berlemann, Michael
    Abstract: Successful innovation is a precondition for economic prosperity. While various potential determinants of innovative activity have been considered, little empirical evidence is yet available for the influence of firm governance issues. This paper aims at filling this gap in the literature by studying whether the relative importance of owner-managed small and medium sized enterprises has an effect on regional innovative capacity. We therefore combine patent data with data from the firm database of Creditreform, containing information on the governance structure of regional operating enterprises. Using a cross section of German NUTS-3-regions, we identify a significantly positive relation between the relative importance of owner-managed SMEs and innovative capacity. This finding is highly robust when controlling for various sorts of spatial correlation.
    JEL: O31 C21 D23
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Herstad , Sverre J. (NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Oslo); Sandven , Tore (NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education, Oslo)
    Abstract: Using Norwegian Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data linked to public employment registers covering the years 2004 - 2010, this paper investigates the relationship between employment growth prior to the event of innovation, innovation output, and growth performance after the event. Positive growth ex ante generally strengthens growth ex post. Moreover, it increases the likelihood that innovations are introduced during the intermediate period that strengthen employment performances further. This effect is present for all levels of growth only when new products, production processes and support functions are introduced in tandem. Standalone improvements of products, by contrast, influence only the probability of survival, whereas standalone improvements of production processes and support functions support ex post growth specifically in the upper tail of the distribution. Our findings challenge the common view that product innovations are more important to growth than process innovations, and reveal interdependencies between multi-faceted organizational capabilities, innovation output and employment performance.
    Keywords: Capabilities; innovation; employment growth; Norway
    JEL: J23 J24 O15 O33
    Date: 2015–02–08
  13. By: Julie Poirier; Nick Johnstone; Ivan Haščič; Jérôme Silva
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the effect of international co-authorship of scientific publications on patenting in wind energy technologies. It is found that the number of scientific publications co-authored by researchers in OECD countries has a positive and very significant impact on the number of wind energy innovations patented in OECD countries. However, non-OECD countries produce a greater number of patent filings when their researchers collaborate with OECD countries. This suggests that there exist knowledge spillovers between OECD and non-OECD countries that particularly benefit non-OECD countries. This empirical finding is important because it strengthens the case for international research cooperation between OECD and non-OECD countries in the area of climate mitigation.<BR>On trouvera dans le présent document une analyse de l’incidence que le co-autorat international de publications scientifiques a sur le brevetage des technologies éoliennes. Il apparaît que le nombre de publications scientifiques rédigées conjointement par des chercheurs de la région OCDE a un impact positif et très significatif sur le nombre des innovations brevetées par les pays membres dans le domaine de l’énergie éolienne. Toutefois, on observe également que les pays non membres sont à l’origine d’un plus grand nombre de demandes de brevets lorsque les chercheurs de ces pays collaborent avec des homologues de pays de l’OCDE. Cela laisse penser qu’un transfert indirect de connaissances s’opère entre les pays membres et non membres de l’OCDE, principalement pour le bénéfice de ces derniers. Cette constatation empirique est importante car elle apporte un argument supplémentaire en faveur de la coopération entre chercheurs des pays membres et non membres de l’OCDE dans le domaine de l’atténuation du changement climatique.
    Keywords: knowledge spillovers, climate change mitigation, innovation, scientific collaboration, collaboration scientifique, innovation, atténuation du changement climatique, diffusion des connaissances.
    JEL: O3 O31 O38 Q4 Q42 Q48 Q55
    Date: 2015–02–10
  14. By: Annarosa Pesole (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: During the past years, the role of ICT as key driver and enabler of innovation has been widely recognized. The advent and development of ICT transformed the economy and the society in an evident way. However, what and how ICT contributes to this value creation process and its full potential remains hard to detect. There is a need for continuous monitoring of ICT impacts in order to provide policy makers with appropriate tools to define the right policies to seize ICT benefits. In light of this, a final aim for policy makers is to develop methodologies and tools to measure the performance of ICT innovation in Europe. This report analyses the ICT component within the newly released Innovation output indicator and provide additional informative background on the role and relation between ICT and innovation output.
    Keywords: ICT, innovation, Innovation Output Indicator, composite indicator
    Date: 2015–01
  15. By: Herstad, Sverre J. (NIFU Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education)
    Abstract: This paper explores how the innovation strategies of firms reflect the density, diversity and connectivity of their urban locations. Firms located outside the four large-city regions of Norway are generally more committed to development work than are their urban counterparts. Still, once engaged, firms in certain large-city locations exhibit unique preferences towards geographically dispersed collaboration that are most pronounced within the Western business district of the Capital. This shows that firm-level decisions along interconnected activity dimensions must be considered in order for different strategy choices, and the interdependencies between them that are an essential feature of urban economies, are to be revealed. The study provides new insights into the large-city region knowledge dynamics that are increasingly important to human capital formation, employment and growth.
    Keywords: urbanization; innovation; collaboration; knowledge dynamics; Norway
    JEL: O31 O33 R11
    Date: 2015–02–15
  16. By: Paul David (Stanford University); Adriaan van Zon (SBE Maastricht University and United Nations University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the requirements for a social welfare-optimized transition path toward a carbon-free economy, focusing particularly on the deployment of low-carbon technologies, and the roles of engineering upgrading of extant facilities, and directed R&D to enhancing their productivity. The goal in each case is to achieve timely supply-side transformations in the global production regime that will avert catastrophic climate instability, and do so in a manner that minimizes the social welfare costs of stabilizing the level of the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG). This "planning-model" approach departs from conventional IAM exercises by dispensing with the need to make (generally dubious) assumptions about the macro-level consequences of behaviors of economic and political actors in response to market incentives and specific public policy instruments, such as a carbon tax. It shifts attention instead to the need for empirical research on critical technical parameters, and problems of inter-temporal coordination of investment and capacity utilization that will be required to achieve a timely, welfare-optimizing transition. A suite of heuristic integrated models is described, in which global macroeconomic growth is constrained by geophysical system with climate feedbacks, including extreme weather damages from global warming driven by greenhouse gas emissions, and the threshold level GHG concentration beyond which the climate system will be "tipped into" catastrophic runaway warming. A variety of technological options are identified, each comprising an array of specific techniques that share a distinctive instrumental role in controlling the concentration level of atmospheric CO2. The development of low-carbon technologies through investment in R&D, and their deployment embodied in new physical capital formation, is explicitly modeled; as is the implementation of known engineering techniques to "upgrade" existing fossil-fueled production facilities. The social-welfare efficient exercise of the available technological options is shown to involve sequencing different investment and production activities in separate temporal "phases" that together form a transition path to a sustainable low-carbon economy— one in which gross CO2-emissions do not exceed the Earth’s “natural” abatement capacity. Parametric variations of the "tipping point" constraint in these models will permit exploration of the corresponding modification in the required sequencing and durations of investment and production in the phases that form the optimal transition path. The preliminary solutions (using mufti-phase optimal control methods) expose important dynamic complementarities among technological options that are often presented as substitutes by current climate policy discussions.
    Keywords: global warming, tipping points, catastrophic climate instability, technology fix options, R&D investments, capital-embodied innovations, optimal sequencing, IAM and DIRAM policy design approaches, multi-phase optimal control, sustainable endogenous growth
    JEL: Q54 Q55 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2015–02
  17. By: Giorgio Calacagnini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Ilario Favaretto (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Germana Giombini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Francesco Perugini (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Rosalba Rombaldoni (Department of Economics, Society & Politics, Università di Urbino "Carlo Bo")
    Abstract: Start-ups increasingly find the prospect of university-industry collaborations to be a powerful driver of innovation and entrepreneurship activity. Moreover, at the geographical level, they are attracted by teaching and research institutions, either public or private. This paper focuses on the role played by universities. Our hypothesis is that geographical proximity favors the transfer of knowledge and technology from universities to industries and, consequently, represents a positive factor for regional economic development. Results show that university spillovers are positively correlated with the creation of innovative start-ups. Furthermore, the presence of human capital (graduates) exerts a significant influence on the location decisions of start-ups, being a source for competitiveness for firms close to universities. Research quality, especially in the social sciences area, attracts innovative start-ups, while third-mission activities have a weak impact on locational choice.
    Keywords: CKnowledge transfer, Innovative start-up, University spillovers
    JEL: M13 L20 R30
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Chatterjee, Rittwik; Chattopadhyay, Srobonti
    Abstract: This paper makes an attempt to link collaborative research in industry with Government initiative and market rate of interests. Two firms involved in Cournot competition in the market are deciding whether to conduct research to device a technique for cost reduction. Amount of cost reduction after the research and the initial amount of capital possessed by each firm are private information to each of the firms. In particular both of them are having capacity constraint. Our objective here is to figure out the impacts of the lending and borrowing rates of interest on collaborative research. In the process we study the effectiveness of different policies to encourage collaborative R&D.
    Keywords: Collaborative research, Government policy, Subsidy, Interest rate
    JEL: E43 H71 L50 O31 O38
    Date: 2015–02–08
  19. By: Werner, Katharina; Prettner, Klaus
    Abstract: We analyze the di fferential growth e ffects of basic research, applied research, and embodied human capital accumulation in an R&D-based growth model with endogenous fertility and endogenous education. In line with the empirical evidence, our model allows for i) a negative association between long-run economic growth and population growth, ii) a positive association between long-run economic growth and education, and iii) a positive association between the level of per capita GDP and expenditures for basic research. Our results also indicate that raising public investments in basic research reduces the growth rate of GDP in the short run because resources have to be drawn away from other productive sectors of the economy. These short-run costs of basic research might be an explanation for the reluctance of governments to increase public R&D expenditures notwithstanding the long-run benefi ts of such a policy.
    JEL: O41 H41 J11
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Goh, Chorching; Li, Wei; Xu, Lixin Colin
    Abstract: This paper uses a new data set of 12,000 firms in China to estimate the returns to research and development investment and its spillover effects, and investigates how the returns to research and development depend on firm incentives. For the firms in the sample, the results show that on average firm output increases around 0.4 yuan for each additional 1 yuan spent on research and development in the previous year, and there is high research and development return regardless of whether the analysis deals with the endogeneity of research and development intensity. Interestingly, the marginal return to research and development is significantly higher in firms whose chief executive officers were not appointed by the government and lower when the chief executive officer's pay is directly related to annual performance. The return to research and development is higher in relatively poor regions and for firms with worse access to finance. There are also non-trivial research and development spillover effects.
    Keywords: E-Business,Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems,Scientific Research&Science Parks,Science Education,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems
    Date: 2015–02–01
  21. By: Vivian Barcelos (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, Assessoria de Assuntos Econômicos, Brazil.); Marina Filgueiras Jorge (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, Assessoria de Assuntos Econômicos, Brazil.); Bruno Le Feuvre (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Felipe Lopes (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, Assessoria de Assuntos Econômicos, Brazil.); Sergio Medeiros Paulino de Carvalho (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, Assessoria de Assuntos Econômicos, Brazil.); Vera Pinheiro (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial, Assessoria de Assuntos Econômicos, Brazil.); Julio Raffo (Economics and Statistics Division, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.); Leonardo Ribeiro (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Brazil.)
    Abstract: This study describes patterns and trends of intellectual property (IP) use in Brazil, drawing on a new statistical database (BADEPI) containing all IP filings at Brazilian Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial (INPI) over the period 2000-2011. This novel database contains a unique set of information about patents, utility models, industrial designs, trademarks, geographical indications, computer programs and IP-related contracts. In addition, the study documents the methodology to construct this novel database from bibliographical unit-record data, which among others makes use of unique identification of applicants and inventors across all forms of IP.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property, Patents, Trademarks, Innovation, Brazil.
    Date: 2014–12

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