nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2015‒01‒26
thirty-one papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. Relations between innovation activities and exports in food and agriculture firms By Alarcón, Silverio; Sánchez, Mercedes
  2. Universities' Role as Knowledge Sources for Product Innovations By Kohei Nishikawa; Daisuke Kanama
  4. Mobility of ideas for innovation: The role of inventor-specific knowledge flows By Koski, Heli; Pajarinen, Mika
  5. An Innovation Policy Framework: Bridging the Gap between Industrial Dynamics and Growth By Braunerhjelm, Pontus; Henrekson, Magnus
  6. Are Patent Fees Effective at Weeding Out Low-Quality Patents? By Gaétan de Rassenfosse; Adam B. Jaffe
  7. Persistence of various types of innovation analysed and explained By Karlsson, Charlie; Tavssoli, Sam
  8. Isolation and Innovation – Two Contradictory Concepts? Explorative Findings from the German Laser Industry By M. Kudic; Wilfried Ehrenfeld
  9. Intellectual property rights hinder sequential innovation: experimental evidence By Brueggemann, J.; Crosetto, P.; Meub, L.; Bizer, K.
  10. Identification of regions with less developed research and innovation systems By Trippl, Michaela; Asheim, Björn; Miorner, Johan
  11. Technological parks and the innovation activity of enterprises in the industrial networks – developed regions vs. the intermediate ones By Jadwiga Goraczkowska
  12. 'Public Spending and Transitional Dynamics of an Innovation-Based Growth Model' By Baris Alpaslan
  13. An empirical study of technological leadership and persistence in product innovation By Roberto Fontana,; Diana Moriniello,; Andrea Vezzulli Abstract. We study how technological leadership affects persistence in product innovation. Relying upon a database of 1818 products marketed between 1990 and 1999 by 265 firms active in three markets of the Local Area Network (LAN) industry we first construct a measure of technological leadership and then relate this measure to persistence in innovation. We find that leaders are systematically more persistent innovators than laggards. We also find that leaders in one market can also systematically innovate in a related and adjacent market. Finally, we find a positive correlation between prior patenting activity and persistence in product innovation.
  14. Capacities and Absorptive Barriers for International R&D Spillovers through Intermediate Inputs By Neil Foster-McGregor; Johannes Pöschl; Robert Stehrer
  15. Long-run and Global R&D Funding Trajectories: The U.S. Farm Bill in a Changing Context By Pardey, Philip; Chan-Kang, Connie; Beddow, Jason M.; Dehmer, Steven
  16. Buyer Power and Functional Competition for Innovation By Inderst, Roman; Jakubovic, Zlata; Jovanovic, Dragan
  17. The economic cycle and the innovation activity of the Polish Industry System By Arkadiusz Swiadek
  18. Intangible assets and firm-level productivity By Crass, Dirk; Peters, Bettina
  19. Synergies between EU R&I Funding Programmes. Proceedings from the Launching Event of the Stairway to Excellence Project By Susana Elena Pérez; Andrea Conte; Nicholas Harrap
  20. Assessing the Role of PPPs in Addressing Proximity and Systemic Challenges in Regional Innovation Policy By Kristensen, Iryna
  22. Tacit knowledge, embedded agency and learning: local nodes and global networks By Lam, Alice
  23. Optimal production channel for private labels: Too much or too little innovation? By Claire Chambolle; Clémence Christin; Guy Meunier
  24. Skill-Structure Shocks, the Share of the High-Tech Sector and Economic Growth Dynamics By Pedro Mazeda Gil; Oscar Afonso; Paulo B. Vasconcelos
  25. Universities,Industrial Clusters, and Economic Development in Egypt By Ali, Hoda Abd El Hamid
  26. The Kernel of a Patent Licensing Game By Shin Kishimoto; Naoki Watanabe
  27. Candidate screening for the recruitment of critical research and development workers: A report and preliminary results with evidence from experimental data from German high-tech firms By Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas
  28. Invisible Women: Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Family Firms in France during Early Industrialization By B. Zorina Khan
  29. Does Market Orientation in Small-Scale farms pay off? A study of Innovation behaviour in Spanish agriculture By López-Mosquera, Natalia; Álvarez-Coque, José María García; Sánchez, Mercedes
  30. An Application of Graphical Models to the Innobarometer Survey: A Map of Firms’ Innovative Behaviour. By Carota, Cinzia; Durio, Alessandra; Guerzoni, Marco
  31. The determinants of regulatory responses to risks from financial innovation: Survey evidence from G20 By Ivan Diaz-Rainey; John Ashton; Maz Yap; Murat Genc; Rosalind Whiting

  1. By: Alarcón, Silverio; Sánchez, Mercedes
    Abstract: The paper examines the innovation and export strategies of Spanish food and agriculture firms. It is based on a sample of these firms selected by PITEC for the period 2003-2010. The results show the key role of internal innovation efforts in international commercial activity. This highlights the importance of the capacity to absorb internal innovation efforts. Furthermore, process innovation has a greater effect than product innovation on the internationalization strategy, both for the agricultural and the food firms.
    Keywords: R&D, product innovation, process innovation, internationalization, agrifood firms, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Kohei Nishikawa; Daisuke Kanama
    Abstract: This study verified innovation objectives for Japanese SMEs' access to university knowledge the effects of university knowledge on innovation outcomes. The analysis found the following three points. First, Japanese SMEs do not access university knowledge strategically according to innovation objectives but decide whether to use university knowledge in consideration of such factors as proactive R&D spending, financial constraints on innovations and the effectiveness of legal means to secure profit from innovations. Next, product innovations for "improving product or service quality," "expanding product or service lineups," "replacing existing products or services" and "exploring new markets" can lead to financial successes without university knowledge, rather than with such knowledge. Finally, the utilization of university knowledge does not necessarily lead to greater technological capabilities. In Japan, science, technology and innovation policy has strongly encouraged university-industry collaboration from later 1990¡¯s aiming to support innovation activities for SMEs. The results of this study do not confirm the total effects of the policy. Length: 38 pages
  3. By: Paola Cardamone; Valeria Pupo (Dipartimento di Economia, Statistica e Finanza, Università della Calabria)
    Abstract: This paper utilizes the Efige data (2007-2009) to identify the determinants of university-industry cooperation in five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK). We use a probit model for firm level data which incorporates variables of innovation activities and traditional determinants of R&D cooperation. The results of analysis support the view that the relationships between firms and universities have a high degree of heterogeneity. Traditionally evaluated firm variables, such as age, exporting, belonging to a sector, process innovation, are significant in only some countries. There are also common patterns: the probability of cooperating with universities increases for innovative firms and firms with R&D capacity in almost all countries. Policies in support of R&D and size are also an important factor.
    Date: 2015–01
  4. By: Koski, Heli; Pajarinen, Mika
    Abstract: Our data from 351 innovating firms for the years 2001–2012 generally suggest that patentable ideas are strongly linked to the mobility of individual inventors, or that the knowledge flows transmitted are sticky inventor-specific. In other words, the larger the knowledge pool of an inventor entering (leaving) the firm, the more the firm’s innovation performance increases (decreases). However, our separate estimations for six different technology classes suggest that this does not apply for all technologies. Our data indicate that the knowledge flows are mobile inventor-specific for chemicals and pharmaceuticals and mechanical engineering such that the mobility of an inventor to a firm increases its innovation performance but the mobility of an inventor from a firm does not affect its innovation performance. We further find that particularly innovation coopetition (i.e., collaboration with a firm’s competitors) is an important source of knowledge spillovers. Furthermore, the magnitude of overall localized innovation activity positively relates to the firm’s innovation performance providing support for agglomeration externalities.
    Keywords: labor mobility, knowledge spillovers, patents, innovation
    JEL: J62 D22 D62 L2 O3
    Date: 2015–01–05
  5. By: Braunerhjelm, Pontus (Swedish Entrepreneurship Forum); Henrekson, Magnus (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: This paper examines policy measures that foster the creation of innovations with high inherent potential and that simultaneously provide the right incentives for individuals to create and expand firms that disseminate such innovations in the form of highly valued products. In so doing, we suggest an innovation policy framework based on two pillars: (i) the accumulation, investment, and upgrading of knowledge and (ii) the implementation of mechanisms that enable knowledge to be exploited such that growth and societal prosperity are encouraged. Knowledge is a necessary but far from sufficient condition for growth. To secure industrial dynamics and growth in the long term, institutions must be designed both to encourage sophisticated knowledge investments and to stimulate the creation, diffusion and productive use of knowledge in all sectors of the economy. We argue that the latter area has been overlooked in the policy discussion and that a coherent innovation policy framework must include tax policy, labor market regulation, savings channeling, competition policy, housing market regulation, and infrastructure to foster growth and future prosperity.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Innovation; Institutions; Innovation policy; R&D; Technology transfer; University-industry relations
    JEL: J24 O31 O32 O57
    Date: 2015–01–12
  6. By: Gaétan de Rassenfosse (École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne); Adam B. Jaffe (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: The paper investigates whether patent fees are an effective mechanism to deter the filing of low-quality patent applications. The study analyses the effect of the Patent Law Amendment Act of 1982, which resulted in a substantial increase in patenting fees at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, on patent quality. Results from a series of difference-in-differences regressions suggest that the increase in fees led to a weeding out of low-quality patents. About 16–17 per cent of patents in the lowest quality decile were filtered out. The figure reaches 24–30 per cent for patents in the lowest quality quintile. However, the fee elasticity of quality decreased with the size of the patent portfolio held by applicants. The study has strong policy implications in the current context of concerns about declines in patent quality and the financial vulnerability of patent offices.
    Keywords: Patents; Patent fees; Patent quality; Innovation; Invention
    JEL: K2 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2015–01
  7. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Blekinge Institute of Technology & Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS)); Tavssoli, Sam (Blekinge Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the persistency in innovation behaviour of firms. Using five waves of the Community Innovation Survey in Sweden, we have traced the innovative behaviour of firms over a ten-year period, i.e. between 2002 and 2012. We distinguish between four types of innovations: process, product, marketing, and organizational innovations. First, using Transition Probability Matrix, we found evidence of (unconditional) state dependence in all types of innovation, with product innovators having the strongest persistent behaviour. Second, using a dynamic probit model, we found evidence of “true” state dependency among all types of innovations, except marketing innovators. Once again, the strongest persistency was found for product innovators.
    Keywords: persistence; innovation; product innovations; process innovations; market innovations; organizational innovations; state dependence; heterogeneity; firms; Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: D22 L20 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–01–16
  8. By: M. Kudic; Wilfried Ehrenfeld
    Abstract: We apply a network perspective and study the emergence of core-periphery (CP) structures in innovation networks to shed some light on the relationship between isolation and innovation. It has been frequently argued that a firm’s location in a densely interconnected network area improves its ability to access information and absorb technological knowledge. This, in turn, enables a firm to generate new products and services at a higher rate compared to less integrated competitors. However, the importance of peripheral positions for innovation processes is still a widely neglected issue in literature. Isolation may provide unique conditions that induce innovations which otherwise may never have b een invented. Such innovations have the potential to lay the ground for a firm’s pathway towards the network core, where the industry’s established technological knowledge is assumed to b e lo cated. The aim of our paper is twofold. Firs tly, we propose a new CP indicator and apply it to analyze the emergence of CP patterns in the German laser industry. We employ publicly funded Research and Development (R&D) cooperation pro ject data over a period of more than two decades. Secondly, we explore the paths on which firms move from isolated p ositions towards the core (and vice versa). Our exploratory results op en up a number of new research questions at the intersection between geography, economics and network research.
    Keywords: innovation networks, core-p eriphery, laser industry
    JEL: C45 D85 O31 O32
    Date: 2015–01
  9. By: Brueggemann, J.; Crosetto, P.; Meub, L.; Bizer, K.
    Abstract: In this paper we contribute to the discussion on whether intellectual property rights foster or hinder innovation by means of a laboratory experiment. We introduce a novel Scrabble-like creativity task that captures most essentialities of a sequential innovation process. We use this task to investigate the effects of intellectual property allowing subjects to assign license fees to their innovations. We find intellectual property to have an adverse effect on welfare as innovations become less frequent and less sophisticated. Communication among innovators is not able to prevent this detrimental effect. Introducing intellectual property results in more basic innovations and subjects fail to exploit the most valuable sequential innovation paths. Subjects act more self-reliant and non-optimally in order to avoid paying license fees. Our results suggest that granting intellectual property rights hinders innovations, especially for sectors characterized by a strong sequentiality in innovation processes.
    JEL: C91 D89 K39
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Trippl, Michaela (CIRCLE, Lund University); Asheim, Björn (CIRCLE, Lund University); Miorner, Johan (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The aim of this working paper is to contribute to the debate on how to identify regions with less developed research and innovation systems. We look at both conceptual and empirical approaches that figure prominently in scholarly work on regional innovation systems. Based on a critical review and discussion of the literature we shed light on a large number and variety of barriers and weaknesses that may hamper regional innovation and industrial change. It is shown in this paper that the regional innovation system concept can essentially inform the current debate on the design and implementation of smart specialisation strategies. It offers rich insights into various dimensions of regional innovation systems that may be weakly developed and allows for the development of typologies that capture the heterogeneity of these systems. We also demonstrate that empirical approaches to identify regions with less-developed research and innovation systems fall short of taking account of the conceptual advances made in the recent past.
    Keywords: Regional innovation systems; innovation barriers; regional industrial change; smart specialisation strategies
    JEL: O30 O31 O38 R10 R11 R50
    Date: 2015–01–02
  11. By: Jadwiga Goraczkowska (Uniwersytet Zielonogorski, Poland)
    Abstract: Currently, technological parks constitute the most organisational and conceptually developed type of innovation centres and entrepreneurship. This results in the fact that they can be encountered in all highly developed countries in the world. They are also formed in the catching-up countries. However, one should consider whether the stimulation of innovation in the countries, which are not based on knowledge through institutional solutions used in the developed countries will turn out to be effective. Because between these countries there is a technological gap. The aim of the article was therefore to determine, using the probit modelling, the direction and strength of technological parks on the innovation activity. The study covered two provinces: Silesian, which is one of the most developed regions in Poland and Pomeranian with the intermediate industrial system. The influence of technological parks on innovation was determined based on the survey conducted in 1453 industrial enterprises. The main conclusions are brought down to the following theses: (1) using the technological parks increases the chance for the implementation of new solutions by enterprises, (2) parks to a greater extent stimulate the innovation activity in the developed province, (3) enterprises entering in the cross-regional network relations favours the selection of the technological park as the catalyst for innovation processes.
    Keywords: innovation, industry, technological parks, network
    JEL: L60 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–12
  12. By: Baris Alpaslan
    Abstract: This paper extends a three-period Overlapping Generations (OLG) model of endogenous growth where the interactions between public infrastructure, human capital with R&D activities, and growth are studied. The model accounts for the externality of technical knowledge associated with human capital which promotes the innovation capacity in adopting imported technologies and developing new technologies. In order to study the transitional dynamics of the model and to illustrate the impact of public policy, the model is calibrated using average data for low-income countries and sensitivity analysis is reported under different parameter configurations. Based on the numerical analysis for a low-income country, we show that trade-offs in the allocation of public spending may inevitably emerge. However, investment in infrastructure at the expense of spending on R&D is less likely to succeed in promoting growth, whereas it may be more effective to foster economic growth through an offsetting cut in education.
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Roberto Fontana,; Diana Moriniello,; Andrea Vezzulli Abstract. We study how technological leadership affects persistence in product innovation. Relying upon a database of 1818 products marketed between 1990 and 1999 by 265 firms active in three markets of the Local Area Network (LAN) industry we first construct a measure of technological leadership and then relate this measure to persistence in innovation. We find that leaders are systematically more persistent innovators than laggards. We also find that leaders in one market can also systematically innovate in a related and adjacent market. Finally, we find a positive correlation between prior patenting activity and persistence in product innovation.
    Date: 2014–12
  14. By: Neil Foster-McGregor (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Johannes Pöschl (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract Trade in goods and services is likely to be an important channel for international knowledge diffusion. This paper considers the extent of R&D spillovers through intermediate inputs for a sample of up to 40 developed and developing countries. Results suggest that such spillovers are present and are economically important. We find that countries and industries initially further behind the technological frontier enjoy stronger foreign R&D spillovers. Furthermore, foreign R&D spillovers are stronger in countries with greater absorptive capacity as measured by average years of secondary schooling and R&D spending. In terms of absorption barriers, the results are mixed With the exception of regulations on temporary workers we find that stronger labour market regulation and greater union density is associated with lower foreign R&D spillovers. The evidence for other absorption barriers related to product market, financial and investment regulation provide however no evidence of low regulation encouraging foreign R&D spillovers, with - in some cases - the reverse being found to hold true. Finally, we find that stronger levels of IPR protection can limit the extent of foreign R&D spillovers, possibly by limiting the ability to copy and borrow technology from abroad.
    Keywords: R&D spillovers, intermediates trade, productivity
    JEL: F15 O14 O19
    Date: 2014–10
  15. By: Pardey, Philip; Chan-Kang, Connie; Beddow, Jason M.; Dehmer, Steven
    Abstract: Domestically funded (and performed) research and development (R&D) has historically been a major source of productivity gains in U.S. agriculture, and a principal source of R&D spillovers to the rest of the world. In the waning decades of the 20th century, U.S. policymakers opted to ratchet down the rate of growth in public support for food and agricultural R&D. As the 21st century unfolds, slowing growth gave way to real cutbacks, reversing the accumulation of U.S.- sourced public R&D capital over most of the previous century and more. The 2014 Farm Bill did little to reverse these long-run research funding trajectories—politicians apparently ignored economic evidence about the still substantial social payoffs to that research and the consequent slowdown in U.S. agricultural productivity growth associated with the spending slowdown. Meanwhile, R&D spending by other countries has been moving in different directions. We present new evidence that today’s middle-income countries—notably China, Brazil and India— are not only growing in relative importance as producers of agricultural innovations through investments in public R&D, they are also gaining considerable ground in terms of their share of privately performed research of relevance for agriculture. The changes in global public and private R&D investment trajectories are accelerating of late, and substantive. If history is any guide to the future, these changing R&D trajectories could have profound consequences for the competiveness of U.S. agriculture in the decades ahead.
    Keywords: public, private, food, agriculture, research, innovation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O3, O4, Q1,
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Inderst, Roman; Jakubovic, Zlata; Jovanovic, Dragan
    Abstract: Our analysis starts from the observation that with progressive consolidation in retailing and the spread of private labels, retailers increasingly take over functions in the vertical chain. Focusing on innovation, we isolate various reasons for why when a large retailer grows in size, this can lead to an inefficient shift of innovation activity away from manufacturers and to the large retailer. One rationale for this is the retailer's control of access to consumers, which gives rise to a rent-appropriation motive for innovation, next to a hold-up problem. With retail competition, through crowding out the manufacturer's innovative activity, a large retailer obtains a competitive advantage vis-à-vis smaller retailers. We further analyze when inefficiencies are aggravated in case a large retailer's presence threatens the manufacturer with imitation of his innovations.
    Keywords: Buyer Power, Innovation, Functional Competition, Imitation
    JEL: D43 L11 L13 L42
    Date: 2015–01
  17. By: Arkadiusz Swiadek (Uniwersytet Zielonogorski, Poland)
    Abstract: Industrial structures in the “catching up” type of countries usually are not too competitive in nature, and mainly they differ in the low share of high-technology products in the international trade. The aim of the conducted studies was an attempt to search for directions, as well as the power of impact of different phases of the business cycle on the innovation activity of the Polish industrial system. Consequently, this was to allow to determine the boundary conditions for the national network of innovations and its model structure, which would take into account the specificity of Poland. The methodical part of the paper was based on the theory of probability (probit modelling). Based on the analysis performed based on 5209 industrial companies (questionnaire survey) it was stated that in the prosperity phase the implementation of the innovation activity is significantly higher than in other phases of the business cycle. On the other hand, during recession and stagnation, the innovation activity is a less common phenomenon, but is not completely abandoned. Research results did not confirm the occurrence of the counter-cyclical approach to the conducted innovation activity in the national industrial system. The economic situation is thus an important factor, which influences the decision whether to undertake, activate or, in some cases, limit the innovation activity in companies. Therefore, there is a need to take into account the existing market conditions in the programming of the innovation policy within the impact on the phenomenon of the innovation processes in Poland.
    Keywords: innovation, economic cycle, system, nation, industry
    JEL: L52 P51 O12 O25 O31 O38 O47
    Date: 2014–12
  18. By: Crass, Dirk; Peters, Bettina
    Abstract: Firms invest huge amounts into intangible assets. This paper explores to which extent different kinds of intangible assets are conducive to firm-level productivity. Our study contributes to the literature by simultaneously comparing productivity effects of innovative capital, human capital, branding capital and organizational capital and testing whether complementarity or substitutability exists between different intangible assets. Using panel data for the period 2006-2010, our econometric estimates confirm strong positive productivity effects of human capital and branding capital. Results for innovative capital are found to be mixed. While R&D has a strong positive impact on productivity, design & licences and patents show only weak productivity enhancing effects. The same holds for organizational capital. We furthermore detect several complementarities among different kind of intangible assets. Our results are robust to various parametric (OLS, FE) and non-parametric (Olley and Pakes, Levinsohn and Petrin) productivity estimation methods.
    Keywords: Intangible capital,productivity,R&D,marketing,firm-specific human capital,organizational capital,patents,trademarks
    JEL: O33 C23 J24 L22
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Susana Elena Pérez (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Andrea Conte (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Nicholas Harrap (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This Policy Brief addresses the concept of synergies arising from the two major EU funding sources (The European Structural and Investment Funds and Horizon 2020) in the context of the new Stairway to Excellence Project. This project is centred on the provision of assistance to Member States who joined in 2004, 2007 and 2013 in using innovation funding under ESIFs via the early and effective implementation of RIS3 with the aim of closing the innovation gap and promote scientific and technological excellence. This Policy Brief summarises the discussion and case studies presented at the launching conference of the Stairway to Excellence Project held in Prague in October 2014. This event offered a first opportunity to identify the key elements for building successful synergies and gave a useful insight into how synergies could be achieved in practice. A diverse set of experiences from five EU countries (Cyprus, Czech Republic, France, Spain, and the UK) and an international organisation were presented. In turn, this could be a source of inspiration for other regional and national managing authorities and the research community.
    Keywords: Synergies, Research & Development, Innovation, Excellence, Horizon 2020, Framework Programmes, European Structural and Investment Funds, Smart Specialization
    Date: 2014–12
  20. By: Kristensen, Iryna (University of Salzburg)
    Abstract: Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) are argued to be able to add greater value to innovation processes by fortifying the quality of innovation systems by linking regional public and private actors together and exploiting a wide range of sources of innovation. The effectiveness of interface management and resource allocation as well as the dynamics of multifaceted interactions, however, will strongly depend on the degree of proximity between innovation agents. While it is difficult to determine the optimal degree of proximity for multi-sector cooperation in addressing systemic challanges, there is little doubt that certain level of cognitive, organizational, institutional, social and geographical closeness is conductive to interaction and learning. This paper applies a partnership-based approach to investigate the interrelation between dimensions of proximity and systemic failures and observes potential regional and sectoral variations with respect to proximity dimensions and their implication for regional innovation system efficiency. A matrix linking five dimensions of proximity with four categories of systemic problems serves as a basis for analysis. Six PPPs from two regions in Sweden (i.e. Sydsverige and Övre Norrland) are selected for empirical study.
    Keywords: Public-Private Partnerships; Regional Innovation Policy
    JEL: L32 O38
    Date: 2015–01–08
  21. By: Marco R. Di Tommaso (University of Ferrara); Lauretta Rubini; Stuart Schweitzer
    Abstract: The analysis starts from the recognition of the difficulties that both Europe and the US are facing in dealing with the current economic crisis and of the emergence of a new middle class in China with increasing needs in terms of welfare. This paper suggests that the exportation of high-­-quality, health-­-related goods and services from the West to China could represent a possible way to support knowledge-­-intensive sectors in Europe and the US on one side, while allowing a growing part of the Chinese population to access advanced health goods and services on the other. In terms of industrial policy, this means to facilitate the destruction of barriers to entry in the China market (unfair competition, predominance of traditional Chinese medicine and producer-­-consumer information asymmetries) but also the creation or the enforcement of innovation networks that are a pre-requisite to maintain a high quality level in the production of Western Medicine products and services.
    Keywords: R&D collaboration; project failure; public research institutions
    JEL: O32 L14
    Date: 2014–12
  22. By: Lam, Alice
    Abstract: Tacit knowledge, embedded agency and learning: local nodes and global networks
    Keywords: knowledge, tacit knowledge, learning, innovation, agency
    JEL: Z0 Z00 Z1
    Date: 2014–03
  23. By: Claire Chambolle (INRA-UR1303 ALISS); Clémence Christin (Normandie Université, UCBN, CREM-UMR CNRS 6211); Guy Meunier (INRA-UR1303 ALISS)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of the private label production channel on innovation. A retailer may either choose to integrate backward with a small firm (insourcing) or rely on a national brand manufacturer (outsourcing) to produce its private label. The trade-off between insourcing and outsourcing strategies is a choice between too much or too little innovation (i.e. quality investment) on the private label. When insourcing, an outside-option effect leads the retailer to over-invest to increase its buyer power. When outsourcing, a hold-up effect leads to under-investment. In addition, selecting the national brand manufacturer may create economies of scale that spur innovation.
    Keywords: Private label, vertical relations, buyer power, innovation
    JEL: L14 L15 L42
    Date: 2014–07
  24. By: Pedro Mazeda Gil (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Oscar Afonso (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Paulo B. Vasconcelos (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)
    Abstract: By means of an endogenous growth model of directed technical change with vertical and horizontal R&D, we study a transitional-dynamics mechanism that is consistent with the changes in the share of the high- versus the low-tech sectors found in recent European data. Under the hypothesis of a positive shock in the proportion of high-skilled labour, the technological-knowledge bias channel leads to nonbalanced sectoral growth with a noticeable shift of resources across sectors. A simple calibration exercise suggests that, under prevailing market-scale effects, the model is able to account for up to 50 to 100 percent of the increase in the share of the high-tech sector observed in the data from 1995 to 2007. However, the model predicts that the dynamics of the share of the high-tech sector has no significant impact on the economic growth rate.
    Keywords: industry dynamics, high tech, low tech, directed technical change, economic growth
    JEL: O41 O31
    Date: 2015–01
  25. By: Ali, Hoda Abd El Hamid
    Abstract: This paper explores the role of industrial clusters in the development of the Egyptian universities & research institutes (URIs), and economic performance. The study hypothesizes that the large industrial clusters in Egypt are old and traditional, and have weak impact on URIs, and economic performance. To this end, we examine Egypt regions where that contain long-existing and traditional industrial clusters are compared to all other regions. The analysis is conducted separately for seven industries, and by using a Mann-Whitney U test and a spearman correlation we find that the more recent and technical industrial clusters in Egypt have a positive and significant impact on URIs , but they have a weak impact on economic performance. The Egyptian experience suggests that the most important contribution of clusters to URIS is one in which corporations contribute money to universities, or enter in to informal consulting arrangements with a professor, neither of which typically of professional patent applications or even through the mobility of university graduates.
    Keywords: Egypt, universities and research institutes, clusters, National innovation system, and development
    JEL: O1 O12 O14 O3
    Date: 2100
  26. By: Shin Kishimoto; Naoki Watanabe
    Abstract: This paper considers general bargaining outcomes under coalition structures formed by an external patent holder and firms in oligopoly markets. The main propositions are as follows. For each coalition structure, the kernel is a singleton; thus, the number of licensees that maximizes the patent holder's revenue can be determined. The upper and lower bounds of the kernel are specified for each coalition structure. We also provide sufficient conditions for the number of licensees that maximizes their total surplus to be optimal for the patent holder. Length: 30 pages
  27. By: Frosch, Katharina; Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Steinle, Christian; Zwick, Thomas
    Abstract: The report focuses on résumé-based screening strategies for the recruitment of highly qualified research and development (R&D) workers (critical R&D workers) in high-tech firms. We investigate which kinds of professional background, job-related experience, motivations, specific skills, and previous inventive activity make a candidate attractive for firms specializing in clean technology or mechanical elements. The report is based on a combination of survey and experimental data collected from 194 HR decision makers in German high-tech firms and from 89 technology experts in the clean technology and mechanical elements fields. A mixed logit model is used to analyse hiring preferences because this model allows us to deal with repeated choices. We find that HR decision makers prefer candidates with technology-specific patenting experience, an engineering background, analytical thinking skills, and a strong desire to develop path-breaking technologies. Furthermore, no one-size-fits-all candidate exists that is equally preferred in both technology fields. HR decision makers in mechanical element firms prefer specialists to generalists, whereas those in clean technology attach special importance to a candidate's orientation towards environmental concerns and sustainability.
    Date: 2015
  28. By: B. Zorina Khan
    Abstract: Family firms are typically associated with negative characteristics, including lower tendencies towards innovation, a higher risk of failure, and inefficiencies deriving from nepotism among family members, criticisms which are even greater when the company is handed over to a female relative. Women in business have generally been presented as petty traders and passive investors, whose entrepreneurial activities were scarce because of such restrictions as limited human capital, culture, market imperfections, and institutional biases. The French economy has similarly been faulted for the prevalence of family firms during the nineteenth century, and for disincentives for the integration of women in the business sector. These issues are explored using an extensive sample of women who obtained patents and prizes at industrial exhibitions during early industrialization. The empirical evidence indicates that middle-class women in France were extensively engaged in entrepreneurship and innovation, and that their commercial efforts were enhanced by association with family firms. Their formerly invisible achievements suggest a more productive role for family-based enterprises, as a means of incorporating relatively disadvantaged groups into the market economy as managers and entrepreneurs.
    JEL: L2 L26 N13 N8 O14 O3
    Date: 2015–01
  29. By: López-Mosquera, Natalia; Álvarez-Coque, José María García; Sánchez, Mercedes
    Abstract: The paper underlines the importance of adopting a ‘market-orientation’ strategic approach in order to improve the performance of the firms, previously influenced by the ‘adoption of innovations’ of interest to the agricultural firms in two Spanish regions. The methodology selected has been a Multi-Group Structural Equation Modelling applied to the data obtained by personal interviews to a sample of farmers. Agricultural producers are more oriented, from the market point of view, to their regular customers and to controlling the quality of their production. The results also show a positive impact of market orientation activities on the performance to all firms.
    Keywords: strategic decisions, market orientation, adoption of innovation, SEM multigroup analysis, firm performance, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2014–08
  30. By: Carota, Cinzia; Durio, Alessandra; Guerzoni, Marco (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Probabilistic graphical models successfully combine probability with graph theory and therefore provide applied statisticians with a powerful data mining engine. Graphical models are a good framework for formal analysis, allowing the researcher to obtain a quick overview of the structure of association among variables in a system. This paper is the first attempt to apply high-dimensional graphical models in innovation studies, since the i ncreasing availability of data in the field and the complexity of the underlying processes are calling for new techniques which can handle not only a large amount of observations, but also rich datasets in terms of number and relations among variables. In this context, the process of variables and model selection became more arduous, influenced by biases of the scientist and, in the worst case scenario, subject to scientific malpractices such as the p-hacking behavior. On the contrary, high-dimensional graphical models allow for bottom-up, hypotheses free, data-driven, and see-through approach.
    Date: 2014–12
  31. By: Ivan Diaz-Rainey (University of Otago); John Ashton (Bangor University); Maz Yap (University of Otago); Murat Genc (University of Otago); Rosalind Whiting (University of Otago)
    Abstract: We explore the factors that shape the extent and scope of the response of G20 countries to a Financial Stability Board (FSB) recommendation aimed at mitigating the risks from financial innovation. Using a formal content analysis of the FSBÕs Implementation Monitoring Network Surveys, we develop an index of disclosed strength of regulatory responses. We find that G20 countries have displayed large interpretive differences, little forward planning and have emphasized regulatory capabilities over firm capabilities when addressing the recommendation. Countries with strong central banks, more concentrated regulatory structures and bank-based financial systems responded more robustly, while countries with a large financial sector were marginally associated with a weaker response. The latter suggests that financial sector lobbying has weakened regulatory responses.
    Keywords: inancial innovation,financial regulation,Global Financial Crisis,G20, Financial Stability Board
    JEL: G01 G18 G20 G28
    Date: 2015–01

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