nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
33 papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Reviving demand-pull perspectives: the effect of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on R&D strategy By José García-Quevedo; Gabriele Pellegrino; Maria Savona
  2. Stratégie d’innovation et leadership : le cas d’ArcelorMittal, leader du secteur métallurgique INNOVATION STRATEGY AND LEADERSHIP THE CASE OF ARCELOR MITTAL, LEADER IN THE STEEL SECTOR By Anthony WIDEHEM
  3. The Causal Effects of Competition on Innovation: Experimental Evidence By Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
  4. Globalization of Innovation Production: A Patent-Based Industry Analysis By Jérôme Danguy
  5. Who collaborates with whom: the role of technological distance in international innovation By Jérôme Danguy
  6. Corporate Science, Innovation and Firm Value By Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
  7. A theory of trade liberalization and innovations with heterogeneous firms By Rutzer, Christian
  8. Exploring Europe's R&D deficit relative to the US: differences in the rates of return to R&D of young leading R&D firms By Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers
  9. La difficile promotion de pme innovantes en Algérie THE DIFFICULT PROMOTION OF INNOVATIVE SMEs IN ALGERIA By Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA
  10. La combinatoire d’innovations dans un produit-système automobile : le cas de la Bugatti Veyron THE COMBINATION OF INNOVATIONS IN A MOTOR PRODUCT SYSTEM: THE CASE OF THE BUGATTI VEYRON By Florent LEMIR
  11. Evolution de l’électronique médicale et innovations appliquées a la mobilité : cas de l’exosquelette EVOLUTION OF MEDICAL ELECTRONICS AND INNOVATIONS APPLIED TO MOBILITY: THE CASE OF EXOSKELETON By Pauline BRYSSE
  12. R&D Financing Constraints of Young and Old Innovation Leaders in the EU and the US By Michele Cincera; Julien Ravet; Reinhilde Veugelers
  13. Why don't poor countries do R&D ? By Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
  14. SMEs and Barriers to Eco-Innovation in EU: A Diverse Palette of Greens By Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
  15. Systèmes d’innovation du Sud, transfert technologique et capacités d’apprentissage INNOVATION SYSTEMS FROM THE SOUTH, TECHNOLOGICAL TRANSFER AND LEANING CAPABILITIES By Vanessa CASADELLA
  16. Explaining the Slow Pace of Energy Technological Innovation: Why Market Conditions Matter? By Wei Jin; ZhongXiang Zhang
  17. Le rôle du manager de proximité dans l’innovation sociétale By Marie José Scotto; Hervé Tiffon
  18. Internal and External Effects of R&D Subsidies and Fiscal Incentives: Empirical Evidence Using Spatial Dynamic Panel Models By Benjamin Montmartin; Marcos Herrera
  19. Cross-Functional Knowledge Integration, Patenting and Firm’s Performance By Marco MC Ceccagnoli; Nicolas van Zeebroeck; Roberto Venturini
  20. Energy efficiency determinants: an empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms By María Teresa Costa; José García-Quevedo; Agustí Segarra
  21. Academic Patenting in Belgium:Methodology and Evidence. By Malwina Mejer
  22. La politique industrielle et de l’innovation chinoise dans la transition vers la croissance verte CHINESE INDUSTRIAL AND INNOVATION POLICIES IN THE TRANSITION TOWARD GREEN GROWTH By Zeting LIU
  23. The laws of imitation and invention: Gabriel Tarde and the evolutionary economics of innovation By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  24. Determinants of user innovator behavior in the silver market By Wellner, Konstantin; Herstatt, Cornelius
  25. Le RSA est-il une innovation sociale ? By Mathieu Béraud; Ali Boulayoune; Émilie Fériel; Jean-Pascal Higelé; Andreana Khristova
  26. La politique industrielle et de l’innovation de la Russie et de la Chine : quelle place pour la protection de l’environnement ? The Place of Environmental Protection within Industrial and Innovation policy in Russia and in China By Guillem Achermann; Zeting LIU
  27. Prospects for the development of innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy By Alexander Abroskin
  28. Innovations environnementales et transition des territoires industriels et portuaires : le cas de Gdansk, Pologne Environmental Innovation and the Economic Transition of the Industrial and port areas: The case of Gdnsk, Poland By Maria Lorek
  29. Disassembly and reassembly on digital technology and creative industries By Vincent Mangematin; Jonathan Sapsed; Elke Schüßler
  30. Access to research inputs: Open science versus the entrepreneurial university By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
  31. Governance Typology of Universities' Technology Transfer Processes By Anja Schoen; Joachim Henkel; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
  32. Directed Technical Change and Capital Deepening: A Reconsideration of Kaldor’s Technical Progress Function By Schlicht, Ekkehart
  33. Determinants of Research Production at Top Universities By Quentin Max David

  1. By: José García-Quevedo (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Gabriele Pellegrino (University of Barcelona & IEB); Maria Savona (University of Sussex)
    Abstract: This paper looks at the effects of demand uncertainty and stagnancy on firms’ decisions to engage in R&D activities and the amount of financial effort devoted to it. The paper contributes to the innovation literature in three respects: first, it adds to the revived debate on demand-pull perspectives in innovation studies, by specifically looking at demand-related (lack of) incentives to invest in innovation. Also, importantly, it complements the emerging literature on barriers to innovation in a two-fold way: first, by focusing on demand-related obstacles rather than the more explored financial barriers; second, by analyzing in detail whether experiencing uncertainty or lack of demand is a sector-specific feature, namely whether firms active in high or low tech manufacturing or in knowledge intensive or low tech services are more or less dependent on demand conditions when deciding to perform R&D. We find that uncertain demand and lack of demand are perceived as two completely different barriers. While uncertainty on demand does not seem to constrain R&D efforts, the perception of lack of demand does strongly reduce not only the amount of investment in R&D but also the likelihood of firms to engage in R&D activities. We interpret this evidence in terms of the specific phase of the innovation cycle in which decisions to invest in R&D are taken. Sectoral affiliation does not seem to matter when it relates to demand conditions, supporting the conjecture that positive expectations on market demand is a structural and necessary condition to be fulfilled for all firms prior to invest in R&D.
    Keywords: R&D strategy, barriers to innovation, demand uncertainty, lack of demand, innovative inputs, panel data
    JEL: C23 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Anthony WIDEHEM (Master 2 Ingénierie Numérique et Signal Image et Informatique Industrielle, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Calais)
    Abstract: Arcelor Mittal est le leader incontestable du marché mondial de l'acier. Dans ce document nous présentons ses forces fondées sur la combinaison d'innovations technologiques et d'innovations organisationnelles avec une stratégie d'internationalisation des sites de production mais non de ses centres de recherche pour rester à la pointe de l’innovation tout en réduisant les coûts de main d’oeuvre. Arcelor Mittal is the undisputed leader in the global steel market. In this paper, we present its strengths based on the combination of technological and organizational innovations with a strategy of internationalization of its production plants, but not of its research centers. This strategy aims to remain at the forefront of innovation while reducing the cost of labor.
    Keywords: sidérurgie, innovation, stratégie de production, R&D, steel industry, innovation, production strategy, R&D, Arcelor Mittal
    JEL: L61 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–01
  3. By: Philippe Aghion; Stefan Bechtold; Lea Cassar; Holger Herz
    Abstract: In this paper, we design two laboratory experiments to analyze the causal effects of competition on step-by-step innovation. Innovations result from costly R&D investments and move technology up one step. Competition is inversely measured by the ex post rents for firms that operate at the same technological level, i.e. for neck-and-neck firms. First, we find that increased competition leads to a significant increase in R&D investments by neck-and-neck firms. Second, increased competition decreases R&D investments by firms that are lagging behind, in particular if the time horizon is short. Third, we find that increased competition affects industry composition by reducing the fraction of sectors where firms are neck-and-neck. All these results are consistent with the predictions of step-by-step innovation models.
    JEL: C91 L10 O31
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Jérôme Danguy
    Abstract: Using patent-based indicators, this paper aims at explaining to what extent the productionof innovation is globalized. Firstly, it provides evidence – over time, across countriesand across industrial sectors – on the patterns in international technological collaborationand in cross-border ownership of innovation. Secondly, a fractional logit model is estimatedfor a unique panel dataset covering patent information of 21 industries in 29 countries from1980 to 2005. The results show that countries tend to be more globalized in industrial sectorsin which they are less technologically specialized. It suggests that globalization of innovationis more driven by home-base augmenting determinants than home-base exploitingones. The empirical findings also indicate that the intensity of globalization of innovationis higher in multidisciplinary country-industry pairs and in those which compete internationallyin trade.
    Keywords: internationalization, R&D collaboration, patent statistics, industrial sectors
    Date: 2014–02–23
  5. By: Jérôme Danguy
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating the role of technological distance in the globalized productionof innovation. It uses aggregate patent-based indicators for a unique panel datasetcovering international co-inventions between 29 countries across 21 industries between1988 and 2005. The empirical findings show a dual impact of technological distance onthe intensity of international collaborative innovation at the industry level. On the onehand, the more similar the industry-specific knowledge of two countries, the more easilythey collaborate by sharing common industrial knowledge. On the other hand, the moredifferent their non-industry-specific knowledge, the more they collaborate to gain accessto broad and interdisciplinary expertise. It suggests that the relative absorptive capacitybetween partner’s economies and the search for novel and complementary knowledge arekey drivers of the globalization of innovation. Moreover, the results confirm the additionaleffect of non-technological distance factors (spatial proximity, ease of communication, institutionalproximity, overall economic ties) in cross-border innovative relationships.
    Keywords: internationalization, R&D collaboration, technological distance, patent statistics
    Date: 2014–02–24
  6. By: Marcus Simeth; Michele Cincera
    Abstract: It can be observed that many R&D performing firms produce scientific knowledge and discloseresearch outcomes in scientific journals. At the micro-level, prior work identified several potentialbenefits of such a strategy like superior access to informal information networks or the opportunity ofrecruiting the best PhD graduates. However, scientific research is costly and subject to considerableuncertainty with respect to the outcomes, and the disclosure may lead to spillover effects that decreasethe ability of firms to generate returns of their R&D investments. Overall, it remains unclear if andunder what conditions science-oriented strategies are beneficial for firms. We address this gap andexamine the impact of scientific activities on the firm’s market value using accounting data for USfirms from Compustat and matched patent and scientific publication data. We find evidence for apositive impact of scientific publication stocks on the firm value beyond the effects of R&D, patentstocks and patent quality.
    Keywords: R&D, Industrial science, Market value, Tobin's Q, Knowledge disclosure, Econometric evidence
  7. By: Rutzer, Christian
    Abstract: This paper extends the firm heterogeneity model of Melitz (2003) by introducing a new concept of endegenous investments in process R&D. The novelty is that if a firm invests more R&D its expected innovation return hazard rate stochastically dominates the return of less R&D investments. Due to this property, entrants invest more in R&D in response to trade liberalization. As a result the aggregate productivity is affected by a reallocation of resources to more productive firms and a simultaneous increase in firms´ investments in innovations, which is consistent with empirical findings. At the same time the firms´ increased R&D investments lead to a sector distribution with a higher right-tail compared to the distribution prior to trade liberalization. Hence, the model gives an explanation for the empirically found differences in the distribution tails among sectors with different trade openness levels. Another advantage of this paper´s framework compared to other trade models with innovations is its foundation in and extension of Melitz (2003). It enables most of the heterogeneous firms trade models to be extended by endegenous firm-level R&D in an empirically relevant and analytically tractable way. --
    Keywords: aggregate level,firm size distribution,heterogeneous firms,R&D investments,trade liberalization
    JEL: F12 F13 O31
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Michele Cincera; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Date: 2013–01
  9. By: Amina AISSAT LEGHIMA (Université Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi Ouzou, Algérie)
    Abstract: L’esprit d’entreprendre permet de redynamiser la vie économique et sociale d'un pays. Nous vivons actuellement dans une société de savoirs où l’innovation, facteur déterminant dans la compétitivité de l’entreprise, est considérée comme étant un élément clé de la survie, de la croissance et du développement des PME. Cependant, l’innovation provient avant tout de la recherche et développement menée par les entreprises, les universités et les organismes de recherche. Nous cherchons à démontrer comment la recherche et développement peuvent contribuer à promouvoir l’innovation et l’entrepreneuriat dans les PME Algériennes, ceci en présentant un état de lieux de la situation actuelle de la recherche et développement en Algérie ainsi que de l'innovation dans les PME algériennes. Puis nous proposons des recommandations. The entrepreneurial spirit mays contribute to revitalize the economic and social activity of a country. In the current knowledge society, innovation stands as a factor of competitiveness for enterprises and is considered as a key element for the survival, the growth and the development of SMEs. However, innovation mainly ensues from the research and development carried out by firms, universities and research organizations. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research and development activities may promote innovation and entrepreneurship in Algerian SMEs; In this aim, we present an inventory of the current results of research and development in Algeria and of innovation in Algerian SMEs. We then propose some recommendations for public policies.
    Keywords: Innovation, entrepreneuriat, PME algériennes, entrepreneurship, R&D, Algerian SMEs
    JEL: O31 O32 O55 L26
    Date: 2014–02
  10. By: Florent LEMIR (Master 2 Ingénierie Numérique et Signal Image et Informatique Industrielle, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Calais)
    Abstract: Un produit système high tech est un produit qui combine différentes innovations génériques. L’automobile constitue un domaine important de la combinaison de hautes technologies. Ce texte présente la combinaison d'innovations dans une voiture dont les caractéristiques sont liées à la puissance, la vitesse et la sécurité. Comment les innovations particulières naissent? Comment se combinentelles et comment se diffusent-elles dans ce secteur? A high-tech product is a system that combines various generic innovations. The automobile is an important area of the combination of high technology. This paper presents the combination of innovations in a car whose characteristics are related to power, speed and security. How are specific innovations born? How do they combine and how are they spread in this sector?
    Keywords: automobiles, innovation, stratégie de l'innovation, innovation strategy
    JEL: L62 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–01
  11. By: Pauline BRYSSE (Master 2 Electronique Instrumentation, Université du Littoral Côte d’Opale, Calais)
    Abstract: L’exosquelette est considéré comme une révolution technologique dans le monde de la biotique, c’est-à-dire dans le domaine de l’électronique dédiée à l’amélioration de la santé des êtres vivants. Si l’exosquelette est une véritable innovation technologique, il faut tout de même remarquer que cette technologie est à ses débuts. Son évolution et sa diffusion à moyen terme dépendent des réels progrès qu’ils doivent être réalisés en matière de fiabilité et d’acceptabilité socio-économique, seules capables de réduire les coûts de R&D et les prix de vente. Exoskeleton is considered as a technological revolution in the world of biotics, that is to say, in the field of electronics dedicated to the improvement of human health. If the exoskeleton is a true technological innovation, it is still to be noted that this technology is in its infancy. Its evolution and diffusion in medium term depend on concrete progress that has to be made regarding reliability and socio-economic acceptability, which are the main drivers of the reduction of R&D costs and sales prices.
    Keywords: électronique médicale, mobilité, innovation technologique, diffusion de l'innovation, medical electronics, mobility, technological innovation, innovation diffusion
    JEL: L6 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–01
  12. By: Michele Cincera; Julien Ravet; Reinhilde Veugelers
    Abstract: Using firm level information on the world leading R&D investors, this paper investigates through a system GMM estimation of the investment error correction model, whether younger innovators face more severe or no financing constraints, as opposed to older innovators, and whether this would hold more for European young firms relative to the US. The analysis indeed confirms that over the last decade young leading innovators appear to be more affected by financing constraints compared to their older counterparts and that particularly EU young innovators exhibit higher sensitivities of R&D investment to cash-flow, particularly in medium and high tech sectors.
    Keywords: EU-US R&D gap, young innovators, financing constraints
  13. By: Goni, Edwin; Maloney, William F.
    Abstract: Using a global panel on research and development (R&D) expenditures, this paper documents that on average poor countries do far less R&D than rich as a share of GDP. This is arguably counter intuitive since the gains from doing the R&D required for technological catch up are thought to be very high and griffith2004 have documented that in the OECD returns increase dramatically with distance from the frontier. Exploiting recent advances in instrumental variables in a varying coefficient context we find that the rates of return follow an inverted U: they rise with distance to the frontier and then fall thereafter, potentially turning negative for the poorest countries. The findings are consistent with the importance of factors complementary to R&D, such as education, the quality of scientific infrastructure and the overall functioning of the national innovation system, and the quality of the private sector, which become increasingly weak with distance from the frontier and the absence of which can offset the catch up effect. China's and India's explosive growth in R&D investment trajectories in spite of expected low returns may be justified by their importing the complementary factors in the form of multinational corporations who do most of the patentable research.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Debt Markets,E-Business,Political Economy,Scientific Research&Science Parks
    Date: 2014–03–01
  14. By: Marin,Giovanni; Marzucchi,Alberto; Zoboli,Roberto
    Abstract: Eco-innovation is an explicit aim of major EU policy strategies. Many environmental policy de facto require firms to eco-innovate to comply with policy requirements, while the overlap between policy-driven and market-driven eco-innovation strategies is increasingly important for many firms. Barriers to eco-innovation can then emerge as a critical factor in either preventing or stimulating EU strategies, policy implementation, and 'green strategies' by firms. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of EU SMEs in terms of barriers to eco-innovation. The aim is to discriminate among SMEs on how they differ in terms of perception of barriers and engagement in environmental innovation, thus highlighting the need to look at eco-innovation barriers in relation to firms' attitudes, technological and organizational capabilities, and strategies. We identify six clusters of SMEs. These clusters include firms facing 'Revealed barriers', 'Deterring barriers', 'Cost deterred' firms, 'Market deterred' firms, 'Non eco-innovators' and 'Green champions'. The clusters show substantial differences in terms of eco-innovation adoption. We show that our proposed taxonomy has little overlap with sector classifications. This diversity should be taken into account for successful environmental innovation policies.
    Keywords: eco-innovation, Barriers to innovation, firm behaviour
    JEL: O33 Q55
    Date: 2014–03–24
  15. By: Vanessa CASADELLA (Université Picardie Jules Verne-CRIISEA, RRI)
    Abstract: Le concept de système d’innovation est un concept relativement récent, d’abord utilisé pour mesurer les différentes performances technologiques mais depuis peu appréhendé pour comprendre la croissance et le développement économique des nations. Les processus d’innovation et d’apprentissage du Sud se distinguent de ceux des économies développées. Le transfert technologique se réalise par la construction de capacités technologiques et d’efforts nationaux d’absorption et de diffusion des connaissances étrangères. Mais cette construction passe également par la création de processus d’apprentissage plus microéconomiques fondés sur les connaissances indigènes des acteurs du Sud. Au-delà même, l’objectif à terme serait d’appréhender les processus d’innovation sous la forme de réelles constructions de compétences dans l’objectif de promouvoir le développement économique. Le papier présenté sera articulé en trois parties : la première associera les S.I. avec ses caractéristiques dans le Sud, la seconde reviendra sur les stratégies d’innovation des P.E.D via les capacités technologiques et la troisième démontrera l’intérêt de construire des compétences à des fins de développement économique. The concept of Innovation System (I.S) is a relatively new concept, first used to measure the various technological performances but more recently to participate to the understanding of growth and economic development. Innovation processes in the economies of the South differ from those of developed economies. Technology transfer is achieved by building technological capabilities and through national efforts towards the absorption and diffusion of foreign knowledge. But this construction also involves the creation of more microeconomic learning processes based on the indigenous knowledge of Southern actors. The long-term objective would be to understand the role of innovation processes in the construction of competencies with the aim of promoting economic development. The paper includes three parts: the first associates the I.S concept to its characteristics in the South, the second describes innovation strategies in developing countries through the analysis of their technological capabilities and the third demonstrates the advantages of building competencies in the aim of supporting economic development.
    Keywords: Capacités, Apprentissage, Compétences, Innovation, Développement Economique, Capabilities, Learning, Competencies, Innovation, Economic Development
    JEL: O1 O3 O5
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Wei Jin (Research School of Public Economics and Policy College of Public Policy and Administration, Zhejiang University, China); ZhongXiang Zhang (Department of Public Economics, School of Economics, Fudan University, China)
    Abstract: As a useful complement to numerous innovation policy studies from a normative perspective, this paper provides a positive framework to analyze the basic economic mechanism of energy technological innovation and explains its slow pace of technological progress. We find that the capital-intensiveness of energy technology is an inhibiting factor to catalyze market size effect and slows innovations and diffusions of energy technology in the market. We also show that the substantial homogeneity of energy products leads to both a monopolistic market structure on the supply side and a weak level of positive pecuniary externality on the demand side, both dampening the incentive of innovation. On the basis of our economic analysis, we recommend that a package of policy responses to accelerating energy innovation should include 1) downsizing “heavy” assets of energy technologies; 2) deregulating monopolistic energy-supplying markets; and 3) differentiating the homogenous energy products.
    Keywords: The Economics of Technological Innovation, Market Size Effect, Love-for-variety effect, Energy Technology, IT Technology
    JEL: Q55 Q58 Q43 Q48 O31
    Date: 2014–02
  17. By: Marie José Scotto; Hervé Tiffon
    Abstract: Cet article a pour objectif d’analyser le processus d’innovation sociétale, en le situant dans le contexte des organisations d’entreprise. Un approfondissement sur le rôle du sens dans ce processus conduit à la notion constructiviste de co-création organisationnelle du sens. Le rôle du management de proximité dans cette construction est souligné et argumenté. Une enquête de terrain est à réaliser pour évaluer ces propositions.
    Keywords: Innovation sociétale, sens, co-construction organisationnelle, management de proximité.
    Date: 2014–02–25
  18. By: Benjamin Montmartin (GREDEG CNRS; University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, France); Marcos Herrera (CONICET - IELDE; National University of Salta, Argentina)
    Abstract: Most studies evaluating the macroeconomic effects of financial support policies on business-funded R&D use econometric methods that do not consider the existence of spatial effects, and generate biased estimates. In this paper, we discus and address this problem using spatial dynamic panel data methods. This allow us to provide new insights on the internal (in-country) and external (out-of-country) effects of both Research and Development (R&D) subsidies and fiscal incentives. We use a database of 25 OECD countries for the period 1990-2009. In relation to internal effects, for both instruments, we find a non-linear relationship between their effect on private R&D and their level (suggesting the possibility of leveraging and crowding-out effects). We also find a substitution effect between the R&D subsidies and fiscal incentives implemented within a country. Concerning the spatial component, we find evidence of positive spatial spillovers among private R&D investments. However, our results suggest the existence of competition/substitution effects between national R&D policies.
    Keywords: Direct and Indirect support, Business-funded R&D, Complementarity, Dynamic spatial panel data
    JEL: H25 O31 O38
    Date: 2014–03
  19. By: Marco MC Ceccagnoli; Nicolas van Zeebroeck; Roberto Venturini
    Abstract: Cross-functional knowledge integration and patenting are both reckoned to increase the productivity of human capital and the profitability of the firms implementing them. The combined effect of a joint use is in many ways ambiguous since those practices pursue different objectives in terms of managing the flow of information within the firm's boundaries. The presence of knowledge spillovers in situations of high technological rivalry could deteriorate the positive impact of knowledge integration. We investigate empirically different channels of interactions between patenting and knowledge integration and we find that they are substitutes in terms of economic profitability; consistently with our theory, the effect is exacerbated by high technological rivalry and scarce effectiveness of secrecy. Our empirical analysis is conducted using a cross-section database with detailed firm-level information on U.S. manufacturing firms.
    Keywords: R&D, Performance, Knowledge Integration, Patents, Spillovers
    Date: 2013
  20. By: María Teresa Costa (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); José García-Quevedo (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Agustí Segarra (GRIT, CREIP, Rovira i Virgili University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which innovative Spanish firms pursue improvements in energy efficiency (EE) within their innovation objectives. The increase in energy consumption and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions justifies the greater attention being paid to energy efficiency and especially to industrial EE. The ability of manufacturing companies to innovate and improve their EE has a substantial influence on reaching the objectives regarding climate change mitigation. Despite the effort to design more efficient energy policies, the EE determinants in manufacturing firms have been little studied in the empirical literature. From an exhaustive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms and using a probit model, we examine the energy efficiency determinants to those firms that have innovated. To carry out the econometric analysis, we use a panel data coming from CIS (Community Innovation Survey) for the period 2008-2011 that includes 4,458 manufacturing firms. Among firm characteristics, the empirical results underline the importance of size in facilitating the adoption of technology that improves energy efficiency; while among the factors related to companies’ behavior, the favorable influence of organizational innovations and innovations related with the reduction of environmental impacts stand out as the main factors in carrying out innovations with the objective of increasing energy efficiency.
    Keywords: Energy efficiency, corporate targets, innovation, Community Innovation Survey
    JEL: Q40 Q55 O31
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Malwina Mejer
    Abstract: Universities are increasingly being called upon to contribute to economic development and competitiveness. This Study aims to assess contribution of academic scientists working at universities located in the French-speaking Community of Belgium to patented technology. Matching names of academic scientists to inventors listed on patent applications filed at the EPO between 1994-2007, we find that 9-12% of academics working in science are inventors, among them 23% are woman. Academic scientists are listed as inventors on 6.5% of the EPO patent applications filed by résidents of the French-speaking Community of Belgium. Universities are applicants on only 33.3% of patents invented by their scientists but this share has increased significantly in recent years. These results are then compared with similar trends in other European countries and in the United States.
    Keywords: academic patenting, universities, Europe, matching
  22. By: Zeting LIU (Lab.RII, ULCO/Clersé-UMR8019, Université Lille Nord de France, RRI)
    Abstract: En appuyant sur une analyse historique depuis la première prise en conscience de problème environnemental en Chine dans les années 1970 jusqu’à ce jour, cette étude montre que 1) la politique de la protection environnementale ne peut pas fonctionner quand elle est déconnectée des politiques publiques dans le domaine de l’économie. 2) Si la promotion de l’innovation verte en Chine est considérée comme une moyenne pour remédier le déséquilibre environnemental, elle est aussi un outil de réaliser son ambition de devenir leader mondial dans la révolution verte. By using a historical analysis from the first shot in conscience environmental problem in China in the 1970s until today, this study shows that 1) the policy of environmental protection won’t work if disconnected to public policy in the area of economy. 2) While the promotion of green innovation in China is considered a medium to address the environmental imbalance, it is also a tool to achieve its ambition to become a world leader in the green revolution.
    Keywords: politique industrielle et d’innovation, politique de la protection, environnementale, croissance vert, révolution verte, Chine, industrial and innovation policy, environmental protection, green growth, green revolution, China
    JEL: O31 O38 O33 P11 Q01
    Date: 2014–02
  23. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille I - Sciences et technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille I - Sciences et technologies)
    Abstract: Gabriel Tarde was a French sociologist and criminologist whose work is rediscovered from time to time. Economists of innovation have paid insufficient attention to an author who devoted a large part of his work to the laws of imitation and invention. The purpose of this paper is threefold. The first is to give a succinct account of these laws of imitation and invention. The second is to re-examine and extend the debates on the similarities between Schumpeter and Tarde. The third and main purpose is to examine the similarities, hitherto unexplored to the best of our knowledge, between Tarde's work and contemporary neo-Schumpteterian and evolutionary theories.
    Keywords: Tarde, Schumpeter, evolutionary theory, innovation, imitation.
    Date: 2014–03–18
  24. By: Wellner, Konstantin; Herstatt, Cornelius
    Abstract: The existing research on the behavior of user innovators has focused almost exclusively on younger users. In light of the demographic shift and the increasing importance of the Silver Market segment (customers 55 years plus), we analyzed whether important determinants of user innovator behavior (use experience, product knowledge, technical expertise, and the lead user components) exert the same influence among older users. We conducted a study in the camping and caravanning industry and included 333 respondents from 19 to 86 years of age. The innovator share among older users was slightly lower (43 % vs. 57 %). While use experience and product knowledge turned out less important for older users in our sample, technical expertise materialized as the most important determinant. Additionally, being ahead of trend is stronger related to dissatisfaction with existing products among older users. We found additional evidence that users with high use experience suffer from functional fixedness. --
    Keywords: user innovation,lead user,Silver Market,age,use experience,technical expertise,product knowledge,determinants
    Date: 2014
  25. By: Mathieu Béraud (2L2S - Laboratoire lorrain de Sciences Sociales - Université de Lorraine : EA3478); Ali Boulayoune (2L2S - Laboratoire lorrain de Sciences Sociales - Université de Lorraine : EA3478); Émilie Fériel (2L2S - Laboratoire lorrain de Sciences Sociales - Université de Lorraine : EA3478); Jean-Pascal Higelé (2L2S - Laboratoire lorrain de Sciences Sociales - Université de Lorraine : EA3478, MSH Lorraine - Maison des Sciences de l'Homme Lorraine - CNRS : USR3261 - Université de Lorraine); Andreana Khristova (2L2S - Laboratoire lorrain de Sciences Sociales - Université de Lorraine : EA3478)
    Abstract: La loi généralisant le Revenu de Solidarité Active institue en 2009 une nouvelle version du revenu minimum qui remplace le RMI et l'API (et les mesures d'intéressement afférentes). Afin de nourrir l'interrogation de l'axe 3 sur l'innovation dans sa double dimension de contenu et discours, notre recherche porte sur la manière dont le RSA peut être considéré comme une innovation du dispositif de revenu minimum en France dans la substance du droit comme dans les procédures de son administration, et sur la manière dont l'argument de l'innovation a été mobilisé pour en défendre le principe.
    Keywords: RSA; innovation sociale; salariat
    Date: 2014–03–17
  26. By: Guillem Achermann (GREI/CLERSE); Zeting LIU (GREI/CLERSE)
    Abstract: La Russie comme la Chine font partie des BRIC. Ces deux pays sont aussi parmi les plus grands pollueurs du monde. Depuis les années de transition, elles ont toutes les deux mis sur pied des politiques scientifiques industrielles pour encadrer leur croissance économique. Cependant, bien que chaque pays possède une politique dirigiste, celle-ci ne s’est pas construite sur les mêmes bases, que ce soit sur le plan technologique ou économique. En effet, ayant partagé un grand nombre de points communs en termes d’organisation administrative et économique, ces deux pays possèdent des transitions très distinctes. En analysant et comparant les politiques environnementales et industrielles de la Russie et de la Chine, cette étude s’interroge sur les effets des différentes transitions initiées et de leurs conséquences sur les trajectoires industrielles et plus particulièrement sur les dynamiques environnementales. Russia and China are part of the BRIC countries. They are also among those most pollutant countries in the world. Since the transition periods, they both have been carrying out scientific and industrial policies to monitor their economic growth. Although each of them has an interventionist policy, these policies are not built on the same technological and economic foundation. Indeed, while sharing a lot of common points in terms of administrative and economic organization, these two countries have gone through different transition modes. By analyzing and comparing the Russian and Chinese environmental and industrial policies, this study sheds light on the effects of their different transition modes and the consequences of their industrial process and in particular of their environmental dynamics.
    Keywords: transition, politique industrielle, politique d’innovation, protection environnementale, Russie, Chine, transition, industrial policy, innovation policy, environmental protection, Russia, China
    JEL: O13 O38 O57
    Date: 2013–09
  27. By: Alexander Abroskin (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The article is devoted to topical issues of the formation of modern innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy. The article discusses the topical problems of effective management organization, associated with the definition and structuring of its object, classification of institutional units relative to the innovative segment of the economy. Particular attention is paid to the methodology of modern innovation statistics as a basis for obtaining the primary data and the formation of a system of indicators used in the innovative processes management. The prospects for the development of innovative processes management information base in the Russian economy are analyzed from the standpoint of further improving the statistical methodology, increasing the materiality level of formed for management indicators and extension of management tasks completed through the use of advanced analytical and predictive methods and models. The latter aspect is considered in terms of prospects for the use of complex analysis and forecasting innovation processes approach provided for by the modern version of the System of National Accounts.
    Keywords: analysis, innovations, innovative processes, information base, methodology, controlled object, materiality of information, System of National Accounts, management.
    JEL: O11
    Date: 2014
  28. By: Maria Lorek (GREI/CLERSE)
    Abstract: Les innovations environnementales (techniques de capture et de stockage des polluants, énergies renouvelables, nouveaux matériaux, nouveaux carburants, etc.) disposent d’un potentiel économique considérable permettant d’impulser, de nourrir et enfin de préserver une croissance économique plus durable. Prenant l’exemple de la ville de Gdansk qui, depuis une longue période, est marquée par la présence de l’industrie lourde, nous allons nous concentrer sur la reconversion de son territoire après la crise de l’industrie lourde. L’émergence des activités de l’« économie verte » (ex. récupération, réutilisation des déchets) et le développement des innovations environnementales s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de cette reconversion. Environmental innovations (technical capture and storage of pollutants, renewable energy, new materials, new fuels, etc.) have considerable economic potential to enhance, to feed and to preserve more sustainable economic growth. Taking the example of the city of Gdansk, which has been influenced by the heavy industry since long years ago, we present the reconversion of its territory by focusing on the emergence of the activities inspired by “green economy” (eg, recovery, reusef waste), the development of environmental innovations and the creation of The Baltic Eco-Energy Cluster in 2007. All these transformations allow this high industrial concentration to transform into another dynamic state in order to make improvements by the amelioration of industrial processes and / or the performance of the products or services derived while contributing to reduce the environmental impact of industrial activities.
    Keywords: innovation environnementale, transition territoriale, territoire industriel et portuaire, Gdansk
    JEL: O31 L52 Q5
    Date: 2013–10
  29. By: Vincent Mangematin (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Jonathan Sapsed (University of Brighton - University of Brighton); Elke Schüßler (Freie University Berlin - Freie University Berlin)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the dynamics of disassembly and reassembly unfolding in selected creative industries through the advent of digital technology. It argues that a full understanding of the much-observed organizational or sectoral lock-in effects on the one hand, and the possibilities for transformation and innovation on the other is only gained by analyzing jointly how institutional logics, business models and creative processes are affected by digital technology and how they interrelate in producing stability or change. These three dimensions provide a framework for reviewing the findings of the papers comprised in the Special Issue and for integrating their insights towards a research agenda. This introduction starts with a reflection on creative industries classification systems and related possibilities for generalization and discusses how digital technology acts as a driver for disassembly and reassembly. It concludes by highlighting three avenues for further research.
    Keywords: Digital technology; creative industries; innovation; business models; institutional change; institutional logics; creative processes
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Grimpe, Christoph; Pellens, Maikel
    Abstract: The viability of modern open science norms and practices depend on public disclosure of new knowledge, methods, and materials. However, increasing industry funding of research can restrict the dissemination of results and materials. We show, through a survey sample of 837 German scientists in life sciences, natural sciences, engineering, and social sciences, that scientists who receive industry funding are twice as likely to deny requests for research inputs as those who do not. Receiving external funding in general does not affect denying others access. Scientists who receive external funding of any kind are, however, 50% more likely to be denied access to research materials by others, but this is not affected by being funded specifically by industry. --
    Keywords: open science,research funding,industry sponsorship,research inputs
    JEL: O31 O32 L33
    Date: 2014
  31. By: Anja Schoen; Joachim Henkel; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe
    Abstract: Despite the growing interest in university-to-industry technology transfer, there are very few studies on the governance of universities’ technology transfer offices (TTOs). The few existing ones tend to focus on U.S. universities and generally tackle one dimension of the governance. The present paper aims at contributing to this literature in two ways. First, it takes into account the diversity of organizational models with a theoretical perspective: the paper presents a discussion on which combinations of four structural dimensions should yield viable configurations. Four main types of TTOs are identified: (1) classical TTO; (2) autonomous TTO; (3) discipline-integrated Technology Transfer Alliance; and (4) discipline-specialized Technology Transfer Alliance. Second, the paper relies on 16 case studies of universities located in six European countries in order to address the pros and cons of the four types of TTOs. The results provide both a conceptual understanding and an empirical overview of how universities organize their technology transfer and intellectual property management.
    Keywords: Technology transfer offices; organizational structure; governance; academic patents
    JEL: L30 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2013–01
  32. By: Schlicht, Ekkehart
    Abstract: This note proposes a growth model that is derived from the standard Solow growth model by replacing the neoclassical production function with Kaldor’s technical progress function while maintaining a marginalist theory of factor prices in the spirit suggested by von Weizsäcker (1966, 1966b). The hybrid model so obtained accounts for balanced growth in a way that appears less arbitrary than the Solow model, especially because it directly accounts for Harrod neutral technical change, without any need for further assumptions.
    Keywords: directed technical change; directed technological change; bias in innovation; technical progress function; neoclassical production function; Harrod neutrality; Hicks neutrality; Cambridge theory of distribution; marginal productivity theory; Kaldor; Kennedy; von Weizsäcker; Solow model
    JEL: O30 O40 E12 E13 E25 B31 B59
    Date: 2014–03–17
  33. By: Quentin Max David
    Abstract: In this paper, I analyze the determinants of research production by higher education institutionsin the United States. I use four measures to build an index of top-level academic researchproduction. I show that it is important to account for the presence of outliers in both dimensions(x and y axes), and that most top-ranked institutions can be considered outliers. I find thatuniversity income, the share of income devoted to research expenses, and faculty size significantlyincrease the ability of an institution to produce top-level academic research. I also show that therelationship between average professor quality (proxied by salary) and the production of researchis U-shaped, with a significant share of institutions located on the decreasing part of the curve.

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