nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒05‒04
thirteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Technology Transfer and its effect on Innovation By Sen, Neelanjan
  2. On the R&D giants' shoulders: Do FDI help to stand on them? By Antonio Vezzani; Sandro Montresor
  3. Who Should be in Power to Encourage Product Program Innovativeness, R&D or Marketing? By Stock, Ruth; Reiferscheid, Ines
  4. Mapping the European ICT Poles of Excellence: The Atlas of ICT Acitvity in Europe By Giuditta de Prato; Daniel Nepelski
  5. "Gender-responsive Budgeting as Fiscal Innovation: Evidence from India on 'Processes'" By Lekha S. Chakraborty
  6. Structural Change and Innovation as Exit Strategies from the Middle Income Trap By Vivarelli, Marco
  7. Capacité d’une communauté de pratique à créer des connaissances utiles pour le processus d’innovation: l’approche « située » de la communauté créative By Humbert Lesca; Dorota Leszczynska
  8. From organizing for innovation to innovating for organization: how co-design fosters change in organizations By Louis-Etienne Dubois; Pascal Le Masson; Benoît Weil; Patrick Cohendet
  9. University Knowledge Spillovers & Regional Start-up Rates: Supply and Demand Side Factors By Hellerstedt, Karin; Wennberg, Karl; Frederiksen, Lars
  10. Capital risque industriel et innovation technologique By Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
  11. NETWATCH Policy Brief Series – Brief Nº3 - Added value of transnational research programming: lessons from longstanding programme collaborations in Europe By Karel Haegeman; Nicholas Harrap; John Mark Boden; Nida Kamil Özbolat
  12. What is the Real Role of Corporate Venture Capital ? By Jean-Sébastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
  13. Quelles pratiques informationnelles pour soutenir la créativité organisationnelle? By Dorota Leszczynska

  1. By: Sen, Neelanjan
    Abstract: This paper analyses technology transfer and innovation activities by the high cost firm in a Cournot duopoly framework, where technology transfer between the firms may occur after the innovation decision. The two effects of innovation are to access the superior technology of the low cost firm if higher cost prohibits technology transfer and to affect the pricing rule of technology transfer via higher bargaining power. The incentive for innovation is more in fixed-fee licensing than in two-part tariff (royalty) licensing if cost difference between firms is low. The possibility of licensing, irrespective of the licensing scheme, encourages innovation if the cost difference between the firms is high.
    Keywords: Technology licensing; Innovation; Welfare
    JEL: D45 L24
    Date: 2014–04–26
  2. By: Antonio Vezzani (JRC-IPTS); Sandro Montresor (University of Bologna)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the extent to which outward FDI affect the MNC's capacity of entering (and remaining in) the club of top R&D world investors, benefiting from performance gains in both financial and economic markets. By merging the European Industrial Research and Innovation Scoreboard with the fDi Markets dataset, we find supporting evidence. Increasing the number of FDI projects helps firms overcome the discontinuities that, in the distribution of R&D expenditures, separate the largest R&D investors from those below them. The same is true for the number of FDI projects in R&D, which are also more important than greater FDI portfolios in becoming a top R&D spender. Furthermore, unlike FDI in general, more FDI in R&D guarantee firms to remain in this top club of firms as it increases their capacity of competing among the top R&D spenders. Results at the extensive margin (i.e. the number of FDI projects) are confirmed with respect to the scale of FDI projects (i.e. at the intensive margin). However, increasing their size is not enough to become one of the highest ranking R&D firms. Policy implications about the support to R&D internationalisation are drawn accordingly.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Multinational Corporations (MNC), Research & Development (R&D)
    JEL: O32 F23 O33
    Date: 2014–01
  3. By: Stock, Ruth; Reiferscheid, Ines
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Giuditta de Prato (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Daniel Nepelski (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The EIPE project aims to identify ICT R&D&I-related activities which are geographically concentrated and which demonstrate high performance in ICT innovative activities: the European ICT Poles of Excellence. This is the third EIPE Report and it presents the results of an empirical mapping of ICT activity in Europe and the ranking of the top European NUTS 3 regions based on their performance in the EIPE Composite Indicator (EIPE CI). It also ranks the individual 42 indicators which contributed to the building of the EIPE composite indicator. This report offers a snapshot of the performance of regions that are identified as the main locations of ICT activity in Europe. It is meant to provide a comprehensive picture of how ICT activity is distributed across Europe and where its main locations are. This information is expected to give a better overview of the European ICT landscape.
    Keywords: ICT; information and communication technologies; innovation, R&D, ICT industry; region; Europe; Poles of Excellence; clusters; indicators; methods
    JEL: O32 O52 R12 R28
    Date: 2014–04
  5. By: Lekha S. Chakraborty
    Abstract: Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) is a fiscal innovation. Innovation, for the purposes of this paper, is defined as a way of transforming a new concept into tangible processes, resources, and institutional mechanisms in which a benefit meets identified problems. GRB is a fiscal innovation in that it translates gender commitments into fiscal commitments by applying a "gender lens" to the identified processes, resources, and institutional mechanisms, and arrives at a desirable benefit incidence. The theoretical treatment of gender budgeting as a fiscal innovation is not incorporated, as the focus of this paper is broadly on the processes involved. GRB as an innovation has four specific components: knowledge processes and networking, institutional mechanisms, learning processes and building capacities, and public accountability and benefit incidence. The paper analyzes these four components of GRB in the context of India. The National Institute of Public Finance and Policy has been the pioneer of gender budgeting in India, and also played a significant role in institutionalizing gender budgeting within the Ministry of Finance, Government of India, in 2005. The Expert Committee Group on "Classification of Budgetary Transactions" makes recommendations on gender budgeting--Ashok Lahiri Committee recommendations--that will become part of the institutionalization process, integrating the analytical matrices of fiscal data through a gender lens and also the institutional innovations for GRB. Revisiting the 2004 Lahiri recommendations and revamping the process of GRB in India is inevitable, at both ex ante and ex post levels.
    Keywords: Gender-responsive Budgeting; Innovation; Institutions
    JEL: H8
    Date: 2014–04
  6. By: Vivarelli, Marco (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore)
    Abstract: This paper is intended to provide an updated discussion on a series of issues that the relevant literature suggests to be crucial in dealing with the challenges a middle income country may encounter in its attempts to further catch-up a higher income status. In particular, the conventional economic wisdom – ranging from the Lewis-Kuznets model to the endogenous growth approach – will be contrasted with the Schumpeterian and evolutionary views pointing to the role of capabilities and knowledge, considered as key inputs to foster economic growth. Then, attention will be turned to structural change and innovation, trying to map – using the taxonomies put forward by the innovation literature – the concrete ways through which a middle income country can engage a technological catching-up, having in mind that developing countries are deeply involved into globalized markets where domestic innovation has to be complemented by the role played by international technological transfer. Among the ways how a middle income country can foster domestic innovation and structural change in terms of sectoral diversification and product differentiation, a recent stream of literature underscores the potentials of local innovative entrepreneurship, that will also be discussed bridging entrepreneurial studies with the development literature. Finally, the possible consequences of catching-up in terms of jobs and skills will be discussed.
    Keywords: catching-up, structural change, globalization, capabilities, innovation, entrepreneurship
    JEL: O14 O33
    Date: 2014–04
  7. By: Humbert Lesca; Dorota Leszczynska
    Abstract: This publication presents theoretical documents dealing with the capacity of a community of practice to create useful knowledge favouring the innovative process in its emerging stage. This research aims at a better understanding of innovative communities, and deals with the 2 situated dimension of these communities. This research also raises the question of the potential means to support the activity of a community of practice with innovative projects. The main line of investigation concerns the modes of communicational regulation chosen by innovative communities in order to match the specific features of the environment of their activity. The case study followed by a process of research / intervention favours an empirical questioning of the situated conceptualization of the communities of creators. The case of a long-standing innovative community, widely acknowledged by several generations, is compared to the cases of two firms attempting, ex nihilo, to set up a community of creative practitioners with innovative aims. These examples highlight some aspects of creative exchanges, such as human sensorial knowledge, emotional environment, shared emotions, tacit communication, etc.
    Keywords: innovative community, situated approach, communicational regulation, tacit knowledge, sensorial.
    Date: 2014–04–29
  8. By: Louis-Etienne Dubois (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris, HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoît Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Patrick Cohendet (HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL)
    Abstract: Amongst the plethora of methods that have been developed over the years to involve users, suppliers, buyers or other stakeholders in the design of new objects, co-design has been advertised as a way to generate innovation in a more efficient and more inclusive manner. Yet, empirical evidence that demonstrates its innovativeness is still hard to come by. Moreover, the fact that co-design workshops are gatherings of participants with little design credentials and often no prior relationships raises serious doubts on its potential to generate novelty. In this paper1, we study the contextual elements of 21 workshops in order to better understand what codesign really yields in terms of design outputs and relational outcomes. Our data suggest that codesign emerges in crisis situations and that it is best used as a two-time intervention. We also suggest using collaborative design activities as a way to bring about change through innovation.
    Keywords: co-design, design, innovation, collaboration, change management
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Hellerstedt, Karin (Jönköping International Business School); Wennberg, Karl (The Ratio Institute and Stockholm School of Economics.); Frederiksen, Lars (Innovation Management Group, Department of Business Administration, Aarhus University,)
    Abstract: This paper investigates regional start-up rates in the knowledge intensive services and high-tech industries. Integrating insights from economic geography and population ecology into the literature on entrepreneurship, we develop a theoretical framework which captures how both supply- and demand-side factors mold the regional bedrock for start-ups in knowledge intensive industries. Using multi-level data of all knowledge intensive start-ups across 286 Swedish municipalities between 1994 and 2002 we demonstrate how characteristics of the economic and political milieu within each region influence the ratio of firm births. We find that economically affluent regions dominate entrepreneurial activity in terms of firm births, yet a number of much smaller rural regions also revealed high levels of start-ups. Knowledge spillovers from universities and firm R&D strongly affect the start-up rates for both knowledge intensive manufacturing and knowledge intensive services firms. However, the start-up rate of knowledge-intensive service firms is tied more strongly to the supply of highly educated individuals and the political regulatory regime within the municipality. This suggests that knowledge intensive service-start-ups are more susceptible to both demand-side and supply-side context than manufacturing start-ups. Our study contributes to the growing stream of research that explains entrepreneurial activity as shaped by contextual factors, most notably educational institutions that contribute to technology startups.
    Keywords: Start-ups; Spillovers; Universities; R&D; Political regime
    JEL: L26 M13 P25 R12
    Date: 2014–04–24
  10. By: Jean-Sebastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Le capital risque industriel (CVC) joue un rôle moteur dans le développement d’innovations technologiques. C’est à la fois un apport en fonds propres ainsi qu’en compétences techniques et stratégiques aux start-up. Mais c’est également une stratégie entrepreneuriale réalisée à l’extérieur des grands groupes car ces derniers ne peuvent plus se contenter d’essayer de créer en interne des innovations. Le capital risque industriel permet ainsi de réduire le risque de l’innovation tout en gardant un certain contrôle sur l’entreprise cible ou une option de rachat sur l’innovation une fois que cette dernière aura dépassé le stade de l’émergence. Le CVC apparaît donc comme un mode de financement de l’innovation externe et plus efficient. Malgré les crises, il continue de se développer dans les secteurs high-tech les moins touchés notamment dans les biotechnologies. Les avantages qu’il apporte à chaque étape du projet par rapport au financement par des fonds de capital risque sont un gage de sa pérennité.
    Keywords: capital risque, innovation, performance, financement, motivation, investissement
    Date: 2014–04–22
  11. By: Karel Haegeman (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Nicholas Harrap (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); John Mark Boden (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Nida Kamil Özbolat (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: This brief explores the wide variety of objectives, activities and outcomes of transnational research programming in Europe. Going beyond the goal of mobilising shared research funds, it examines how collaborative networks can contribute to the achievement of a broad range of objectives related to research and innovation. It centres on the development of an analytical framework, focusing on the key motivations for establishing and participating in collaborative networks and the subsequent outcomes.Case studies are used to explore how collaborative research programming networks can contribute to a broad set of objectives related to research and innovation, ranging from the primary aims that are at the core of the programme collaboration to secondary aims with regard to research and even tertiary network aims going beyond research policies.The results have relevance for the way progress to the ERA is measured, for developing indicators for measuring impact of programme collaboration networks, for reviewing the research and innovation partnering instruments at European level, for seeing research programming networks as catalysts for collaboration in related areas, and for making barriers to programme collaboration more explicit and thus easier to address.
    Keywords: European research and innovation policy, Innovation Union, ERAWATCH, European Research Area, Policy Mixes, Transnational and International Cooperation, NETWATCH, ERA Nets, Foresight, Joint programming of research, Researchers, Universities
    Date: 2013–05
  12. By: Jean-Sébastien Lantz; Jean-Michel Sahut; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Technological innovation is not exclusive to great industrial groups. Sometimes, innovative and dynamic companies emerge in high-tech sectors and constitute a serious threat for some industry giants. However, the high reactivity of these small companies is generally impaired by problems of financing. Larger firms which want to achieve financial profits and control the most recent innovations often have recourse to corporate venture capital (CVC) as strategic mode of financing. The advantages it brings to every stage of the project (launch, refinancing and project output) compared to financing by venture capital funds will be key factors for future development. In order to gain a better understanding of the role of CVC in the financing of innovating firms, we propose in this article to analyze the various types of CVC on the basis of former studies as well as concrete examples, then to assess what boosts value creation for CVC projects.
    Keywords: Venture capital; CVC; Capital structure; Start-up; Entrepreneurship; Performance
    JEL: G24 G32
    Date: 2014–04–29
  13. By: Dorota Leszczynska
    Abstract: This publication presents a comparison of the distinctive roles of innovative communities and virtual communities, in the perspective of organizational creativity. The main line of investigation concerns the informational mechanisms chosen respectively by innovative communities and virtual communities, in order to match the specific features of the environment of their activity. The research methodology is that of a case-study followed by a process of research/intervention. The case of a long-standing innovative community, widely acknowledged for several generations, is compared to the case of a virtual community which has been set up thanks to the advent of new technologies of fragrance transmission via the Internet. These examples highlight some aspects of creative exchanges, such as human sensorial knowledge, emotional environment, shared emotions, tacit communication etc
    Keywords: Innovative community, virtual community, informational mechanism, tacit knowledge, fragrance transmission via the Internet.
    Date: 2014–04–29

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