nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒07‒28
thirteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Auckland

  1. The innovation process of a privately-owned enterprise and a state-owned enterprise in China By Kang, Byeongwoo
  2. Knowledge Base, Exporting Activities, Innovation Openness and Innovation Performance: A SEM Approach Towards a Unifying Framework By Spyros Arvanitis; Areti Gkypali; Kostas Tsekouras
  3. The impact of R&D subsidies on R&D employment composition By Sergio Afcha; Jose García-Quevedo
  4. Imitation Induced Innovation in General Equilibrium By Karsten Wasiluk
  5. Innovation, work Organisation and Systems of Social Protection By Edward Lorenz
  6. Mobility of Knowledge and Local Innovation Activity By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karkalakos, Sotiris; Tsionas, Efthymios G.
  7. Academic Patents and Technology Transfer By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Zank, Arleen
  8. How Innovative is the Education Sector? By OECD
  9. Small Business, Innovation, and Tax Policy: A Review By Gale, William; Brown, Samuel
  10. The Future Costs of Nuclear Power Using Multiple Expert Elicitations: Effects of RD&D and Elicitation Design By Diaz Anadon, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena
  11. Innovation and Financial Liberalization: The Case of India By James B. ANG
  12. Foregign Direct Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Russia: An Econometric Assessment By Iwasaki, Ichiro; Suganuma, Keiko
  13. A Poisson Stochastic Frontier Model with Finite Mixture Structure By Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Tsionas, Efthymios G.

  1. By: Kang, Byeongwoo
    Abstract: This study compares the innovation process of a privately-owned enterprise and a state-owned enterprise in China using their patent data. Huawei and ZTE were selected for this study because they experienced the same historical environment in the same industry from the same region in China leaving their owner types as their critical difference. This study investigates the difference in the innovation process in R&D between a privately-owned and a state-owned enterprise by analyzing (1) domestic and international patent application pattern, (2) co-application and co-applicants, (3) knowledge accumulation inside Huawei and ZTE, and (4) knowledge spillover to domestic and foreign firms.
    Keywords: China, Business enterprises, Government enterprises, Telecommunication, Research & development, Technological innovations, Patent data, Privately-owned enterprise, State-owned enterprise
    JEL: L25 L96 O31
    Date: 2014–07
  2. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Areti Gkypali (University of Patras, Patras, Greece); Kostas Tsekouras (University of Patras, Patras, Greece)
    Abstract: In this paper we demonstrate the complexity that regulates the innovation-exports nexus. In particular we argue that innovation and exports should be treated as latent variables in order to account for as many facets possible thus, accounting for multifaceted heterogeneity. In this context, the role of innovation openness ought to be highlighted within a unified framework, as it is considered an additional activity of firms’ knowledge creation strategy. In this line, innovation and exporting orientation are ruled by the firms' strategic mix comprised of internal knowledge creation processes and the diversity of innovation openness. Theoretical and empirical links between these major components are identified and measured employing a Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) approach on a sample of Greek R&D-active manufacturing firms. Empirical findings corroborate the complexity of relationships and indicate that the firms’ knowledge base and open innovation strategy regulate via complementary and substitution relationships firms’ innovation and export performance.
    Keywords: SEM, endogeneity, open innovation strategy, knowledge base, innovation performance, export performance
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Sergio Afcha (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú); Jose García-Quevedo (University of Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the impact of subsidies granted at national and regional levels on a set of R&D employment variables and, specifically, we seek to identify the existence of the behavioural additionality effects of these public subsidies on firms’ R&D human resources. We begin by assessing the effects of public funds on R&D private expenditures and on the number of R&D employees, and then focus on their impact on the composition of human resources engaged in R&D as classified by occupation and level of education. The data used correspond to the Spanish Technological Innovation Panel for the period 2006-2011. To control for selection bias and endogeneity, a combination of non-parametric matching techniques are implemented. After ruling out the existence of crowding out effects, our results show that R&D subsidies increase the number of R&D employees. However, no increase is found in the average level of qualification of R&D staff members in subsidized firms. All in all, the effects of public support are heterogeneous being dependent on the source of the subsidy and the firms’ characteristics.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, R&D employment, matching estimators, technology policy
    JEL: O38 J24 H25 C14
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Karsten Wasiluk (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effect of imitation on the rate of technological progress in an endogenous growth model. Quality leaders protect themselves from imitation by secondary development, which increases technological progress. Nevertheless, lower intellectual property rights protection reduces the incentives to enter the research sector which reduces innovation by outsiders. Simulations show that the net effect of increased imitation on the growth rate is ambiguous - it can be positive, negative, or inversely U-shaped, depending on the productivity of secondary research. Lower patent protection also reduces the degree of market power in the economy so that output, the wage rate, and welfare is typically increased.
    Keywords: Innovation, Intellectual Property Rights, Market Power
    JEL: L12
    Date: 2014–06–30
  5. By: Edward Lorenz (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - Université Nice Sophia Antipolis (UNS) - CNRS : UMR6227)
    Abstract: Much of the core research on the determinants of innovation traditionally has focused on the role of formal processes of R&D and on the importance of the skills and expertise of scientists and engineers with third-level education. In research on national innovation systems there has been a parallel tendency to focus on the institutions and organisations responsible for the production and diffusion of formal scientific and technical knowledge. At the level of measurement these emphases are reflected in the classic definition of innovation developed in the Oslo Manual as technical product and process innovation (TPP), and at the level of innovation policies they can be seen in the continuing importance attached to increasing national R&D intensity. More recently there have been notable efforts to widen the scope of innovation research so as to more fully take into account the role of work processes, systems of labour market protection and more generally the impact of welfare state institutions. This chapter focuses on these changes in scope and seeks to identify key challenges for researchers in innovation studies. The chapter begins by examining how work organisation has been analysed in the developing field of innovation studies including the factors that account for the growing interest in the 2000s in measuring and analysing processes of organisational innovation. It is argued that a key challenge still facing researchers in innovation studies is developing an adequate understanding of the interdependencies between work organisation and processes of technical change and innovation. The chapter then turns to the analysis of national systems, arguing that there is a need for developing more robust typologies of innovation systems that integrate the role of labour market and welfare state institutions. A related challenge is developing multi-level governance frameworks that serve to clarify the interconnections between these social institutions at the levels of nations and regions. The chapter concludes by discussing the obstacles to putting work organisation and organisational innovation more firmly on the EU policy agenda.
    Keywords: Innovation studies, Work Organisation, Social Protection
    Date: 2013–12–31
  6. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karkalakos, Sotiris; Tsionas, Efthymios G.
    Abstract: This paper studies the diffusion of knowledge and its consequences for local innovation production. In a common framework, we analyze the geographic reach of different channels of knowledge flows that thus far have been studied separately in the literature. To jointly estimate these flows, we develop and apply novel econometric techniques appropriate to the nature of the data. We find that geographic along with technological proximity to be more essential to the operation of market than to non-market channels of knowledge flows. External accessible disembodied knowledge has a strong positive effect on local innovation production as large as that of homegrown knowledge.
    Keywords: knowledge flows, patents, citations, inventor mobility, trade, non-linear regression systems
    JEL: C11 C33 O30 O51
    Date: 2014–07–21
  7. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Karamanis, Dimitris; Zank, Arleen
    Abstract: This paper exploits a particular facet of the US patent system, which thus far has been overlooked in the literature: the patent renewal fee scheme relating to switches from small to large entity status. Based on this observation, we are able to determine whether university patents are licensed over their enforceable lifecycle and at what point in time the licensing occurs. We find that while the funding source of patented inventions makes no difference to the propensity of an academic patent being licensed, federally sponsored patents are less likely to be licensed early compared to their non-federally funded counterparts.
    Keywords: university patents, renewal fees, licensing, technology transfer, large entity status, federal sponsorship
    JEL: H50 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2014–07–21
  8. By: OECD
    Abstract: Education has one of the highest shares of innovative jobs for tertiary graduates of all sectors of the economy in Europe, and a higher proportion than in other public sector areas such as health and public administration. Innovation in knowledge or methods is the most common form of innovation, with education outperforming all sectors of the economy on this measure. Within education, higher education is much more innovative than the primary and secondary levels – and is one of the most innovative sectors of the economy in terms of innovation in knowledge or methods.
    Date: 2014–07
  9. By: Gale, William; Brown, Samuel
    Abstract: Small businesses occupy an iconic place in American public policy debates. This paper discusses interactions between the federal tax code, small business, and the economy. We summarize the characteristics of small businesses, identify the tax provisions that most affect small businesses, and review evidence on the impact of tax and other policies on entrepreneurial activity. We also examine evidence suggesting that it is young firms, not small ones, where job growth and innovation tend to occur. Policies that aim to stimulate young and innovative firms are likely to prove different than policies that subsidize small businesses.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, tax policy, innovation, small business
    JEL: H2
    Date: 2013–04–08
  10. By: Diaz Anadon, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena
    Abstract: Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts' implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts' cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts' median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.
    Date: 2013
  11. By: James B. ANG (Division of Economics, School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, 637332.)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to shed some light on the role of financial sector policies in generating new knowledge, drawing on the experience of one of the fastest growing and largest developing countries. Using time series data for India over the period 1963-2005, the results indicate that interest rate restraints help generate ideas. Other financial repressionist policies, in the form of high reserve and liquidity requirements, as well as significant directed credit controls, appear to have a dampening effect on ideas production. These results lend some support to the argument that some form of financial sector reforms may help stimulate economic growth via increasing technological innovation.
    Keywords: financial liberalization; Schumpeterian growth
    JEL: O30 O40 O53
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Iwasaki, Ichiro; Suganuma, Keiko
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the growth-enhancing effect of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Russian regions, paying special attention to the country’s investment boom and the remarkable regional gaps in terms of cumulative direct investments in and after 2003. We also examine possible synergistic effects between FDI and local R&D potential to test the absorptive capacity hypothesis. Our estimation results strongly suggest the remarkable role of FDI in the regional economic growth in Russia. In addition, we found that the positive effect of FDI on growth is not limited to the regions that received a relatively large amount of foreign capital. Furthermore, we detected a surprisingly robust and positive synergistic effect between FDI and local R&D potential, indicating that the absorptive capability is essential for linking FDI and regional economic development in Russia.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment (FDI), regional economic growth, R&D potential, absorptive capacity hypothesis, Russia
    JEL: F21 O11 P25 P33 R11
    Date: 2014–06
  13. By: Drivas, Kyriakos; Economidou, Claire; Tsionas, Efthymios G.
    Abstract: Standard stochastic frontier models estimate log-linear specifications of production technology, represented mostly by production, cost, profit, revenue, and distance frontiers. We develop a methodology for stochastic frontier models of count data allowing for technological and inefficiency induced heterogeneity in the data and endogenous regressors. We derive the corresponding log-likelihood function and conditional mean of inefficiency to estimate technology regime-specific inefficiency. We further provide empirical evidence that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed model.
    Keywords: efficiency, Poisson stochastic frontier, mixture, innovation, states
    JEL: C13 C24 C33 C51
    Date: 2014–07–20

This nep-ino issue is ©2014 by Steffen Lippert. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.