nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2014‒01‒17
twenty papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Policy-induced environmental technology and incentive efforts: Is there a crowding out? By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
  2. The impact on innovation off-shoring on organizational adaptability By Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian; Schuber, Torben
  3. International Technology Diffusion of Joint and Cross-border Patents By Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
  4. Shedding Some Light on the Dark Matter of Competition: Insights from the Strategic Management and Organizational Science Literature for the Consideration of Diversity Aspects in Merger Review By Benjamin Kern; Malte Ackermann
  5. Do Inventors Talk to Strangers? On Proximity and Collaborative Knowledge Creation By Riccardo Crescenzi; Max Nathan; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  6. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions By de Vries, A.G.B.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Block, J.H.
  7. The French cluster policy and the R&D spending of SME and intermediate-sized enterprises By C. BELLÉGO; V. DORTET-BERNADET
  8. Growth options and firm valuation By Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo; Weiss, Farina
  9. Analyzing Fixed-event Forecast Revisions By Stefan Lutz
  10. Innovación y empleo en las empresas manufactureras españolas By Felipe Bernardo Rojas Pizarro
  11. Abatement R&D, Market Imperfections, and Environmental Policy in an Endogenous Growth Model By Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong
  12. The Effect of Within-Sector, Upstream and Downstream Energy Taxes on Innovation and Productivity By Chiara Franco; Giovanni Marin
  13. Innovation Complementarity and Environmental Productivity Effects: Reality or Delusion? Evidence from the EU By Marianna Gilli; Susanna Mancinelli; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  14. Competition and Cooperation in Network Games By Konovalov, Alexander
  15. The dynamics of innovation and risk By Biais, Bruno; Rochet, Jean-Charles; Woolley, Paul
  16. Profit-sharing and innovation By Aerts, Kris; Kraft, Kornelius; Lang, Julia
  17. A Note on Networks of Collaboration in Multi-market Oligopolies By Pascal Billand; Christophe Bravard; Subhadip Chakrabarti; Sudipta Sarangi
  18. Cooperating with the Competition: Efficient Patent Pooling and the Choice of a New Standard By Gallini, Nancy
  19. Determinants of Technology Transfer through CDM: the Case of China By Matthias Weitzel; Wan-Hsin Liu; Andrea Vaona
  20. Fishing for complementarities: Competitive research funding and research productivity By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia

  1. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
    Abstract: Significant policy effort is devoted to stimulate the development, adoption and diffusion of environmentally-friendly technology. Sceptics worry about the effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on firms' competitiveness. Since innovation is a crucial productivity driver, a potential crowding out of inventive efforts could increase the cost of mitigating environmental damage. Using matching techniques, we study the short-term effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on non-green innovative activities for a sample of firms in Germany. We find indeed some evidence for a crowding out of the firms' in-house R&D. The estimated treatment effect is larger for firms that are likely to face financing constraints. However, we do not find negative effects on the number of ongoing R&D projects, investments in innovation-related fixed assets or on the outcome of innovation projects. Likewise, for firms with subsidy-backed environmental innovations no crowding out is found. --
    Keywords: Environmental Policy,Regulation,R&D,Technological Change,Innovation,Crowding Out
    JEL: Q32 Q33 Q55
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Baier, Elisabeth; Rammer, Christian; Schuber, Torben
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of captive off-shoring of innovation activities on the firms' ability to adapt their organizational processes and structures. Starting from complexity theory, we use three consecutive waves of the German part of the Community Innovation Survey to test our hypotheses. We find an inverted u-shape of innovation off-shoring on the effectiveness of organizational adaptability, implying an optimal threshold value of innovation off-shoring. This value is 11% for share of off-shored R&D, 15% for downstream innovation activities such as local market adaptation, and 34% for design activities. We also analyze several contingency variables. In particular we show that the costs of innovation off-shoring in terms of reduced organizational adaptability are exacerbated by a strong focus on R&D and a strong embeddedness in on-shore networks. Smaller firms find it easier to deal with the management complexity induced by geographical dispersion of innovation activities because of their greater flexibility. --
    Keywords: Internationalization,Off-Shoring,Innovation,R&D,Organizational Adaptation,Organizational Adaptability
    JEL: O32 M16 L23 L25
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Chang, C-L.; McAleer, M.J.; Tang, J-T.
    Abstract: With the advent of globalization, economic and financial interactions among countries have become widespread. Given technological advancements, the factors of production can no longer be considered to be just labor and capital. In the pursuit of economic growth, every country has sensibly invested in international cooperation, learning, innovation, technology diffusion and knowledge. In this paper, we use a panel data set of 40 countries from 1981 to 2008 and a negative binomial model, using a novel set of cross-border patents and joint patents as proxy variables for technology diffusion, in order to investigate such diffusion. The empirical results suggest that, if it is desired to shift from foreign to domestic technology, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for business enterprises and higher education, exports and technology. If the focus is on increasing bilateral technology diffusion, it is necessary to increase expenditure on R&D for higher education and technology.
    Keywords: R&D, cross-border patent, exports, imports, international technology diffusion, joint patent, negative binomial panel data
    JEL: F14 F21 O30 O57
    Date: 2013–07–01
  4. By: Benjamin Kern (University of Marburg); Malte Ackermann (University of Marburg)
    Abstract: A merger between two innovation competitors is often suspected to reduce the variety of heterogeneous entities which are currently undertaking R&D or which are well situated to undertake R&D in a certain field. The consequential reduction of “diversity” can be detrimental to innovation because it reduces the number of independent sources for possible future innovations and might furthermore lead to an alignment of formerly different R&D programs. However, if “diversity” indeed benefits innovative performance, even merged firms should have an incentive to maintain it in-house. Therefore, this article aims to bring to light whether firms can indeed be expected to create or maintain “diversity” post-merger. By focusing on the strategic management and organizational science literature we will demonstrate that the creation/maintenance of independent entities is indeed considered as an important determinant for the innovativeness and general performance of firms. Nevertheless, we will also show that this strategy has several grave implementation problems and might be hampered by certain trade-offs. As a consequence, competition authorities cannot presume that a reduced “inter-firm diversity” will get substituted by an increased “intra-firm diversity” without fail.
    JEL: B52 K21 L4 M1 O31 O32
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Max Nathan; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: This paper investigates how physical, organisational, institutional, cognitive, social, and ethnic proximities between inventors shape their collaboration decisions. Using a new panel of UK inventors and a novel identification strategy, this paper systematically explores the net effects of all these 'proximities' on co-patenting. The regression analysis allows us to identify the full effects of each proximity, both on choice of collaborator and on the underlying decision to collaborate. The results show that physical proximity is an important influence on collaboration, but is mediated by organisational and ethnic factors. Over time, physical proximity increases in salience. For multiple inventors, geographic proximity is, however, much less important than organisational, social, and ethnic links. For inventors as a whole, proximities are fundamentally complementary, while for multiple inventors they are substitutes.
    Keywords: Innovation, patents, proximities, cities, regions, knowledge spillovers, collaboration, ethnicity
    JEL: O31 O33 R11 R23
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: de Vries, A.G.B.; Pennings, H.P.G.; Block, J.H.
    Abstract: We analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market structures. Further, we find that start-ups with a focus on distribution that serves end-consumers are more likely to file for a trademark and that start-ups that operate upstream and sell to other businesses are more likely to file for a patent. Lastly, the external influences on a start-up‟s management, such as the involvement of a venture capitalist (VC), affect IP applications. The increased incentive of VC-backed start-ups to become operational on the market makes them more likely to file initial IP in the form of a trademark rather than a patent. Among other factors, we control for R&D and advertising intensity in the industry and distinguish between more technical and more service-driven industries.
    Keywords: competition, intellectual property, patents, trademarks, venture capital
    JEL: D21 L10 L20 M00 O34
    Date: 2013–04–09
  7. By: C. BELLÉGO (Insee); V. DORTET-BERNADET (Insee)
    Abstract: The French cluster policy Pôles de compétitivité has been launched in 2004 to foster collaborations between firms, research institutions, and training institutions. Many firms taking part in these clusters have obtained subsidies to finance R&D collaborative projects involving other firms and research institutions. This study analyzes the effects of taking part in a Pôle de compétitivité on the activity of firms. The effects are estimated by matching firms taking part in clusters to similar firms that remained out of the policy. This method only permits to estimate an effect for SME and intermediate-sized enterprises that spend less than 16 million euros in R&D per year, that are at least two years old, and that already realized R&D before taking part in a cluster. Firms participating in a Pôle de compétitivité would have increased their total R&D expenditures. Not all firms have taken part in a subsidized project, but they would have received more subsidies on average. These firms would have also benefited from higher amounts of Research tax credit (Crédit Impôt Recherche CIR) but overall we do not find any evidence of crowding out effect : public funds do not substitute private R&D. The effect seems to be additive : firms would add the amount of subsidies and tax credit to their private budget. Higher R&D spending is realized through an increase in investment and employment devoted to R&D. By cons, there is no significant short-term effect on the turnover and the number of patents. While cluster participation seems to increase R&D spending, it has not been possible to precisely disentangle the role played by the clusters and the role played by CIR, which has strongly reduced the cost of R&D at the end of the period of interest.
    Keywords: R&D, cluster policy, public policy evaluation, matching
    JEL: O38 O31 H25 C23
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Kraft, Holger; Schwartz, Eduardo; Weiss, Farina
    Abstract: This paper studies the relation between firm value and a firm's growth options. We find strong empirical evidence that (average) Tobin's Q increases with firm-level volatility. However, the significance mainly comes from R&D firms, which have more growth options than non-R&D firms. By decomposing firm-level volatility into its systematic and unsystematic part, we also document that only idiosyncratic volatility (ivol) has a significant effect on valuation. Second, we analyze the relation of stock returns to realized contemporaneous idiosyncratic volatility and R&D expenses. Single sorting according to the size of idiosyncratic volatility, we only find a significant ivol anomaly for non-R&D portfolios, whereas in a four-factor model the portfolio alphas of R&D portfolios are all positive. Double sorting on idiosyncratic volatility and R&D expenses also reveals these differences between R&D and non-R&D firms. To simultane-ously control for several explanatory variables, we also run panel regressions of portfolio alphas which confirm the relative importance of idiosyncratic volatility that is amplified by R&D expenses. --
    Keywords: Firm valuation,Real options,Volatility,R&D expenses
    JEL: G12
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Stefan Lutz (Economics, University of Manchester)
    Abstract: Economic theory implies that research and development (R&D) efforts increase firm productivity and ultimately profits. In particular, R&D expenses lead to the development of intellectual property (IP) and IP commands a return that increases overall profits of the firm. This hypothesis is investigated for the North American automotive supplier industry by analyzing a panel of 5000 firms for the years 1950 to 2011. Results indicate that R&D expenses in fact increase profitability at the firm level. In particular, increases in the R&D expense to sales ratio lead to increases in the profit contribution of intangible assets relative to sales. This indicates that more R&D intensive IP should command higher royalty rates per sales when licensed to third parties and within multinational enterprises alike.
    Keywords: Evaluating forecasts, Macroeconomic forecasting, Rationality, Intuition, Weak-form efficiency, Fixed-event forecasts.
    JEL: D24 L20 L62 M21
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Felipe Bernardo Rojas Pizarro (GRIPICO-UCM, Departamento de Fundamentos del Análisis Económico I. Facultad de CC. Económicas y Empresariales Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón. (Spain))
    Abstract: This paper analyses the relationship between innovation and employment for Spanish manufacturing firms with data from Panel of Technological Innovation between 2004 to 2010. Following the model developed by Harrison et al. (2008), the results provide empirical evidence about the existence of different patterns in the impacts of process and product innovations on firms’ employment for the pre-crisis period and during the economic crisis.
    Abstract: En este trabajo se revisa la relación entre innovación y empleo, para las empresas manufactureras españolas, con datos del Panel de Innovación Tecnológica entre el periodo 2004 al 2010. Siguiendo el modelo desarrollado por Harrison et al. (2008), se encuentra evidencia empírica de la existencia de patrones diferenciados en los impactos de la innovación de proceso y de producto para el periodo previo a la crisis y durante la crisis económica
    Keywords: Innovation; employment; Spain; panel data; innovation survey,Innovación; empleo; España; datos de panel; encuesta de innovación.
    JEL: L6 O31 O33
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Chu, Hsun; Lai, Ching-Chong
    Abstract: This paper develops an endogenous growth model featuring environmental externalities, abatement R&D, and market imperfections. We compare the economic performances under three distinct regimes that encompass public abatement, private abatement without tax recycling, and private abatement with tax recycling. It is found that the benefit arising from the private conduct of abatement will be larger if the degree of the firms’ monopoly power is greater. With a reasonably high degree of monopoly power, a mixed abatement policy by which the government recycles environmental tax revenues to subsidize the private abatement R&D is a plausible way of reaching the highest growth rate and welfare.
    Keywords: abatement R&D, market imperfections, endogenous growth
    JEL: H23 O32 O44 Q56
    Date: 2013–11
  12. By: Chiara Franco (Catholic University); Giovanni Marin (Ceris-CNR, Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth, National Research Council of Italy)
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of environmental stringency on innovation and productivity using a cross-country panel made up of 7 European countries for 13 manufacturing sectors over the years 2001-2007. This research topic goes under the heading of Porter Hypothesis (PH) of which different versions have been tested. We take into consideration both the strong and the weak versions while adding some peculiarities to the analysis. Firstly, we assess the role played by a specific environmental regulation, that is energy taxes, that have rarely been empirically tested as factors that can favour PH hypothesis to be verified. Secondly, we do not consider, within the same framework, only the effect of energy taxes in the same sector (within-sector), but also the role played by energy taxes in upstream and downstream sectors in terms of input-output relationship. Thirdly, we test these relationships also “indirectly” by verifying whether innovation can be one of the channels through which higher sectoral productivity can be reached. The main findings suggest that downstream stringency is the most relevant driver for innovation and that most of the effect of regulation on productivity is direct, while the part of the effect mediated by induced innovation is not statistically significant.
    Keywords: Energy Taxes, Porter Hypothesis, Upstream, Downstream
    JEL: L6 O13 Q55
    Date: 2013–12
  13. By: Marianna Gilli (University of Ferrara, Italy); Susanna Mancinelli (University of Ferrara, Italy); Massimiliano Mazzanti (University of Ferrara & Ceris Cnr Milan, Italy)
    Abstract: Innovation is a key element behind the achievement of desired environmental and economic performances. Regarding CO2, mitigation strategies would require cuts in emissions of around 80-90% with respect to 1990. We investigate whether complementarity, namely integration, between the adoption of environmental innovation measures and other technological and organizational innovations is a factor that has supported reduction in CO2 emissions per value added, that is environmental productivity. We merge new EU CIS and WIOD meso level data to assess the innovation effects on sector CO2 performances at a wide EU level. We find that jointly adopting different innovations is not a significant factor to increase environmental productivity, neither for the entire economy nor for manufacturing or narrower ETS sectors. The only case where a complementarity arises is for Northern EU manufacturing sectors that integrate eco innovations with product and process innovations to support environmental productivity. We believe that the lack of integrated innovation adoption behind environmental productivity performance is a signal of the current weaknesses economies face in tackling climate change and green economy challenges. Incremental rather than more radical strategies have predominated so far; this is probably insufficient when we look at long-term economic and environmental goals.
    Keywords: Complementarity, Innovation, Climate Change, Sector Performance
    Date: 2013–10
  14. By: Konovalov, Alexander (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University)
    Abstract: We consider games where agents are embedded in a network of bilateral relationships and have multivariate strategy sets. Some components of their strategies correspond to individual activities, while the other strategic components are related to joint activities and interaction with the partners. We introduce several new equilibrium concepts that account for the possibility that players act competitively in individual components of their strategy but cooperate on the components corresponding to joint activity or collaboration. We apply these concepts to the R&D collaboration networks model where firms engage in bilateral joint projects with other firms. The analysis shows that investments are highest under bilateral cooperation and lowest under full cooperation because the spillovers associated to bilateral collaboration are bound to the partnership. This leads to welfare being maximized under bilateral collaboration when there are a few firms in the market and under non-cooperation in markets with many firms; full cooperation is never social welfare maximizing. Investigating the issue of endogenous network formation, we find that bilateral cooperation increases (lowers) the profits of more (less) connected firms. However, this does not always lead to a denser stable network of R&D collaboration under bilateral cooperation.
    Keywords: network games; bilateral cooperation; hybrid equilibrium; R&D collaboration networks
    JEL: L13 L14 L22 O31 O32
    Date: 2014–01
  15. By: Biais, Bruno; Rochet, Jean-Charles; Woolley, Paul
    Abstract: We study the dynamics of an innovative industry when agents learn about its strength, i.e., the likelihood that it gets hit by negative shocks. Managers can exert risk-prevention export to mitigate the consequences of such shocks. As time goes by, if no shock occurs, con…dence improves. This attracts managers to the innovative sector. But, when con…dence becomes high, less managers exerting low risk-prevention export also enter. This accelerates the growth of the industry, while inducing a decline in risk-prevention. The longer the boom, the stronger the con…dence, the larger the losses if a shock occurs. While the above dynamics arise in the fi…rst best, with asymmetric information there is excessive entry of inefficient managers, earning informational rents at the expense of inneficient managers. This inflates the innovative sector and increases its vulnerability.
    Date: 2013–10
  16. By: Aerts, Kris; Kraft, Kornelius; Lang, Julia
    Abstract: We investigate the effect of profit-sharing on product and process innovation. Profit-sharing is a credible commitment of the companies to let the employees participate in any efficiency gain. Resistance against technical progress becomes less plausible. Moreover, employees are stimulated to share their specific information advantage on possibilities to optimize the production process and products with the management. We take account of possible selectivity effects and using survey data on German companies with and without profitsharing in a conditional difference-in-differences framework, we test our hypothesis by comparing measures of innovativeness. Based on matching (selectivity on observable covariates) in a static comparison firms with a share system show both more product and process innovations. In a dynamic setting, we find that the introduction of profit-sharing only spurs product innovation. -- Wir untersuchen die Auswirkungen von Gewinnbeteiligung auf Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen. Das allgemeine Ziel der Unternehmen bei der Einführung von Gewinnbeteiligung als Element der Einkommenspolitik ist die Motivierung der Beschäftigten zu einer höheren Leistung. Da Gewinnbeteiligung für beide Seiten einen Vorteil darstellt, kann sich eine größere Übereinstimmung der Interessen der Arbeitnehmer und der Kapitaleigner entwickeln. Bei einer effizienten Ausgestaltung des Anreizsystems und rationalem Verhalten der Beschäftigten sollte sich der Unternehmenserfolg erhöhen. Während viele Studien die Auswirkungen von Gewinnbeteiligung auf die Unternehmensleistung im allgemeinen (Produktivität, Gewinnhöhe) untersuchen, gibt es wenig Evidenz hinsichtlich der Effekte auf den Innovationserfolg. In der hier präsentierten Untersuchung führen wir Erfolgsmaße für Innovation ein und betrachten die Auswirkungen der Einführung von Gewinnbeteiligungsmodellen auf Produkt- und Prozessinnovationen. Wir verwenden das IAB-Betriebspanel als eine umfangreiche Datengrundlage zu deutschen Betrieben über die Jahre 2005-2009. Die Möglichkeit einer Verzerrung der Ergebnisse durch Selektionseffekte wird über zwei Methoden berücksichtigt. Einerseits werden statische Vergleiche zwischen Firmen mit und ohne Gewinnbeteiligung durchgeführt. Hierbei werden Unterschiede zwischen den Betrieben mit und ohne Gewinnbeteiligung hinsichtlich der Ausprägungen der exogenen Variablen über das Matching-Verfahren eliminiert. Andererseits identifizieren wir die Betriebe, welche eine Gewinnbeteiligung eingeführt haben und betrachten die Auswirkungen dieser Einführung in einem konditionalen Differenz-in- Differenzen Ansatz. Auf der Grundlage der Ergebnisse des Matching Ansatzes sind Betriebe mit Gewinnbeteiligung denjenigen ohne Beteiligung sowohl in Hinsicht auf Prozess- als auch Produktinnovationen überlegen. Bei dem bedingten Differenz-in-Differenzen Ansatz findet sich jedoch ein positiver Effekt der Gewinnbeteiligung lediglich hinsichtlich von Produktinnovationen. Folglich sind die Betriebe, welche Gewinnbeteiligung einführen, bereits vorher innovativer. Gewinnbeteiligung kann jedoch den Erfolg bei Produktinnovationen noch weiter erhöhen.
    Keywords: Profit Sharing,Innovation,Matching,Difference-in-Differences
    JEL: L23 L25 O31 O32
    Date: 2013
  17. By: Pascal Billand (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon); Christophe Bravard (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon); Subhadip Chakrabarti (Finance and economics research group. School of management. Queen's University. Belfast - Queen's University); Sudipta Sarangi (Department of Economics, Louisiana State University - Department of Economics, Louisiana State University)
    Abstract: In this note, we extend the Goyal and Joshi's model of network of collaboration in oligopoly to multi-market situations. We examine the incentive of firms to form links and the architectures of the resulting equilibrium networks in this setting. We also present some results on efficient networks.
    Keywords: R&D Collaborations; Network Formation; Multi-market Oligopolies
    Date: 2014–01–07
  18. By: Gallini, Nancy
    Abstract: I examine the private and social efficiency of patent pools in a setting in which owners of intellectual property (IP), are both vertically and horizontally related. The relationship is vertical through the ownership of complementary IP and horizontal in that at least one member owns a competing product. For this hybrid structure – referred to as overlapping ownership – I analyze the interplay between two organizational decisions: the standard-setting process in which participants choose a product type (indexed by its differentiation from the current standard), and the subsequent patent pooling decision. Consumers can be better off with patent pooling as a result of lower prices (the complements effect) and greater product variety (the differentiation effect), even when a pool member is also a competitor of the new standard. However, in comparing new product collaborations across ownership regimes, consumers prefer those that admit no overlapping ownership. These results yield insights for antitrust rules promoting efficient IP agreements.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property, Industrial Organization, Patent Pools, Standards, Antitrust
    JEL: L2 L44
    Date: 2014–01–06
  19. By: Matthias Weitzel; Wan-Hsin Liu; Andrea Vaona
    Abstract: Technology transfer (TT) is not mandatory for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects, yet proponents of CDM argue that TT in CDM can bring new technologies to developing countries and thus not only reduce emissions but also foster development. We review the quantitative literature on determinants of TT in CDM and estimate determinants for CDM projects in China. China is by far the largest host country of CDM projects and it is therefore crucial to understand the factors that drive TT there. We focus on heterogeneity within a single country and results can thus be linked to specific policies of the country for better interpretation. Our probit estimations confirm results of international cross-country studies, indicating that larger projects and more advanced technologies are more likely to involve TT. In addition, we find evidence that agglomeration effects are more pronounced on the province level rather than larger regions. We also find a positive effect of FDI on TT and a complementary role of academic R&D engagement to TT
    Keywords: Clean Development Mechanism, Technology Transfer, R&D, Agglomeration, China
    JEL: O33 Q55 Q58
    Date: 2013–12
  20. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates complementarities between different sources of research funding with regard to academic publishing. We find for a sample of UK engineering academics that competitive funding is associated with an increase in ex-post publications but that industry funding decreases the marginal utility of public funding by lowering the publication and citation rate increases associated with public grants. However, when holding all other explanatory variables at their mean, the negative effect of the interaction does not translate into an effective decrease in publication and citation numbers. The paper also shows that the positive effect of public funding is driven by UK research council and charity grants and that EU funding has no significant effect on publication outcomes. --
    Keywords: Research Funding,University-Industry Collaboration,Scientific Productivity
    JEL: L31 O3
    Date: 2013

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