nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒05‒09
seventeen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. The impact of R&D subsidies on firm innovation By Raffaello Bronzini; Paolo Piselli
  2. High-growth firms and innovation: an empirical analysis for Spanish firms By Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; Teruel, Mercedes
  3. Fostering University‐Industry R&D Collaborations in European Union Countries By Cunningham, James; Link, Albert
  4. R&D employee's intention to exchange knowledge within open innovation projects By Nedon, Verena; Herstatt, Cornelius
  5. Service innovation in the Middle East. An analysis for Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Jordan and United Arab Emirates By Juan Luis Santos; Tomás Mancha; Jagoda Anna Kaszowska
  6. Legal Enforcement against Illegal Imitation in Developing Countries By Suzuki, Keishun
  7. Elite education, mass education, and the transition to modern growth By Strulik, Holger; Werner, Katharina
  8. Exogenous vs. endogenous governance in innovation communities: Effects on motivation, conflict and justice - An experimental investigation By Störmer, Niclas; Herstatt, Cornelius
  9. Characteristics of technological base, pace of technological development, and growth of young technology-based firms By Tischler, Joachim
  10. Technology and costs in international competitiveness: from countries and sectors to firms By Giovanni Dosi; Marco Grazzi; Daniele Moschella
  11. Business incubators in Italy By Marta Auricchio; Marco Cantamessa; Alessandra Colombelli; Roberto Cullino; Andrea Orame; Emilio Paolucci
  12. Les services dans l’économie verte au Maroc. Opportunités de création d’emplois et défis d’innovation By Fatima Arib
  13. Foreign Owners and Perceived Job Insecurity in Germany: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data By Verena Dill; Uwe Jirjahn
  14. The Italian system of public research By Pasqualino Montanaro; Roberto Torrini
  15. Das Patentierverhalten akademischer Gründer nach Abschaffung des Hochschullehrerprivilegs By Tischler, Joachim; Walter, Sascha
  16. What does (or does not) determine persistent corporate high-growth ? By Stefano Bianchini; Giulio Bottazzi; Federico Tamagni
  17. What Drives Academic Data Sharing? By Benedikt Fecher; Sascha Friesike; Marcel Hebing

  1. By: Raffaello Bronzini (Bank of Italy); Paolo Piselli (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the impact of an R&D subsidy program implemented in a region of northern Italy on innovation by beneficiary firms. In order to verify whether the subsidies enabled firms to increase patenting activity, we exploit the mechanism used to allot the funds. Since only projects that scored above a certain threshold received the subsidy, we use a sharp regression discontinuity design to compare the number of patent applications, and the probability of submitting one, of subsidized firms with those of unsubsidized firms close to the cut-off. We find that the program had a significant impact on the number of patents, more markedly in the case of smaller firms. Our results show that the program was also successful in increasing the probability of applying for a patent, but only in the case of smaller firms.
    Keywords: research and development, investment incentives, regression discontinuity design, patents
    JEL: R0 H2 L10
    Date: 2014–04
  2. By: Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; Teruel, Mercedes
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of R&D investment on firm growth. We use an extensive sample of Spanish manufacturing and service firms. The database comprises diverse waves of Spanish Community Innovation Survey and covers the period 2004–2008. First, a probit model corrected for sample selection analyses the role of innovation on the probability of being a high-growth firm (HGF). Second, a quantile regression technique is applied to explore the determinants of firm growth. Our database shows that a small number of firms experience fast growth rates in terms of sales or employees. Our results reveal that R&D investments positively affect the probability of becoming a HGF. However, differences appear between manufacturing and service firms. Finally, when we study the impact of R&D investment on firm growth, quantile estimations show that internal R&D presents a significant positive impact for the upper quantiles, while external R&D shows a significant positive impact up to the median. Keywords : High-growth firms, Firm growth, Innovation activity. JEL Classifications : L11, L25, L26, O30
    Keywords: Empreses -- Creixement, Innovacions tecnològiques, Emprenedoria, Investigació industrial, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Cunningham, James (National University of Ireland); Link, Albert (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper advances our understanding of university-industry research and development (R&D) collaborations. These strategic relationships are a dimension of entrepreneurial activity, and they are thus important drivers of economic growth and development. Business collaboration with universities increases the efficiency and effectiveness of industrial investments. Previous studies have found that universities are more likely to collaborate with industry if the business is mature and large, is engaged in exploratory internal R&D, and there are not major intellectual property (IP) issues between both parties. Businesses gain from such collaborations through increased commercialisation probabilities and economies of technological scope. Based on publicly available data collected by the Science-to-Business Marketing Research Centre of Germany as part of a European Commission project, our paper focuses on two key questions. First, why are there cross-country differences in the extent to which universities collaborate with business in R&D? Second, are there covariates with these differences that might offer insight into policy prescriptions and policy levers for enhancing the extent to which such collaboration takes place? We find that access is positive and statistically significant in relation to fostering university business R&D collaborations. Our results, albeit that they are tempered by a small sample of data, have implications how national innovation systems support further harmonization of IP regimes across universities and how universities priorities its own investments and incentives.
    Keywords: R&D collaborations; entrepreneurship; university-industry partnerships; European Union
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O38
    Date: 2014–04–28
  4. By: Nedon, Verena; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: The existing literature on open innovation strongly emphasizes on the organizational level, while neglecting the people side and especially the perspective of employees working in OIprojects. This study analyzes determinants of R&D employees' knowledge exchange in OIprojects by means of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a literature review regarding motivational factors influencing individuals' attitude toward knowledge exchange. An online survey amongst 133 R&D employees was conducted and data was analyzed through variancebased structural equation modeling (PLS). In our sample, subjective norm had by far the strongest impact on employees' intention to exchange their knowledge in OI-projects, although attitude and perceived behavioral control also showed highly significant and positive effects on intention. From all five identified motivational factors, enjoyment in helping was found to have the strongest influence on attitude, followed by intrinsic rewards and sense of self-worth. Extrinsic rewards and reciprocity did not show any effect on attitude. --
    Keywords: open innovation,interorganizational cooperation,R&D partnerships,knowledge exchange,knowledge sharing,R&D employees,theory of planned behavior,TPB,motivation,structural equation modeling
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Juan Luis Santos; Tomás Mancha; Jagoda Anna Kaszowska
    Abstract: In this work we analyze the importance of service innovation in the entrepreneurial and business activity in five countries that represent a 65 percent of the population of the Middle East. We study the characteristics of the owners of firms in the service sector according to the Standard Industrial Classification. We highlight the differences between services and industries with respect to innovation. Then we analyze the determinants of service innovation in this set of countries during the period 2001-2008 and the role of individual characteristics such as gender, age, skills and perception of business owners’ status. We estimate the most important factors for innovation in services sector and we compare them with the ones of manufacturing.
    Keywords: Middle East, Service innovation, Innovative entrepreneur, Service sector
    Date: 2014–03
  6. By: Suzuki, Keishun
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of seizing illegal imitations within developing countries on imitation, innovation, and economic growth. The model shows four main results. First, a higher seizure rate does not always decrease imitative activity in the South because it may encourage the infringer to commit repeated offenses. Second, the model shows a U-shaped relationship between innovation and the strengthening seizure rate. Third, numerical analysis indicates that a sufficiently high seizure rate that is larger than a critical value is required to enhance economic growth. Finally, unlike seizure, the extended model shows that a prohibition on importing Southern illegal imitations in the North necessarily lowers imitative activities.
    Keywords: Innovation, North-South, Seizing Illegal Imitation, Import Prohibition
    JEL: F13 O31 O34
    Date: 2014–04–22
  7. By: Strulik, Holger; Werner, Katharina
    Abstract: For most of human history there existed a well-educated and innovative elite whereas mass education, market R&D, and high growth are phenomena of the modern period. In order to explain these phenomena we propose an innovation-driven growth model for the very long run in which the individual-specific return to education is conceptualized as an compound of cognitive ability and family background. This allows us to establish a locally stable steady state at which family background determines whether an individual experiences education and a locally stable steady state at which education is determined by cognitive ability. Compulsory schooling can move society from elite education to mass education. An interaction between education and life expectancy explains why the education period gets longer with ongoing economic development. Embedding this household behavior into a macro-economy we can explain different paths to modern growth: According to the Prussian way, compulsory education is implemented first and triggers later on the onset of market R&D and modern growth. According to the British way, market R&D and the take off to growth is initiated without mass education, which is triggered later by technical progress and economic development. --
    Keywords: long-run growth,elite education,compulsory education,longevity,R&D
    JEL: I24 J24 O30 O40
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Störmer, Niclas; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: In this study we examine the effects of exogenous vs. endogenous governance rules on a virtual community handling an innovative task. Specifically we investigate the relationship between the two modes (exogenous vs. endogenous) and factors such as motivation, conflict and justice. We conducted an experiment with 70 students, divided into teams of five. We manipulated procedural legitimacy by allowing one group to choose a set of rules and giving the other group the same rules exogenously. Our study indicates, that letting a team choose its own governance rules leads to increasing level of conflict negatively impacting motivation. --
    Keywords: Governance,Collaborative Innovation Communities
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Tischler, Joachim
    Abstract: Young technology ventures are strongly affected by technological environmental conditions. In the light of opportunity theory, this study focuses on the interaction of a young firm’s technological base and the pace of technological development in its field. It distinguishes three technological characteristics: radicalness, scope, and the degree of collaborative development. Empirical results support the hypothesis that young technology-based firms commercializing radical technologies grow faster in rapidly developing technology fields. By contrast, young firms commercializing technologies that are developed through research collaborations with established firms outperform others when the pace of technological progress is relatively slow. This study provides empirical evidence of a beneficial interplay between technological characteristics and technological environment and offers a modified patent-citation-based criterion for measuring the pace of technological development in different technology fields. --
    Keywords: academic spin-off,technology venture,pace of technological progress,patent data,technological base
    JEL: L25 L26 M13 O33
    Date: 2014–04–18
  10. By: Giovanni Dosi; Marco Grazzi; Daniele Moschella
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of international competitiveness at the level of sectors and firms. First, we address the relation between cost-related and technological competition in a sample of fifteen OECD countries. Results suggest that the countries' sectoral market shares are indeed mainly shaped by technological factors (proxied by investment intensity and patents) while cost advantages/disadvantages do not seem to be play any significant role. Next, we attempt to identify the underlying dynamics at the firm level. We do that for a single country, Italy, using a large panel of Italian firms, over nearly two decades. Results show that also at micro level in most sectors investments and patents correlate positively both with the probability of being an exporter and with the capacity to acquire and to increase export market shares. The evidence on costs is more mixed. A simple measure like total labour compensation is positively correlated with the probability of being an exporter, while unit labour costs show a negative correlation only in some manufacturing sectors.
    Keywords: Trade Competitiveness, Technological Innovation, Input Costs, Firm behaviour, Technology Gap Theories of Trade
    Date: 2014–04–23
  11. By: Marta Auricchio (Bank of Italy); Marco Cantamessa (Polytechnic of Turin); Alessandra Colombelli (Polytechnic of Turin); Roberto Cullino (Bank of Italy); Andrea Orame (Bank of Italy); Emilio Paolucci (Polytechnic of Turin)
    Abstract: The Italian economy has suffered from structural problems for the last fifteen years, which have weakened its competitiveness. The innovation gap, by international standards, is one of those problems. Business incubators are one of the solutions proposed in the economic literature and put into practice in many countries in order to increase the birth and survival rates of extremely innovative firms. With the help of an empirical survey of a highly representative sample of Italian business incubators and a significant subset of incubated start-ups, this paper draws an institutional and functional map of business incubators in Italy. Italian incubators are mostly small and heavily dependent on public funding. They mainly provide logistical services, less frequently higher value added ones like consulting and networking. According to the firms interviewed, the role played by incubators is on average useful but not essential for the success of the start-up.
    Keywords: innovation, start-up, public policy
    JEL: M13 G28 O31
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Fatima Arib
    Abstract: Le Maroc est confronté à des défis complexes. L’économie verte pourrait lui offrir un nouveau cadre pour repenser son développement économique de manière stratégique et durable. Cette économie incite à utiliser la contrainte environnementale comme levier pour le développement durable, à travers notamment la relance de l'activité économique et de l'emploi, l'amélioration du bien-être des individus et la réduction des inégalités sociales. Cet article s’appuie sur le cas du Maroc, pour analyser les opportunités des éco-activités en général, et des éco services en particulier en termes de création d’emploi. Nous discutons également les différentes opportunités d’innovation qu’offrent ces services, pour promouvoir les interactions sociales, écologiques et économiques, dont l’objectif est le développement d’une économie verte. Nous nous attardons sur les conditions de mobilisation de ces opportunités pour en tirer profit dans la création de richesses et d’emplois au Maroc.
    Keywords: Maroc, économie verte, services, environnement, emploi, innovation.
    Date: 2014–03
  13. By: Verena Dill; Uwe Jirjahn
    Abstract: Using linked employer-employee data from Germany, we examine the role of foreign owners in employees' perceptions of job insecurity. Our estimates show that there tends to be a positive link between foreign owners and perceived job insecurity. The link is specifically strong for foreign-owned firms with high personnel turnover or poor employment growth. It is also stronger if the foreign-owned firm provides managerial profit sharing. However, the link is negative for foreign-owned firms with product innovations.
    Keywords: Foreign ownership, perceived job insecurity, managerial profit sharing, personnel turnover, product innovation
    JEL: F23 J23 J28 J63
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Pasqualino Montanaro (Bank of Italy); Roberto Torrini (Bank of Italy and ANVUR)
    Abstract: Investment in public research in Italy is below the European average as a percentage of GDP. Nevertheless, in relation to expenditure and the number of researchers, the output is high, and the quality of research, conducted in universities and research organizations, is close to that of such countries as France, albeit with lags in the most advanced levels. The Italian system, highly diversified and fragmented in its actors and funding sources, suffers from a scant capacity to apply research findings and to collaborate with firms, which in their turn spend little on research and have problems in linking their own research activity to the inputs supplied by public research entities. The system also suffers from the lack of a comprehensive strategy that sets objectives, designs missions and organizational frameworks for public research entities consistently with those objectives, and determines the necessary resources. The much-needed relaunching of Italy’s innovative capacity cannot be achieved without adequate financing and efficient governance of the public research system.
    Keywords: public research, university, research organizations JEL Classification: H52, I23, I28, O38
    Date: 2014–04
  15. By: Tischler, Joachim; Walter, Sascha
    Abstract: Akademische Unternehmerinnen und Unternehmer müssen seit der Abschaffung des Hochschullehrer-privilegs im Jahr 2002 ihre Erfindungen gegenüber den Hochschulen offenlegen und können nicht unmittelbar frei über deren Verwertung verfügen. Wir untersuchen, welchen Einfluss diese Gesetzes-novelle auf das Patentierverhalten akademischer Unternehmer ausübt. Grundsätzlich sind fördernde und hemmende Einflüsse sowohl vor als auch nach vollzogener Ausgründung denkbar. Analysen von 206 Hochschulausgründungen zeigen, dass sich vor und nach der Gesetzesnovelle gegründete Spin-Offs in ihrem Patentierverhalten nicht unterscheiden. Allerdings ist ein Anstieg von Patentanmeldungen zu verzeichnen, die von Hochschule und Gründern/Spin-Off gemeinsam angemeldet werden. -- Since the abolition of the “professors’ privilege” in 2002 university entrepreneurs have to disclose their inventions to the university so that the university can decide to patent and exploit them. An empirical investigation of 206 university spin-offs indicate that their patenting behavior did not substantially change after the legal change both in the pre-founding phase and in the post-founding phase. Moreover, changes in the patents’ ownership patterns show that university entrepreneurs apply more often their patents together with their university.
    Keywords: Professors’ Privilege,Hochschullehrerprivileg,Patentierverhalten,Akademische Gründer,Akademische Spin-offs
    JEL: M13 O34 O38
    Date: 2014–04–18
  16. By: Stefano Bianchini; Giulio Bottazzi; Federico Tamagni
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical studies of industry dynamics have extensively focused on the process of growth. Theory predicts that production efficiency, profitability and financial status are central channels through which some firms can survive, grow and eventually achieve outstanding growth performance. Is the same conceptual framework a convincing explanation to account for persistent corporate high growth? Exploiting panels of Italian, Spanish, and French firms we find no evidence that this is the case: companies experiencing persistent high growth are not more productive nor more profitable, and do not display peculiarly sounder financial conditions than firms that only exhibit high, but not persistent, growth performance. The finding is robust across countries, across sectors displaying different innovation patterns, and also controlling for demographic characteristics such as age and size.
    Keywords: High-growth firms, Persistent high-growth, Productivity, Firm age, Firm size
    Date: 2014–04–05
  17. By: Benedikt Fecher; Sascha Friesike; Marcel Hebing
    Abstract: Despite widespread support from policy makers, funding agencies, and scientific journals, academic researchers rarely make their research data available to others. At the same time, data sharing in research is attributed a vast potential for scientific progress. It allows the reproducibility of study results and the reuse of old data for new research questions. Based on a systematic review of 98 scholarly papers and an empirical survey among 603 secondary data users, we develop a conceptual framework that explains the process of data sharing from the primary researcher’s point of view. We show that this process can be divided into six descriptive categories: Data donor, research organization, research community, norms, data infrastructure, and data recipients. Drawing from our findings, we discuss theoretical implications regarding knowledge creation and dissemination as well as research policy measures to foster academic collaboration. We conclude that research data cannot be regarded a knowledge commons, but research policies that better incentivize data sharing are needed to improve the quality of research results and foster scientific progress.
    Keywords: ratswd, ratswd working paper, Data Sharing, Academia, Systematic Review, Research Policy, Knowledge Commons, Crowd Science, Commons-based Peer Production
    JEL: C81 C82 D02 H41 L17 Z13
    Date: 2014

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