nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2013‒12‒29
thirty-six papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Policy-induced environmental technology and inventive efforts: Is there a crowding out? By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
  2. Strategic interactions in public R&D across European countries: A spatial econometric analysis By Hakim Hammadou; Sonia Paty; Maria Savona
  3. The Impact of Innovation Off-shoring on Organizational Adaptability By Baier , Elisabeth; Rammer , Christian; Schubert , Torben
  4. Innovation Determinants over Industry Life Cycle By Tavassoli, Sam
  5. Knowledge spillovers from renewable energy technologies, Lessons from patent citations By Joëlle Noailly; Victoria Shestalova
  6. The Role of Product Innovation Output on Export Behavior of Firms By Tavassoli, Sam
  7. Investigation of ICT Firms' Decisions on R&D Investment By Wojciech Szewczyk; Juraj Stancik; Martin Aarøe Christensen
  8. Demand-side innovation policy in Estonia: rationales, limits and future paths By Veiko Lember; Aleksandrs Cepilovs; Rainer Kattel
  9. Shared Rights and Technological Progress By Yuzhe Zhang; Matthew Mitchell
  10. Are firms with different CSR profiles equally innovative? Empirical analysis with survey data By Rachel Bocquet; Christian Le Bas; Caroline Mothe; Nicolas Poussing
  11. Buy, Keep or Sell: Economic Growth and the Market for Ideas By Ufuk Akcigit; Murat Alp Celik; Jeremy Greenwood
  12. Uncertainty, flexible labour relations and R&D expenditure By Marco Di Cintio; Emanuele Grassi
  13. The Impact of Green Innovation on Employment Growth in Europe By Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
  14. The European aerospace R&D collaboration network By Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.
  15. The Role of Knowledge Variety and Intensity for Regional Innovative Capability By Tavassoli, Sam; Carbonara , Nunzia
  16. A Theoretical Analysis of the Role of Social Networks in Entrepreneurship By Leyden, Dennis P.; Link, Albert N.; Siegel, Donald S.
  17. How Governments Support Innovation through Public Procurement. Comparing Evidence from 11 Countries By Veiko Lember; Rainer Kattel; Tarmo Kalvet
  18. Who Becomes the Winner? Effects of Venture Capital on Firms’ Innovative Incentives - A Theoretical Investigation By Matthew Beacham; Bipasa Datta
  19. Innovationstätigkeit von Familienunternehmen By Werner, Arndt; Schröder, Christian; Mohr, Benjamin
  20. A metric to characterize major innovation sequences and its application in three industrial sectors: from random emergence to waterfall phenomena By Kenza El Qaoumi; Pascal Le Masson; Aytunç Ün; Benoit Weil
  21. How Green are Exporters? By Sourafel Girma; Aoife Hanley
  22. The Technological Specialization of Countries: An Analysis of Patent Data By Lucio, Picci; Luca, Savorelli
  23. Multiple Paths of Development: Knowledge Bases and Institutional Characteristics of the Swedish Food Sector By Zukauskaite , Elena; Moodysson , Jerker
  24. Authenticity renewal – institutions, innovation systems, and Cognac evolution (when the rules of the game don’t change) By Moodysson , Jerker; Sack , Lionel
  25. The Role of Knowledge Heterogeneity on the  Innovative Capability of Industrial Districts By Carbonara , Nunzia; Tavassoli, Sam
  26. A Psychological Contract Perspective on R&D Alliance Projects: Learning from a Close-to-Failing Case By Kaulio, Matti
  27. The Effect of U.S. Health Insurance Expansions on Medical Innovation By Jeffrey Clemens
  28. Partnering to innovate or partnering innovation ? The binding effect of generative potentials By Kevin Levillain; Blanche Segrestin
  29. Dynamic Commercialization Strategies for Disruptive Technologies: Evidence from the Speech Recognition Industry By Matt Marx; Joshua S. Gans; David H. Hsu
  30. Innovation under the protected label of origin: heritage, influence and expanding horizons in Cognac By Moodysson , Jerker; Sack , Lionel
  31. Crossing boundaries: Involving external parties in innovation. By Slot, J.H.
  32. RSE, innovation et politique publique dans le secteur agro-alimentaire By Eric Giraud-Héraud; Jean-Pierre Ponssard; Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné
  33. Industrial Engagement of University Research By Luukkonen, Terttu; Thomas, Duncan A.
  34. Transparenz von Clustern - nötig und unmöglich? By Jörg Bühnemann
  35. Knowledge and innovative entrepreneurship - social capital and individual capacities By Cantner, Uwe; Michael, Stuetzer
  36. The Nature and Incidence of Software Piracy: Evidence from Windows By Susan Athey; Scott Stern

  1. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha
    Abstract: Significant policy effort is devoted to stimulate the development, adoption and diffusion of environmentally- friendly technology. Sceptics worry about the effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on firms' competitiveness. Since innovation is a crucial productivity driver, a potential crowding out of inventive efforts could increase the cost of mitigating environmental damage. Using matching techniques, we study the short-term effects of regulation-induced environmental technology on non-green innovative activities for a sample of firms in Germany. We find indeed some evidence for a crowding out of the firms' in-house R&D. The estimated treatment effect is larger for firms that are likely to face financing constraints. However, we do not find negative effects on the number of ongoing R&D projects, investments in innovation-related fixed assets or on the outcome of innovation projects. Likewise, for firms with subsidy-backed environmental innovations no crowding out is found. --
    Keywords: Environmental Policy,Regulation,R&D,Technological Change,Innovation,Crowding Out
    JEL: O32 O33 Q55
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Hakim Hammadou (EQUIPPE, University of Lille, France); Sonia Paty (Universite de Lyon 2, Universite de Lyon, France); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Keywords: Public R&D expenditures; Strategic interactions in public spending; National Systems of Innovation; private R&D; EU countries; spatial dynamic panel data
    JEL: H5
    Date: 2013–12
  3. By: Baier , Elisabeth (PTV Group AG, Germany); Rammer , Christian (ZEW, Germany); Schubert , Torben (CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden and Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Germany)
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of captive off-shoring of innovation activities on the firms’ ability to adapt its organizational structures. Basing our arguments on complexity theory, we use three consecutive waves of the German part of the Community Innovation Survey to test our hypotheses. We find an inverted u-shape of innovation off-shoring on the effectiveness of organizational adaptability, implying an optimal threshold value of innovation off-shoring. This value is 11% for the share of off-shored R&D, 15% for downstream innovation activities such as local market adaptation, and 34% for design activities. We also analyze several contingency variables. In particular we show that the costs of innovation off-shoring in terms of reduced organizational adaptability are exacerbated by a strong focus on R&D and a strong embeddedness in on-shore networks. Smaller firms find it easier to deal with the management complexity induced by geographical dispersion of innovation activities because of their greater flexibility.
    Keywords: Internationalization; Off-Shoring; Innovation; R&D; Organizational Adaptation; Organizational Adaptability
    JEL: L23 L25 M16 O32
    Date: 2013–12–20
  4. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how the influence of firm-level innovation determinants varies over the industry life cycle. Two sets of determinants are distinguished: (1) determinants of a firm’s innovation propensity, i.e. the likelihood of being innovative and (2) determinants of its innovation intensity, i.e. innovation sales. By combining the literature emphasizing firms’ internal resources (micro level) with the research strand on the role of the industry context (meso-level), the paper develops hypotheses about the relative importance of firm-level innovation determinants over the industry life cycle. Estimation of a firm-level model of innovation in Sweden, while acknowledging the stage of the life cycle of the industry a firms belongs to, shows that the importance of the determinants of innovation propensity and intensity are not equal over the stages of an industry’s life cycle
    Keywords: Determinants of innovation; innovation intensity; innovation propensity; Industry Life Cycle (ILC); Community Innovation Survey (CIS4)
    JEL: F14 O31 O33
    Date: 2013–12–18
  5. By: Joëlle Noailly; Victoria Shestalova
    Abstract: This paper studies the knowledge spillovers generated by renewable-energy technologies, unraveling the technological fields that benefit from knowledge developed in storage, solar, wind, marine, hydropower, geothermal, waste and biomass energy technologies. A CPB Background Document accompanies this�CPB Discussion Paper. Using citation data of patents in renewable technologies at seventeen European countries over the 1978-2006 period, the analysis examines the relative importance of knowledge flows within the same specific technological field (intra-technology spillovers), to other technologies in the field of power-generation (inter-technology spillovers), and to technologies unrelated to power-generation (external-technology spillovers). The results show significant differences across various renewable technologies. While wind technologies mainly find applications within their own technological field, a large share of innovations in solar energy and storage technologies find applications outside the field of power generation, suggesting that solar technologies are more general and, therefore, may have a higher value for society. Finally, the knowledge from waste and biomass technologies is mainly exploited by fossil-fuel power-generating technologies. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the design of R&D policies for renewable energy innovation.
    JEL: O33 Q42 Q48 Q55
    Date: 2013–12
  6. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the role of innovation on the export behavior of firms. Using two waves of Swedish CIS data merged with register data on firm-specific characteristics, I estimate the influence of the innovation output of a firm on its export propensity and intensity, respectively. I find that the innovation output of firms (measured as sales due to innovative products) has a positive and significant effect on export behavior of firms. The results also show that it is indeed innovation output, rather than innovation input (innovative efforts), that matters for export behavior of firms. Specifically, innovation output leads to increase in later export propensity and intensity of firms. Moreover, there is also strong association of productivity and ownership structure of firms with export propensity and intensity of firms. The results are robust when unobserved timeinvariant heterogeneity of firm and also potential endogeneity of innovation-export are taken into accounted.
    Keywords: Innovation output; innovation input; export propensity; export intensity
    JEL: F14 O31 O33
    Date: 2013–12–18
  7. By: Wojciech Szewczyk; Juraj Stancik; Martin Aarøe Christensen (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The formulation of a macroeconomic model applied to the analysis of EU Research and Development (R&D) funding strategies in Information and Communication Technology (ICT) under the PREDICT 2 project stipulates a specification of the transmission mechanism of R&D funding policy on firms' R&D expenditures. To enlighten the understanding of ICT firms' investment decisions, the effect of various firm characteristics on firms' R&D activities is analysed on a representative sample of ICT sector firms in 16 EU member countries. The analysis covers two aspects of the firms' R&D activity. Firstly, R&D engagement characterising those firms which undertake in-house R&D projects on a continuous basis, and secondly, R&D expenditure measured as the firms' in-house expenditure on R&D projects per employee. The report finds that reception of public funding is positively related to ICT firms' R&D activity. The relation between public funding and firms' R&D activity is found to depend on funding sources. The results also show that national and international diffusion of knowledge through firms' cooperation with other enterprises and through international trade plays an important role for firms R&D activity. Finally, the results suggest that substantial differences exist in firms' R&D activity across countries and sectors.
    Keywords: ICT industry, Research and Development, Europe 2020, Digital Agenda for Europe
    JEL: C31 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  8. By: Veiko Lember; Aleksandrs Cepilovs; Rainer Kattel
    Abstract: In the discourse on innovation policy, there are two major approaches to the measures used, supply-side instruments and the demand-side. Previously supply-side policy instruments (e.g. R&D subsidies, tax breaks, grants) dominated but the approach has been transformed substantially during the last decade.
    Date: 2013–12
  9. By: Yuzhe Zhang (Texas A&M University); Matthew Mitchell (University of Toronto)
    Abstract: We study how best to reward innovators whose work builds on earlier innovations. Incentives to innovate are obtained by offering innovators the opportunity to profit from their innovations. Since innovations compete, awarding rights to one innovator reduces the value of the rights to prior innovators. We show that the optimal allocation involves shared rights, where more than one innovator is promised a share of profits from a given innovation. We interpret such allocations in three ways: as patents that infringe on prior art, as licensing through an optimally designed ever-growing patent pool, and as randomization through litigation. We contrast the rate of technological progress under the optimal allocation with the outcome if sharing is prohibitively costly, and therefore must be avoided. Avoiding sharing initially slows progress, and leads to a more variable rate of technological progress.
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Rachel Bocquet (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Christian Le Bas (GATE - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Ecole Normale Supérieure Lettres et Sciences Humaines); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Nicolas Poussing (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and innovation from a firm strategic perspective. Matching Community Innovation Survey data with specific data collected about the CSR behaviour of Luxembourg firms, the authors identify two types of firms (strategic versus responsive) that differ in the intensity of their CSR adoption. A bivariate probit model, estimated to explain the different types of technological innovations (product and/or process), shows that firms with strategic CSR profiles are more likely to innovate in both products and processes. In contrast, adopting responsive CSR practices significantly alters firms' innovation, such that CSR may create barriers to innovation. These results have implications for theory and offer managerial recommendations for firms designing their innovation strategies.
    Keywords: Corporate social responsibility; Innovation; Product; Process;Strategic profiles
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Ufuk Akcigit (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Murat Alp Celik (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Jeremy Greenwood (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: An endogenous growth model is developed where each period firms invest in researching and developing new ideas. An idea increases a firm's productivity. By how much depends on how central the idea is to a firm's activity. Ideas can be bought and sold on a market for patents. A firm can sell an idea that is not relevant to its business or buy one if it fails to innovate. The developed model is matched up with stylized facts about the market for patents in the U.S. The analysis attempts to gauge how efficiency in the patent market affects growth.
    Keywords: Growth, Ideas, Innovation, Misallocation, Patents, Patent Agents, Research and Development, Search frictions
    JEL: O31 O41
    Date: 2013–12–12
  12. By: Marco Di Cintio; Emanuele Grassi
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of uncertainty and flexible labour contracts on the Research and Development (R&D) expenditure. Using a panel of Italian manufacturing firms, we find a hump-shaped relationship between workforce flexibility and R&D outlays. Moreover, as predicted by the real options theory, our results suggest that product market uncertainty reduces R&D efforts and that flexible labour contracts countervail the adverse effect of uncertainty on R&D.
    Keywords: Real options theory, R&D, uncertainty, temporary workers.
    JEL: D22 D81 J41 O31
    Date: 2013–12–13
  13. By: Georg Licht; Bettina Peters
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of environmental innovation on employment growth using firmlevel data for 16 European countries and the period 2006-2008. It extends the model by Harrison et al (2008) in order to distinguish between employment effects of environmental and non-environmental product as well as process innovation. By looking at country and sector level differences, it also generates new insights into the heterogeneity of the environmental innovation-employment growth link along different dimensions. The results demonstrate that both environmental and non-environmental product innovations are conducive to employment growth in European firms. We estimate a gross employment effect of product innovation for both types of product innovators that is very similar in nearly all countries and sectors. That is, in most cases a one-percent increase in the sales due to new products for environmental product innovators also increases gross employment by one percent. This implies that there is no evidence that environmentally-friendly new products are produced with higher or lower efficiency than old products. Yet, we observe differences in the contribution of environmental and non-environmental product innovation to employment growth across countries or sectors that are the result of differences in the average innovation engagement and innovation success across countries or sectors. The absolute contribution to employment growth is positive for both types of new products. However, we find mixed evidence for the relative importance. In manufacturing the contribution of environmental product innovators was larger than that of non-environmental product innovators in half of the countries. In services, however, non-environmental product innovators matters more for growth in the vast majority of countries. In contrast, environmental and non-environmental process innovation plays only a little role for employment growth.
    Keywords: Environmental innovation, employment growth, Europe
    JEL: O33 J23 L80 C21 C23
    Date: 2013–12
  14. By: Guffarth, Daniel; Barber, Michael J.
    Abstract: We describe the development of the European aerospace R&D collaboration network from 1987 to 2013 with the help of the publicly available raw data of the European Framework Programmes and the German Förderkatalog. In line with the sectoral innovation system approach, we describe the evolution of the aerospace R&D network on three levels. First, based on their thematic categories, all projects are inspected and the development of technology used over time is described. Second, the composition of the aerospace R&D network concerning organization type, project composition and the special role of SMEs is analyzed. Third, the geographical distribution is shown on the technological side as well as on the actor level. A more complete view of the European funding structure is achieved by replicating the procedure on the European level to the national level, in our case Germany. --
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden); Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effect of variety and intensity of knowledge on the innovative capability of regions. Employing data for Swedish functional regions, the paper tests the role of the variety (related and unrelated) and intensity of (i) internal knowledge generated within the region and also (ii) external knowledge networks flowing into the region in explaining regional innovative capability, as measured by patent applications. The empirical analysis provides robust evidence that both the variety and intensity of internal and external knowledge matter for regions’ innovative capability. When it comes to variety, related knowledge variety plays a superior role
    Keywords: Knowledge intensity; Knowledge variety; Related variety; Unrelated variety; Internal knowledge; External knowledge; Patent applications; Functional regions
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  16. By: Leyden, Dennis P. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Siegel, Donald S. (University at Albany, SUNY)
    Abstract: Entrepreneurship involves innovation and uncertainty. We outline a theory of entrepreneurship, which highlights the importance of social networks in promoting innovation and reducing uncertainty. Our findings suggest that this “social” aspect of entrepreneurship increases the probability of entrepreneurial success. The results also lend credence to theories of entrepreneurship that suggest that entrepreneurial opportunities are formed endogenously by the entrepreneurs who create them. We also consider the public policy implications of our findings.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Social networks; Innovation; Technology
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O38 Z13
    Date: 2013–12–17
  17. By: Veiko Lember; Rainer Kattel; Tarmo Kalvet
    Abstract: This paper summarizes the main findings from the 11 country chapters presented in our forthcoming edited volume, Public Procurement, Innovation and Policy: International Perspectives(Springer, 2013); the paper appears in the book as the concluding chapter. We categorize the current public procurement of innovation (PPI) policy practices and explore the factors behind policy developments. Although countries have followed rather different paths in PPI policy-making, we detect a certain general PPI trajectory over the past three decades . while during the industrial policy era up until the 1980s public procurement was mostly used to induce new technologies and entire industries via direct public technology procurement programs as well as R&D procurement, the emerging policy consensus puts an emphasis on more holistic ideas and sees public procurement as a more generic tool in promoting innovation. We conclude, however, that today there is no single dominant policy approach governments follow and that the actual PPI policy measures implemented are still cautious and indirect rather than substantial and direct, and that the very process of public procurement plays a far more modest role in the actual implementation of PPI policies than expected.
    Date: 2013–08
  18. By: Matthew Beacham; Bipasa Datta
    Abstract: It is well established in the empirical literature that venture capital (VC) plays an important role in the promotion of innovation at industry level and the professionalisation of firms at micro-level. Whilst the VC-to-success link has been well explored, the mechanism behind how and why certain venture-backed firms are apparently more successful is an important question that has been largely ignored within the majority of the literature. In this paper, we fill this gap by specifically analysing firms' pre- and post-VC investment decisions. By considering a two period, multi-stage game, we analyse whether VC spurs innovation (i) directly after being granted; (ii) indirectly by incentivising firms to increase initial research efforts to increase their chances of receiving VC funding and its associated benefits; or (iii) a combination of both. Our results show that VC has both direct and indirect effects on firms' innovation decisions regardless of whether the firm is successful in securing VC funding or not. Furthermore, we find that the commonly held assertion that venture capital spurs success is too simplistic: whilst venture capital spurs innovation amongst the lucky, chosen few, it unambiguously suppresses innovation of non-VC-backed firms, a result that has been overlooked in the empirical literature. The issue of `who becomes the winner' in the final product market however is ultimately dependent upon the extent of heterogeneity amongst firms. Further, we show that VC funding, equity stake and value-adding services all have impacts upon firms' incentives to invest in the first stage.
    Keywords: Venture capital, innovation, firm heterogeneity, investment and effort, strategic substitutes and complements
    JEL: G24 L13 L2 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  19. By: Werner, Arndt; Schröder, Christian; Mohr, Benjamin
    Abstract: Familienunternehmen sind genau so innovativ wie Nicht-Familienunternehmen. Systematische Unterschiede gibt es jedoch in Hinblick auf die Innovationstreiber: Ein solcher ist die Unternehmensgröße. So hat sich gezeigt, dass kleinere Familienunternehmen verhältnismäßig große Innovationsvorteile aufweisen. Die Studie liefert auch Hinweise dafür, dass insbesondere ältere Familienunternehmen eine höhere Anzahl von FuE-Kooperationen eingehen. Zudem verkleinern Familienunternehmen seltener ihren Personalbestand. Dies wirkt sich ebenfalls positiv auf ihr Innovationsverhalten aus. Allerdings gibt es auch Faktoren, die das Innovationsverhalten von Familienunternehmen negativ beeinflussen: So zeigt sich, dass die Innovationsneigung in der Gründergeneration am höchsten ist, aber mit jeder nachfolgenden Generation signifikant abnimmt - zum Teil unter das Niveau von Nicht-Familienunternehmen. -- Prior findings are inconclusive concerning the innovation activities of family SMEs when compared to non-family counterparts. This study overcomes these shortcomings by analyzing specific determinants influencing the innovation output of family SMEs. Using data of 1.870 SMEs located in Germany, we argue that the main characteristic of family SMEs is the unity of ownership and leadership when compared their non-family counterparts. Deriving a set of hypotheses from this assumption, we find that local embeddedness, long-term orientation and effective corporate governance structures positively affect the ability to generate product and process innovations family firms. We can show, for example, that older family firms conduct more research and development activities with partners due to emergent regional networks. We also find that the innovation output continuously falls from generation to generation.
    Keywords: Familienunternehmen,FuE/Innovation,Innovation,R&D,family firm
    JEL: O32 L26 L29
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Kenza El Qaoumi (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Pascal Le Masson (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Aytunç Ün (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Benoit Weil (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: Are Major innovations rare or frequent? Is there any relationship between major innovations? Do major innovations occur independently of the others? In order to answer these questions, we build a new tool of measuring major innovations sequences, based on Lancaster's approach to consumer theory. This new tool allows us to characterize major innovation sequences and its application in three industrial sectors (Mobile phone, Iron, Automobile). The main results of our empirical work show that Major Innovations (MI) are not rare and reveal the existence of a relationship - with a chain reaction effect- between successive major innovations. This article treats especially major innovations and it focuses on characterizing the sequences and the increasing rhythm of major innovations.
    Date: 2013–06–23
  21. By: Sourafel Girma; Aoife Hanley
    Abstract: There is a well-established theoretical and empirical literature that shows that exporters are more innovative than otherwise equivalent non-exporters. In this paper we ask whether this is also true when it comes to the effects of adopting greener production techniques. Using an instrumental variables strategy based on UK firm level data, we find robust evidence that exporters are more likely to report their innovation as having a ‘high/very high’ environmental effect
    Keywords: Environment and Trade, Technological Innovation
    JEL: Q56 Q55
    Date: 2013–12
  22. By: Lucio, Picci; Luca, Savorelli
    Abstract: New methods of analysis of patent statistics allow assessing country profiles of technological specialization for the period 1990-2006. We witness a modest decrease in levels of specialization, which we show to be negatively influenced by country size and degree of internationalization of inventive activities.
    Keywords: Patents, Internationalization, Specialization, Technological Sectors,
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Zukauskaite , Elena (CIRCLE, Lund University); Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explain the complex development of the food sector in Southern Sweden in the past decades, focusing on the relation between institutions and innovation practices and taking into account the diversity of actors composing the sector. The paper develops a theoretical framework combining concepts of path dependency and knowledge bases, and applies it empirically. The three paths identified in the paper resemble path development via radical change, incremental change and diversification.
    Keywords: Food sector; Innovation; Sweden; Institutions; Knowledge base
    JEL: B52 O31 R11
    Date: 2013–12–20
  24. By: Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sack , Lionel (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper draws on observations from a long-established network in France, located around the town of Cognac – site of distilled beverages with the same name. Firms within this network have been successful in developing new types of products in the past decades, drawing on and diverging from the conservative culture upon which the region and beverage have built their reputation. The paper reveals that a thick institutional setting, which has been in place for more than a century and is being maintained to preserve the quality and authenticity of the Cognac product, also serve as enablers for new development among local firms
    Keywords: institutions; innovation; new entrants; regional innovation systems; entrepreneurship
    JEL: D21 D22 L23 O31
    Date: 2013–12–18
  25. By: Carbonara , Nunzia (Dept of Mechanical and Management Engineering, Politecnico di Bari, Italy); Tavassoli, Sam (Industrial Economics, Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden and CIRCLE, Lund University, Sweden)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate concerning the role of heterogeneity for the innovative capability of industrial districts. With this aim, using a knowledge-based approach, the paper focuses on different sources of industrial district knowledge heterogeneity and studies how the different level of heterogeneity affects the innovative capability of industrial districts. Four theoretical hypotheses concerning the effects of knowledge and knowledge heterogeneity on the Industrial District innovativeness are formulated. To test the hypotheses, an econometric analysis on 32 Italian District Provinces is applied. Empirical results show that knowledge heterogeneity matter for increasing the innovative capability of industrial districts.
    Keywords: Industrial district; innovative capability; knowledge heterogeneity
    JEL: F14 O32 R12
    Date: 2013–12–18
  26. By: Kaulio, Matti (Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm)
    Abstract: Abstract: The aim of this article is to illustrate how the process model for collaborative ventures (Ariño and de la Torre, 1998) and psychological contract theory could function as analytical frameworks for investigations of R&D alliance projects. To empirically illustrate this, we have used as example an analysis of a dyadic R&D alliance, which was close to failure. Findings reveal the following results: (i) that the process model for collaborative ventures is also valid for dyadic R&D alliance projects; (ii) that the concept of psychological contracts presents an alternative perspective when describing collaboration in R&D alliance projects; (iii) that critical incidents is a common denominator in both theoretical approaches; and (iv) that, in contrast to transactional contracts, relational psychological contracts relate to a successful outcome. The managerial implication of the study is that, either manifested as points for contract re-negotiation (process-oriented alliance theory) or as violations (psychological contract theory), critical incidents are vital to manage in order to secure a successful outcome of the alliance.
    Keywords: Strategic Alliance; Outsourced R&D; Project Leadership; Qualitative Research
    JEL: L24 O15 O32
    Date: 2013–12–16
  27. By: Jeffrey Clemens
    Abstract: I study the channels through which health insurance influences medical innovation. Following Medicare and Medicaid's passage, I find that U.S.-based medical-equipment patenting rose by 40 to 50 percent relative to both other U.S. patenting and foreign medical-equipment patenting. Within the United States, increases in medical-equipment patenting were most dramatic in states where the Great Society insurance expansions were largest and in which there were large baseline numbers of physicians per resident. Consistent with historical case studies, Medical innovation's determinants extend beyond the potential revenues associated with global market size; a physician driven process of innovation-while-doing appears to play a central role. An extrapolation of the evidence suggests that the last half century's U.S. insurance expansions have driven 25 percent of recent global medical-equipment innovation. In a standard decomposition of health spending growth, this insurance-induced innovation accounts for 15 percent of the long run rise in U.S. health spending in hospitals, physicians' offices, and other clinical settings.
    JEL: H51 H57 I1 I13 O3 O31
    Date: 2013–12
  28. By: Kevin Levillain (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris); Blanche Segrestin (CGS - Centre de Gestion Scientifique - MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris)
    Abstract: It is well acknowledged that interfirms partnerships and alliances enable new strategies that create more value for the partners. However, in the case of explorative alliances, this value goes beyond what is expectable at the time of alliance formation. Building on the Resource-Based View, we propose a model of the "potential" of a collaboration, to refer to the ability of partners to continuously design new valuable strategies from the initial resources. Based on a case study, we show that the potential has been overlooked by the literature and calls for new management and governance rules of explorative alliances. The generation of new strategies require new management rules to avoid splitting alliance's cohesion and enable efficient exploitation of this potential. Actually, this sheds light on a paradoxical binding effect between partners that participate to collective innovative design activities. Lastly, the model of "potential" contributes to the resource-based view, and outlines a future research agenda based on this potential.
    Date: 2013–06
  29. By: Matt Marx; Joshua S. Gans; David H. Hsu
    Abstract: When startup innovation involves a potentially disruptive technology – initially lagging in the predominant performance metric, but with a potentially favorable trajectory of improvement – incumbents may be wary of engaging in cooperative commercialization with the startup. While the prevailing theory of disruptive innovation suggests that this will lead to (exclusively) competitive commercialization and the eventual replacement of incumbents, we consider a dynamic strategy involving product market entry before switching to a cooperative commercialization strategy. Empirical evidence from the automated speech recognition industry from 1952-2010 confirms the main prediction of the model.
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2013–12
  30. By: Moodysson , Jerker (CIRCLE, Lund University); Sack , Lionel (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: Previous research has shown that firms react differently to the same institutional configurations due to their different backgrounds. This study examines a regional economy in France in which 300 firms are operating under the same framework conditions and have done so over a long period. From observations we argue that even when all previously respected factors and backgrounds are identical between firms, their responses to the institutional configuration will diverge and bring them on different development trajectories. We identify four distinct groups of observed trajectories, and argue for specific endogenous and exogenous factors that make firms from those groups within the institutional configuration react differently. The observed different responses to the established institutional framework are likely to be increasingly visible at times of or around major external change events affecting the industry as a whole (such as global financial crises, emergence or decline of markets etc.)
    Keywords: institutions; stability; innovation; transformation; regional development
    JEL: D21 D22 L66 O31
    Date: 2013–12–18
  31. By: Slot, J.H. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: Abstract: To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers, customers, and the ‘crowd’. In the second chapter, a meta-analysis of the extant literature on supplier and customer involvement in NPD is presented. It investigates the antecedents and consequences of supplier and customer involvement in NPD. The third chapter focuses on customer participation in outsourced NPD. It shows how multiplex relationships that can cause role synergy, role conflict, and role ambiguity, moderate the effect of customer participation on the task performance of the developing firm. The fourth chapter deals with online idea generation contests in which ideas are crowdsourced in competitive settings. It provides insights into the prize structure that best stimulates the crowd to deliver creative ideas. Collectively, the research presented in this dissertation sheds light on how to successfully manage the participation of external parties in NPD, a timely managerial issue.
    Date: 2013
  32. By: Eric Giraud-Héraud (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA)); Jean-Pierre Ponssard (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X); Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné (HEC Montréal - HEC MONTRÉAL, CIRANO - Montréal)
    Abstract: La responsabilité sociale et environnementale de l'agriculture et des entreprises agro-alimentaires est aujourd'hui largement remise en question. Ce secteur économique est à la croisée des chemins compte tenu des nombreuses externalités environnementales de l'activité du secteur, des problèmes de sécurité sanitaire liés à la mondialisation et aux développements des échanges, et enfin de la question de santé publique liée à la suralimentation et à l'obésité. Ces enjeux poussent d'une part la puissance publique à réagir très fortement par des réglementations, des normes et autres dispositifs de standardisation et d'autre part les entreprises à investir dans des actions RSE pour maintenir leur réputation sur le long terme. Dans le droit fil de l'hypothèse de Porter, nous montrons comment il est possible de coordonner ces deux types de leviers stratégiques, en montrant dans quelle mesure les réglementations peuvent induire un cercle vertueux " gagnant-gagnant ", pour favoriser à la fois les profits d'entreprises et le bilan sociétal de leurs activités.
    Keywords: Réglementation et innovation, hypothèse de Porter, secteur agroalimentaire
    Date: 2013–12–18
  33. By: Luukkonen, Terttu; Thomas, Duncan A.
    Abstract: This brief is about changing expectations on publicly-funded university researchers to contribute to socio-economic goals primarily through commercialisation, such as the creation of spin-out companies. Based on our research in the UK and Finland we argue that this kind of ’commercialisation’ is only one, often minor, aspect of how researchers and their research in reality engage in industry such that a more nuanced treatment of the wide variety of ’engagement’ approaches could lead to more effective science and research policies. This brief draws on different data sources, but mostly on the UNI project, funded by Tekes innovation research programme.
    Date: 2013–12–19
  34. By: Jörg Bühnemann (Faculty of Economics and Management, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg)
    Abstract: Die Unterstützung von Wirtschaftsclustern spielt in der Politik eine zentrale Rolle. Rückschlüsse auf positive Wachstumseffekte dieser Maßnahme können bislang nur vermutet, aber nicht empirisch nachgewiesen werden. Ursächlich dafür sind einerseits eine unscharfe Clusterdefinition in der Theorie und andererseits mangelhafte Evaluierungsmechanismen in der praktischen Umsetzung des Konzeptes durch die Politik. Innerhalb dieses Forschungsbeitrages wird erstmalig ein Ansatz zur Clusteranalyse auf Basis von F&E-Indikatoren präsentiert und somit die Konzepte des Innovationsprozesses und der Clustertheorie miteinander verknüpft. Auf der Grundlage wissenschaftlich fundierter Kennzahlen können die F&E-Aktivitäten von Institutionen in Clustern transparent aufgearbeitet und bewertet werden. Darüber hinaus trägt die übertragbare Methodik zur Entwicklung eines praktikablen Evaluierungskonzeptes bei. Im Ergebnis sind Kausalzusammenhänge zwischen wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung und politischer Einflussnahme ableitbar. Grenzen und Implikationen des Ansatzes sowie notwendige Erweiterungen werden zum Abschluss diskutiert.
    Keywords: Innovation, F&E-Indikatoren, Cluster, Evaluierung
    Date: 2013–12
  35. By: Cantner, Uwe; Michael, Stuetzer
    Abstract: A central development within the management literature has been the growth of nascent entrepreneur research analysing on--going venture start-up efforts and/or firms in gestation over time (Davidsson, 2006). New ventures have an important effect on economic development. They are credited for the transfer of innovations into the market (Schumpeter, 1934; Acs and Plummer; 2005) and creating regional employment (e.g. Fritsch and Mueller, 2004). Central questions in nascent entrepreneurship research concern the characteristics of the venture creation process and the factors affecting performance of these firms (for an overview see Davidsson, 2006). Among other factors considered in the literature, the social embeddedness of the entrepreneur has been found to play a pivotal role (Davidsson and Honig, 2003). Social capital enables entrepreneurs to access resources (Florin et al., 2003) or novel information (Uzzi, 1997) in order to create opportunities (Baker and Nelson, 2005). During the venture creation process, most firms suffer from substantial resource constraints (Shepherd et al., 2000) and use their personal networks as a means to access resources and information far below market price (Elfring and Hulsink, 2003). However, a sizeable gap exists in the burgeoning social capital literature on the subject of team start--ups. A most prominent finding is that team start--ups are more successful than solo start--ups (e.g. Lechler, 2001). One of the offered explanations is that entrepreneurs can combine their abilities and financial capital in a team, giving them an advantage above solo entrepreneurs (e.g. Gartner, 1985; Stam and Schutjens, 2006). Sometimes explicitly (e.g. Colombo and Grilli, 2005; Stam and Schutjens, 2006) but more often implicitly (e.g. Davidsson and Honig, 2003; van Gelderen et al., 2005), the same argument is applied to the usage of social capital, i.e. that the social capital from individual team members is combined to provide an advantage for teams over solo entrepreneurs. As yet, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly analysed whether, compared to solo entrepreneurs, more social capital is found within teams and whether this leads to their better performance. In this chapter, we approach these two questions and empirically explore the use of social capital of solo entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial teams during the venture creation process. In doing so, we refine the empirical concept of social capital in that we do not look at its mere existence but focus on its use in terms of concrete support (e.g. advice on the business plan, marketing, or research and development - R&D) for the entrepreneurs. We address two major research questions. The first concerns the differential use of social capital. Do solo entrepreneurs rely more often on social capital than new venture teams, or is it the other way around? How do both types of start--ups use social capital? More precisely, we investigate the relationship between social capital and other characteristics of the new venture and its founders (e.g. human capital). The second research question then turns to the effect of social capital on subsequent new venture performance. Appropriate hypotheses in this study are tested using a dataset of 456 start--ups in innovative industries in the German state of Thuringia. The reminder of this chapter is organized as follows. In Section 2, we review the theory and previous research on social capital in order to generate six testable hypotheses. In Section 3, we describe the dataset and the methods employed to measure the use of social capital. We then present (Section 4) the results of our analysis. The chapter concludes in Section 5, where we interpret and discuss the results and draw some conclusions.
    Keywords: Social capital, human capital, new businesses
    JEL: M13
    Date: 2103
  36. By: Susan Athey; Scott Stern
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the nature, relative incidence and drivers of software piracy. In contrast to prior studies, we analyze data that allows us to measure piracy for a specific product – Windows 7 – which was associated with a significant level of private sector investment. Using anonymized telemetry data, we are able to characterize the ways in which piracy occurs, the relative incidence of piracy across different economic and institutional environments, and the impact of enforcement efforts on choices to install pirated versus paid software. We find that: (a) the vast majority of “retail piracy” can be attributed to a small number of widely distributed “hacks” that are available through the Internet, (b) the incidence of piracy varies significantly with the microeconomic and institutional environment, and (c) software piracy primarily focuses on the most “advanced” version of Windows (Windows Ultimate). After controlling for a small number of measures of institutional quality and broadband infrastructure, one important candidate driver of piracy – GDP per capita – has no significant impact on the observed piracy rate, while the innovation orientation of an economy is associated with a lower rate of piracy. Finally, we are able to evaluate how piracy changes in response to country-specific anti-piracy enforcement efforts against specific peer-to-peer websites; overall, we find no systematic evidence that such enforcement efforts have had an impact on the incidence of software piracy.
    JEL: L86 O34
    Date: 2013–12

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