nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒08‒25
twenty-one papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. Patent Trolls: Evidence from Targeted Firms By Lauren Cohen; Umit Gurun; Scott Duke Kominers
  2. How enterprise strategies are related to innovation and productivity change: An empirical study of Japanese manufacturing firms By Fujii, Hidemichi; Kazuma, Edamura; Sumikura, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoko; Fukuzawa, Naomi; Managi, Shunsuke
  3. Competitive Advantages from University Research Parks By Link, Albert N.
  4. Flying the nest: How the home department shapes researchers' career paths By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
  5. The 2013 EU Survey on Industrial R&D Investment Trends By Alexander Tübke; Fernando Hervás; Jörg Zimmermann
  6. Regional distribution and layout evolution of technological innovation in the new energy electric vehicles industry of China By Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang
  7. Heterogeneous policies, heterogenous technologies : the case of renewable energy By Francesco Nicolli; Francesco Vona
  8. Policy Inducement Effects in Energy Efficiency Technologies. An Empirical Analysis on the Residential Sector By Valeria Costantini; Francesco Crespi; Alessandro Palma
  9. Investigating the Effects of ICT on Innovation and Performance of European Hospitals: An Exploratory Study By Spyros Arvanitis; Euripidis N. Loukis
  10. On the Economic Impact of University Proof of Concept Centers By Hayter, Christopher S.; Link, Albert N.
  11. No. 233 Is China Different? A Meta-Analysis of the Growth-enhancing Effect from R&D Spending in China. By Ljungwall, Christer; Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik
  12. Intangible investment and Technical efficiency: The case of software-intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey By Derya Fındık; Aysıt Tansel
  13. Finite Element Model of the Innovation Diffusion: An Application to Photovoltaic Systems By Karakaya, Emrah
  14. Knowledge Absorption in the Development of Export Products By Warda, Peter; Johansson, Börje
  15. Has Creative Destruction Become More Destructive? By John Komlos
  16. Microalgae-based products for the food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe By Christien Enzing; Matthias Ploeg; Maria Barbosa; Lolke Sijtsma
  17. Women's Social Entrepreneurship and Innovation By Marieke Huysentruyt
  18. Transforming Arab Economies : Traveling Knowledge and Innovation Road, Overview By World Bank
  19. The Rise of the Machines: Automation, Horizontal Innovation and Income Inequality By Morten Olsen; David Hemous
  20. Intangible assets and investments at the sector level: Empirical evidence for Germany By Crass, Dirk; Licht, Georg; Peters, Bettina
  21. Strengthening Africa’s capacity for innovation in animal agriculture: the agriculture–mining conundrum of grass or brass, bread or stones By Akinbamijo, Yemi

  1. By: Lauren Cohen; Umit Gurun; Scott Duke Kominers
    Abstract: We provide theoretical and empirical evidence on the evolution and impact of non-practicing entities (NPEs) in the intellectual property space. Heterogeneity in innovation, given a cost of commercialization, results in NPEs that choose to act as "patent trolls" that chase operating firms' innovations even if those innovations are not clearly infringing on the NPEs' patents. We support these predictions using a novel, large dataset of patents targeted by NPEs. We show that NPEs on average target firms that are flush with cash (or have just had large positive cash shocks). Furthermore, NPEs target firm profits arising from exogenous cash shocks unrelated to the allegedly infringing patents. We next show that NPEs target firms irrespective of the closeness of those firms' patents to the NPEs', and that NPEs typically target firms that are busy with other (non-IP related) lawsuits or are likely to settle. Lastly, we show that NPE litigation has a negative real impact on the future innovative activity of targeted firms.
    JEL: D2 K1 O31
    Date: 2014–08
  2. By: Fujii, Hidemichi; Kazuma, Edamura; Sumikura, Koichi; Furusawa, Yoko; Fukuzawa, Naomi; Managi, Shunsuke
    Abstract: This study analyzes the total factor productivity of 1,067 Japanese manufacturing firms. In production estimation, we employ the directional distance function and Luenberger productivity indicator. Research and development strategy survey data are used to analyze the determinant factors related to improvements in innovation and productivity. Our results indicate that increasing technology and knowledge through a “black box” process is related to an increase in productivity. Furthermore, the protection and management of production knowledge and expertise is a valid method of increasing global technical change.
    Keywords: Innovation, productivity change, R&D strategy, directional distance function, Japanese manufacturing firms
    JEL: D24 J24 O38 O47
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The flow of knowledge from a university research park is not a new theme in the academic domain, but those studies that have focused on the prevalence of this phenomenon in the United States have been somewhat limited in the availability of data related to both the genesis of the park as well as to the performance of the park. The performance measures that I focus on in this paper are two: patents received and scholarly publications emanating from the research conducted by in-park firms. To place those flows of knowledge in perspective, I compare such in-park firm performance to matched pairs of off-park firms in an effort toward quantifying the impact of a firm being located in a university research park. My analysis shows that on average performance is greater among on-park firms than among off-park firms thus making a suggestive case that the environment created by a university research park confers competitive advantages in the form of new flows of knowledge.
    Keywords: research park; science park; innovation; patents; technology; competitive advantage
    JEL: O31 O33 O34 R11
    Date: 2014–08–14
  4. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
    Abstract: Academic researchers face mobility related decisions throughout their careers. We study the importance of team and organisational characteristics of the home departments for career choices of departing researchers in the fields of science and engineering at higher education institutions in Germany. We find that the organisational environments - the nests - shape career paths. Research funding, research performance in terms of patents and publications as well as the industry ties of department heads shape job choices. In particular, public research grants increase the probability that departing researchers take a research job at a university or public research centre, while grants from industry increase the likelihood that they take a job in industry. Publication performance of the department head relates to R&D jobs in public, but not in industry and patents predict the probability that departing researchers will move to small and medium-sized firms. For these firms seeking technological knowledge from former university employees may be particularly crucial. Academic start-ups are more likely to be a job destination for departing researchers from technical universities, from departments with higher publication output and with a research focus on experimental development. --
    Keywords: R&D,Researcher Mobility,Research Funding,Science-Industry Technology Transfer,Academic Entrepreneurship,Academic Careers
    JEL: I23 J24 O3
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Alexander Tübke (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Fernando Hervás (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Jörg Zimmermann (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This report presents the findings of the eigth survey on trends in industrial R&D investment. These are based on 172 responses of mainly larger companies from the 1000 EU-based companies in the 2012 EU Industrial R&D Investment Scoreboard. These 172 companies are responsible for R&D investment worth € 62 billion, constituting around 41% of the total R&D investment by the 1000 EU Scoreboard companies. The main conclusion is that, between 2013-15, the responding companies expect to increase their R&D investments by 2.6 % on average per year. Due to decreased expectations in the automobiles & parts sector, this is a third lower than in the previous survey. The responding companies carry out a quarter of their R&D outside the EU. Their expectations for R&D investment for the next three years show continued participation of European companies in the global economy, in particular growth opportunities in emerging economies, while maintaining an R&D focus in the EU. Two thirds of the European companies in the sample chose their home country as the most attractive location for R&D, and identified the US, Germany, China and India as the most attractive locations outside their home country. Knowledge-sharing, human resources, proximity to other company sites and market demand make countries attractive for R&D activities. Comparing the attractiveness for R&D activities of the surveyed companies among eight EU countries, quality of R&D personnel and knowledge-sharing opportunities with universities and public organisations are most frequently stated among the top three. Comparing the attractiveness of the EU to the US, the proximity factor is leading before knowledge sharing opportunities and R&D personnel. Comparing the attractiveness of the EU to the one of China and India, for the EU geographic proximity to other company sites and technology poles & incubators is a factor for attractiveness.
    Keywords: R&D investment expectations, EU Scoreboard, internationalisation, knowledge-sharing
    Date: 2014–02
  6. By: Bao-Jun Tang; Xi Zheng; Ke Wang
    Abstract: Based on the initial stage situation of new energy electric vehicles (electric vehicles) industry in China, this paper uses patents retrieval and literatures polymerization methods to analyze the technological innovation status quo and the regional distribution features in the electric vehicles industry at home and abroad. Then, the data envelopment analysis (DEA) method is applied to quantifiably evaluate technological innovation efficiency of the 17 major producing areas of electric vehicles. Furthermore, the layout trend of technological innovation is summarized; the regional distribution strategy of technological innovation in the domestic electric vehicles industry is also explored.
    Keywords: New energy electric vehicles, Technological innovation, Regional distribution
    JEL: Q20
    Date: 2013–06
  7. By: Francesco Nicolli (Facoltà di Economia (Faculty of Economics)); Francesco Vona (OFCE)
    Abstract: This paper investigates empirically the effect of market regulation and renewable energy policies on innovation activity in different renewable energy technologies. For the EU countries and the years 1980 to 2007, we built a unique dataset containing information on patent production in eight different technologies, proxies of market regulation and technology-specific renewable energy policies. Our main findings show that lowering entry barriers is a more significant driver of renewable energy innovation than privatisation and unbundling, but its effect varies across technologies, being stronger in technologies characterised by the potential entry of small, independent power producers. Additionally, the inducement effect of renewable energy policies is heterogeneous and more pronounced for wind, which is the only technology that is mature and has high technological potential. Finally, the ratification of the Kyoto protocol – determining a more stable and less uncertain policy framework - amplifies the inducement effect of both energy policy and market liberalisation.
    Keywords: renewable energy technology; environmental innovation; heterogenous policy effect; feedin tariff; renewable energy certificates; entry barrier
    JEL: Q34 Q42 Q48 Q51 Q58
    Date: 2014–07
  8. By: Valeria Costantini (Dipartimento di Economia, Roma Tre University, Roma (Italy).); Francesco Crespi (Dipartimento di Economia, Roma Tre University, Roma (Italy).); Alessandro Palma (Dipartimento di Economia, Roma Tre University, Roma (Italy).)
    Abstract: The study provides a wide-ranging empirical analysis of the drivers of innovation, with a particular focus on the policy side, in residential energy efficiency technologies. The panel analysis of 23 OECD countries over the period 1990-2010, confirms the importance of adopting a systemic perspective when eco-innovation is under scrutiny. In particular, the innovation systems, both national and sectoral, together with the energy systems, spurred the propensity to innovate and significantly shaped the rate and direction of technical change in the residential sector. A general policy inducement effect is found to be relevant, but the size of its contribution for new EE technologies changes if disaggregated policy instruments are investigated. The role of policy mix as well as of policy coordination and coherence also positively affect the innovative activity in EE residential technologies.
    Keywords: energy efficiency, policy mix, residential sector.
    JEL: O31 O38 Q48 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Euripidis N. Loukis (University of the Aegean, Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering, Greece)
    Abstract: Hospitals are making big investments in various types of ICT, so it is important to investigate their effects on innovation and performance. In this paper is presented an empirical study in this direction, based on data for 743 hospitals from 18 European countries, which were collected in the course of the e-Business Survey of the European Union. We specified and estimated econometrically five equations: one for product innovation, one for process innovation and three equations for the three different dimensions of (ICT-enabled) hospital performance that are taken into consideration in this study. All five equations included various ICT-related variables reflecting ICT infrastructure and a series of important ICT applications, some of them hospital-specific, and some others of general business use, and also ICT personnel (viewed as a kind of ‘soft’ ICT investment), as right-hand variables, while the performance equations also included the two innovation measures. The study contributes threefold to literature. First, it is to our knowledge the first comprehensive study of this kind for European hospitals. Second, it analyzes the effects of various types of ICT on innovation and (ICT-enabled) economic performance of hospitals in an integrated framework. Third, it is based on relatively detailed information on ICT infrastructure and specific ICT applications, both health-specific and general, and also ICT personnel, examining and comparing their effects on innovation and economic performance.
    Keywords: hospitals, innovation, performance, ICT use
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014–08
  10. By: Hayter, Christopher S. (Arizona State University); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: University proof of concept centers (PoCCs) are an organizational innovation intended to improve the dissemination and commercialization of new knowledge to industry. During the past 15 years, at least 32 university-affiliated PoCCs have been established at universities within the United States. Despite this recent growth, little systematic empirical research exists relating to the organization or impact of PoCCs. Analyzing data published by the Association of University Technology Managers, we find that universities affiliated with a PoCC enjoy a positive and statistically significant increase in the number of spinoffs established each year after adoption. While additional research is needed, our findings are consistent with the presumption that PoCCs may offer a promising new tool for regional and national economic development.
    Keywords: proof of concept centers; innovation; economic development
    JEL: O22 O31
    Date: 2014–08–19
  11. By: Ljungwall, Christer (Copenhagen Business School); Gustavsson Tingvall, Patrik (The Ratio Institute)
    Abstract: Abstract: In this paper we examine whether China has benefited more from spending on R&D than other countries by conducting a meta-analysis of the relevant literature on a large number of countries at different stages of economic development. The results suggest that the growth-enhancing effect of R&D spending in China has been significantly weaker than that of other countries. It is thus unlikely that R&D spending has been successful as a key contributing factor to economic growth in China.
    Keywords: meta-analysis; R&D; economic growth; China
    JEL: F43 O11 O33 O53
    Date: 2014–08–12
  12. By: Derya Fındık (Department of Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Aysıt Tansel (Cornell University, Ithaca, USA, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of intangible investment on firm efficiency with an emphasis on its software component. Stochastic production frontier approach is used to simultaneously estimate the production function and the determinants of technical efficiency in the software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey for the period 2003-2007. Firms are classified based on the technology group. High technology and low technology firms are estimated separately in order to reveal differentials in their firm efficiency. The results show that the effect of software investment on firm efficiency is larger in high technology firms which operate in areas such as chemicals, electricity, and machinery as compared to that of the low technology firms which operate in areas such as textiles, food, paper, and unclassified manufacturing. Further, among the high technology firms, the effect of the software investment is smaller than the effect of research and development personnel expenditure. This result shows that the presence of R&D personnel is more important than the software investment for software intensive manufacturing firms in Turkey.
    Keywords: intangible investment, software investment, efficiency
    JEL: L21 L22 L23 L25
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Karakaya, Emrah (Technical University of Madrid & KTH Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper presents a Finite Element Model, which has been used for forecasting the diffusion of innovations in time and space. Unlike conventional models used in diffusion literature, the model considers spatial heterogeneity. The implementation steps of the model are explained by applying it to the case of diffusion of photovoltaic systems in a local region in southern Germany. The applied model is based on a parabolic partial differential equation that describes the diffusion ratio of photovoltaic systems in a given region over time. The results of the application suggest that the Finite Element Model could be a powerful tool to improve our understanding on the diffusion of innovations as a simultaneous space-time process. For future research, model limitations and possible extensions are also discussed.
    Keywords: Innovation; Adoption; Spatiotemporal; prediction; solar photovoltaics
    JEL: C02 C63 O33 Q55 R00
    Date: 2014–07–24
  14. By: Warda, Peter (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), and Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) KTH, Sweden); Johansson, Börje (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS) KTH, and Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Sweden)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze how firms’ knowledge absorption capacity – given the knowledge environment – affects the development, adoption and introduction of new export products among Swedish manufacturing firms. Our model formulation builds on theoretical arguments which imply that firms can influence the usefulness of their knowledge environment by establishing formal and informal networks with input suppliers (especially suppliers of knowledge-intensive business services) and by exploiting their absorptive capacity. The model suggests that the higher the knowledge absorption in firms, the higher the introduction frequency of new export products. In particular, it is the conjunction of a high absorptive capacity and a high external knowledge potential that makes certain firms successful introducers of new export products.
    Keywords: Absorptive capacity; innovation; exports; manufacturing; knowledge; Sweden
    JEL: D21 D24 F23 L60 R30
    Date: 2014–08–11
  15. By: John Komlos
    Abstract: Schumpeter’s concept of creative destruction as the engine of capitalist development is well-known. However, that the destructive part of creative destruction is a social cost and therefore biases our estimate of the impact of the innovation on NNP and on welfare is hardly acknowledged, with the exception of Witt (1996). Admittedly, during the First and Second Industrial Revolutions the magnitude of the destructive component of innovation was probably small compared to the net value added to employment, NNP or to welfare. However, we conjecture that recently the new technologies are often creating products which are close substitutes for the ones they replace whose value depreciates substantially in the process of destruction. Consequently, the contribution of recent innovations to NNP is likely biased upward. This note calls for a research agenda to estimate innovations into their creative and destructive components in order to provide improved estimates of their contribution to NNP, welfare, and employment.
    JEL: E01 O10
    Date: 2014–08
  16. By: Christien Enzing (Technopolis group); Matthias Ploeg (Technopolis group); Maria Barbosa (Food and Biobased Research - Wageningen UR); Lolke Sijtsma (Food and Biobased Research - Wageningen UR)
    Abstract: The European Union has adopted recently an ambitious strategy for developing the Bioeconomy in Europe. In this context, algae represent an emerging biological resource of great importance for its potential applications in different fields, including food and feed. Algae have been already used as food, feed and fertilizers for centuries, and nowadays approximately 200 species of algae and micro-algae are used worldwide in different sectors, like energy, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This report provides an analysis of the technological and market developments in the field of microalgae-based food and feed products. The analysis is based on literature search, interviews to experts and Delphi survey to stakeholders. It provides important insights on four issues concerning microalgae-based products: production systems; current markets, products and future developments; R&D and prospects for micro-algae biotechnology and genetic engineering; safety and regulatory aspects of food and feed applications in Europe and the USA. Main results show that the global market for microalgae-based food and feed supplements/nutraceuticals is well developed and with a great potential for growth. Europe has the potential to become market leader in micro-algae based products for the food and feed markets in the next decade, in particular thanks to scientific and technological developments going on in this field. However, experts highlight two major factors limiting the European potential: the insufficient European domestic demand for microalgae products and the difficulties in achieving commercial authorization of algae-derived products in the EU markets due to the complexity of the regulation of novel foods in Europe.
    Keywords: Algae, Innovation, Biotechnology, Bioeconomy, Socio-Economic impacts, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), new technologies, competitiveness
    JEL: O13 O31 O32 Q16 Q18 Q22
    Date: 2014–01
  17. By: Marieke Huysentruyt
    Abstract: After having explained the smaller gender gap in social entrepreneurship compared to commercial entrepreneurship, this paper provides information on female management style and on the innovation capacity of social enteprises led by women. This Report is based on SELUSI data and presents three specific case studies from Hungary, Russia and Chile.
    Date: 2014–08–12
  18. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Education - Knowledge for Development Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Private Sector Development - E-Business Information and Communication Technologies - ICT Policy and Strategies Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Knowledge Economy Agriculture
    Date: 2013–09
  19. By: Morten Olsen (IESE); David Hemous (INSEAD)
    Abstract: We construct an endogenous growth model of directed technical change with automation (the introduction of machines which replace low-skill labor and complement high-skill labor) and horizontal innovation (the introduction of new products, which increases demand for both types of labor). For general processes of technical change, we demonstrate that although low-skill wages can drop during periods of increasing automation intensity, the asymptotic growth rate is weakly positive --- though lower than that of the economy. We then endogenize the evolution of technology and show that the transitional path follows three distinct phases. First, wages are low, such that few machines are used and low-skill wages keep pace with the growth rate of the economy. Then, as wages grow, the share of automated products increases and the economy substitutes towards the use of machines -- depressing the growth rate of low-skill wages (potentially to negative). Finally, as the economy reaches steady state, the share of automated products is constant and the relative growth rate of low-skill wages recovers somewhat, yet remains lower than that of the economy overall. Allowing workers to endogenously transition from low-skill to high-skill alleviates the growth in income inequality, but does not alter the structure of the model. We extend the model to include middle-skill workers and demonstrate that the model endogenously captures the defining characteristics of the U.S. income distribution over the past 50 years: initially a monotone dispersion of the income distribution, and thereafter a wage growth polarization in which middle-skill workers experience the lowest wage growth. Finally, in an extension we allow machines to be produced with a different technology than the consumption good. This allows for faster productivity growth for machines potentially leading to permanently negative growth of low-skill wages.
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Crass, Dirk; Licht, Georg; Peters, Bettina
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role intangible capital plays for economic growth in different sectors in Germany. It consists of two major parts. In the first part, we aim at measuring investment in intangibles at the sector level. We shed light on differences across sectors but also compare these figures with investment in physical capital and with investment in intangibles in the UK as European benchmark. The second part explores the role of intangible assets for stimulating growth at the sector level by performing growth accounting analyses. We find that German firms have boosted investments in intangible capital from 1995-2006 by 30%. Furthermore, results reveal differences in the investment patterns among the UK and Germany. In nearly all sectors investments in design and computerized information are larger in the UK. In contrast, German firms invest a higher proportion of gross output in R&D in all sectors, and advertising is also more common except for the sector trade & transport. Intangible assets have stimulated labour productivity growth in all sectors. The contribution varies between 0.17 (construction) and 0.59 (manufacturing) percentage points. In manufacturing, financial and business services innovative property capital is the most influential type of intangible capital for labour productivity, followed by economic competencies and computerized information. In all other sectors, economic competencies play the most prominent role for labour productivity growth. --
    Keywords: intangible assets,economic growth,sector
    JEL: E22 O47 L60 L80
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Akinbamijo, Yemi
    Abstract: In spite of its abundant mineral resources and the activities of many mining companies extracting those resources from only a very small part of the total land area, much of Africa is still in penury. Animal agriculture is a major contributor to the economy of many African countries, especially in the arid and semi-arid areas where it occupies about 80% of the land. The sector employs some 50% of the total agricultural labour force, contributes about 10% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and accounts for 40% of agricultural GDP. An estimated 100 million people work in the pastoral economy alone. Yet the livestock sector receives less than 2% of the national budgetary allocation for development, in spite of facing changing conditions and needing innovative thinking. African governments need to find the will to insist that mining companies contribute to country revenues, so that development of mineral wealth can provide financial resources to support agricultural development and innovation. Through their sense of corporate social responsibility mining companies already contribute to improved infrastructure and local community well-being. African governments need to adopt an ‘Innovation Platform approach’, to understand how to use mineral-derived revenue to overcome technological and institutional constraints in dealing with the ever-changing needs, environments and advances in agriculture, including the livestock sector, to achieve economic benefits.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013

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