nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2013‒10‒18
twenty papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Intellectual Returnees as Drivers of Indigenous Innovation: Evidence from the Chinese Photovoltaic Industry By Siping Luo; Mary E. Lovely; David Popp
  2. Are Public Research Spin-Offs More Innovative? By Stephan, Andreas
  3. Is Money All? Financing Versus Knowledge and Demand Constraints to Innovation By Gabriele Pellegrino; Maria Savona
  4. The Multi-Dimensional Additionality of Innovation Policies: A Multi-Level Application to Italy and Spain By Alberto Marzucchi; Sandro Montresor
  5. Cash-In-Advance Constraint on R&D in a Schumpeterian Growth Model with an Endogenous Market Structure By Chien-Yu Huang; Juin-Jen Chang; Lei Ji
  6. U.S. Research Joint Ventures with International Partners By Allen, Stuart D.; Link, Albert N.
  7. Inflation, Unemployment and Economic Growth in a Schumpeterian Economy By Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi
  8. Cultural Diversity, Cities and Innovation: firm Effects or City Effects? By Neil Lee
  9. Technological spillovers and industrial growth in Chinese regions By Wang, Lili; Meijers, Huub; Szirmai, Eddy
  10. Grassroots Digital Fabrication and Makerspaces: Reconfiguring, Relocating and Recalbirating Innovation? By Adrian Smith; Sabine Hielscher
  11. Upstream Product Market Regulations, ICT, R&D and Productivity By Gilbert Cette; Jimmy Lopez; Jacques Mairesse
  12. Scoping paper: Developing University Innovation Capacity: How can innovation policy effectively harness universities’ capability to promote high-growth technology businesses? By Einar Rasmussen; Paul Benneworth; Magnus Gulbrandsen
  13. Deferred Patent Examination By Rudyk, Ilja
  14. Internationalisierung von Forschung und Entwicklung – Tendenzen, Determinanten, Effekte By Heinz Hollenstein
  15. The Geography of Patenting In India: Patterns and Determinants By Pradhan, Jaya Prakash
  16. Institutional Voids or Entry Barriers? Business Groups, Innovation and Market Development in Emerging Economies By Fulvio Castellacci
  17. Muppets and Gazelles: Political and Methodological Biases in Entrepreneurship Research By Paul Nightingale; Alex Coad
  18. Do Research Joint Ventures Serve a Collusive Function? By Sovinsky, Michelle; Eric Helland
  19. A Cross-Country Characterisation of the Patenting Behaviour of Firms based on Matched Firm and Patent Data By Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Hélène Dernis
  20. La produzione scientifica italiana e il suo impatto: un confronto internazionale relativo alle Aree CUN bibliometriche By Malgarini, Marco

  1. By: Siping Luo; Mary E. Lovely; David Popp
    Abstract: We offer new evidence on indigenous innovation and intellectual returnees by estimating the relationship between patenting by Chinese photovoltaic firms and the presence of corporate leaders with international experience. Our research approach combines data from three sources: the industrial census, international and domestic patent records, and leadership biographical information. Using nonlinear methods, we find robust evidence that returnees positively influence patenting activity and also promote neighboring firm innovation. We find no tendency for export intensive firms to patent more. Controlling for R&D expenditures, we find that firms with returnees in leadership roles have more patents.
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2013–10
  2. By: Stephan, Andreas (Ratio & JIBBS)
    Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to analyse whether research spin-offs, that is, spinoffs from either public research institutes or universities, have greater innovation capabilities than comparable knowledge-intensive firms created in other ways. Using a sample of about 2,800 firms from highly innovative sectors, propensity score matching is used to create a sample group of control firms that is comparable to the group of spin-offs. The paper provides evidence that the 121 research spin-offs investigated have more patent applications and more radical product innovations, on average, compared to similar firms. The results also show that research spin-offs’ superior innovation performance can be explained by their high level of research cooperation and by location factors. An urban region location and proximity to the parent institution are found to be conducive to innovation productivity. The paper also finds evidence that research spin-offs are more successful in attracting support from public innovation support programs in comparison to their peers.
    Keywords: Spin-Offs; Innovation Performance; Propensity Score Matching; Location Factors; Cooperation; Public R&D Subsidies
    JEL: M13 O18
    Date: 2013–10–08
  3. By: Gabriele Pellegrino (Barcelona Institute of Economics - University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza and Milano); Maria Savona (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    JEL: C23 O31
    Date: 2013–10–09
  4. By: Alberto Marzucchi (Faculty of Political Sciences, Catholic University of Milan, Italy; INGENGIO (CSIC-UPV), Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Spain); Sandro Montresor (JRC-IPTS, European Commission, Seville, Spain; Department of Economics, University of Bologna, Italy)
    Keywords: innovation policy, additionality, innovation system, multi-level policy
    JEL: R58
    Date: 2013–10–09
  5. By: Chien-Yu Huang (School of Economics, Southwest University of Finance and Economics, China); Juin-Jen Chang (Institute of Economics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan); Lei Ji (School of Economics, Shanghai School of Economics and Finance, China)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the effects of monetary policy on the number of firms, firm market size, ination and growth in a Schumpeterian growth model with endogenous market structure and cash-in-advance (CIA) constraints on two distinct types of R&D investment - in-house R&D and entry investment. This allows us to match empirical evidence and provides novel implications to the literature. We show that if in-house R&D (quality improvement-type R&D) is subject to the CIA constraint, raising the nominal interest rate increases the the number of rms and ination, but decreases the rm size and economic growth. By contrast, if entry investment (variety expansion-type R&D) is subject to the CIA constraint, these variables adversely respond to such a monetary policy. Besides, our model generates rich transitional dynamics in response to a change in monetary policy, when R&D/entry is restricted by a cash constraint.
    Keywords: CIA constraints on R&D, endogenous market structure, monetary policy, economic growth
    JEL: O30 O40 E41
    Date: 2013–09
  6. By: Allen, Stuart D. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In the United States, as in most industrialized nations, aggregate technological advancement declined during the 1970s and early 1980s. The U.S. Congress was quick to respond to this down turn by passing a number of technology- and innovation-related initiatives, one of which was the National Cooperative Research Act (NCRA) of 1984. It has been argued that this policy response is an example of government acting as entrepreneur because the enabling legislation was both innovative and characterized by entrepreneurial risk. In this paper we examine empirically covariates with the trend in the formation of research joint ventures (RJVs) promulgated by the NCRA and with the probability that a RJV will have an international research partner. We find that RJV formations seem to increase in times when industrial investments in research and development (R&D) decrease, and we conclude that RJVs might thus be a substitute for internal R&D activity. We also find that the probability of a RJV having an international research partner increases as the membership size of the RJV increases. We conclude that as membership size increases, the ability of any one member to appropriate the collective research contributions from the other members, and thus gain a competitive advantage, decreases. Thus, the cost of including in the RJV an international partner, which we argue could represent a potential intellectual capital leakage, decreases.
    Keywords: Research joint venture; Strategic alliance; Technology; Innovation; Technological change; Entrepreneurship
    JEL: L26 L44 O33 O34 O38
    Date: 2013–10–04
  7. By: Chu, Angus C.; Cozzi, Guido; Furukawa, Yuichi
    Abstract: This study analyzes the effects of inflation on the long-run nexus between unemployment and economic growth. We introduce money demand via a cash-in-advance (CIA) constraint on R&D investment into a scale-invariant Schumpeterian growth model with matching frictions in the labor market. Given the CIA constraint on R&D, a higher inflation that raises the opportunity cost of cash holdings leads to a decrease in innovation and economic growth, which in turn decreases labor-market tightness and increases unemployment. In summary, the model predicts a positive relationship between inflation and unemployment, a negative relationship between inflation and R&D, and a negative relationship between inflation and economic growth. These theoretical predictions are consistent with recent empirical evidence. Therefore, when inflation is a fundamental variable that affects the economy, unemployment and economic growth exhibit a negative relationship.
    Keywords: inflation; unemployment; innovation; economic growth.
    JEL: E24 E41 O3 O4
    Date: 2013–10
  8. By: Neil Lee
    Abstract: Growing cultural diversity is seen as important for innovation. Research has focused on two potential mechanisms: a firm effect, with diversity at the firm level improving knowledge sourcing or ideas generation, and a city effect, where diverse cities helping firms innovate. This paper uses a dataset of over 2,000 UK SMEs to test between these two. Controlling for firm characteristics, city characteristics and firm and city diversity, there is strong evidence for the firm effect. Firms with a greater share of migrant owners or partners are more likely to introduce new products and processes. This effect has diminishing returns, suggesting that it is a 'diversity' effect rather than simply the benefits of migrant run firms. However, there is no relationship between the share of foreign workers in a local labour market and firm level innovation, nor do migrant-run firms in diverse cities appear particularly innovative. But urban context does matter and firms in London with more migrant owners and partners are more innovative than others.
    Keywords: Cultural diversity, innovation, cities, SMEs, migration
    JEL: J61 L21 M13 R23
    Date: 2013–10
  9. By: Wang, Lili (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG); Meijers, Huub (School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Szirmai, Eddy (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the role of interregional technology spillovers in the process of industrial growth in Chinese regions in the period 1990-2005. Inflows of FDI increased rapidly from 1990 till 1998, slowing down thereafter. Domestic R&D investment accelerated after 1998. Regional industrial growth benefits from both interregional R&D spillovers and after 1998 from international FDI spillovers. However, in contrast to R&D spillovers, FDI spillovers contribute conditionally, mainly in areas where local R&D stocks are high enough. Interestingly, indirect interregional FDI spillover effects are negative. Foreign investment in one region attracts resources from regions with less FDI, thus having a negative influence on growth of industrial output in neighbouring regions.
    Keywords: Technological spillovers, Interregional spillovers, R&D, Foreign direct investment, Industrial growth, Regional growth, Chinese industry
    JEL: F43 O14 O33 R11 R12
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Adrian Smith (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Sabine Hielscher (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Date: 2013–10–09
  11. By: Gilbert Cette; Jimmy Lopez; Jacques Mairesse
    Abstract: Our study aims at assessing the actual importance of the two main channels usually contemplated in the literature through which upstream sector anticompetitive regulations may impact productivity growth: business investments in R&D and in ICT. We thus estimate what are the specific impacts of these two channels and their shares in total impact as against alternative channels of investments in other forms of intangible capital we cannot explicitly consider for lack of appropriate data such as improvements in skills, management and organization. For this, we specify an extended production function relating productivity explicitly to R&D and ICT capital as well as to upstream regulations, and two factor demand functions relating R&D and ICT capital to upstream regulations. These relations are estimated on the basis of an unbalanced panel of 15 OECD countries and 13 industries over the period 1987-2007. Our estimates confirm the results of previous similar studies finding that the impact of upstream regulations on total factor productivity can be sizeable, and they provide evidence that a good part of the total impact, though not a predominant one, goes through both investments in ICT and R&D, and particularly the latter.
    JEL: C23 L16 L5 O43 O47
    Date: 2013–10
  12. By: Einar Rasmussen (Bodø Graduate School of Business (HHB), University of Nordland); Paul Benneworth (Center for Higher Education Policy Studies (CHEPS) at the University of the Twente); Magnus Gulbrandsen (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture (TIK), University of Oslo)
    Abstract: Some universities and departments have been very successful in stimulating university spin-off firms (USOs). This has persuaded policy makers and university administrators to devote considerable resources to improve universities' capabilities to promote USOs, but with little tangible results. Related research has considered why some universities contributes more to business innovation than others, but whether the majority of universities can become innovation hotbeds remains an open question. This paper takes a novel interdisciplinary approach integrating insights from two separate literatures, academic entrepreneurship and university management. We start by taking the firm’s perspective and seek to understand the challenges faced by USOs and how universities can assist these firms in developing their entrepreneurial competencies. The structure and main purpose of universities are very different from that of new technology businesses and the transition from being an academic research activity to become a commercial business activity poses challenges both for the university and the USO. Much research on universities’ entrepreneurial capability focuses on ‘what’ universities can do to support USOs at the expense of ‘why’ universities’ might choose to promote USOs when they are under many intense competing demands from outside. We explore not only what universities can do to support USOs, but also how universities experience USOs’ support demands, and the circumstances under which universities can develop capability to promote USOs. We address the barriers that arise between universities and USOs and discuss mitigating factors which support the competencies of USOs whilst at the same time meet the different university stakeholders’ needs.
    Date: 2013–10
  13. By: Rudyk, Ilja
    Abstract: Most patent systems allow applicants to defer patent examination by some time. Deferred examination was introduced in the 1960s, first at the Dutch patent office and subsequently in many other countries, as a response to mounting backlogs of unexamined patent applications. Some applicants allow the examination option to lapse and never request examination once they learn about the value of their invention. Examination loads are reduced substantially in these systems, albeit at the cost of having a large number of pending patent applications. Economic models of patent examination and renewal have largely ignored this important feature to date. We construct a model of patent application, examination and renewal in which applicants have control over the timing of examination and study the tradeoffs that applicants face. Using data from the Canadian patent office and a simulated GMM estimator, we obtain estimates for parameter values of the value distributions and of the learning process. We use our estimates to assess the value of Canadian patents as well as applications. We find that a considerable part of the value is realized before a patent is even granted. In addition, we simulate the counterfactual impact of changes in the deferment period. The estimates we obtain for the value of one additional year of deferment are relatively high and may explain why some applicants embark on delay tactics (such as continuations or divisionals) in patent systems without a statutory deferment option.
    Keywords: patent; patent value; value of patent applications; patent examination; deferred patent examination
    Date: 2013–06
  14. By: Heinz Hollenstein
    Abstract: Basierend auf einer Sichtung der empirischen Literatur werden in diesem Policy Brief drei Fragen behandelt: 1. Welche (neuen) Trends prägen die Internationalisierung von Forschung und Entwicklung (F&E)? 2. Welche Faktoren entscheiden darüber, ob ein Unternehmen im Ausland F&E betreibt? 3. Wie wirkt sich die Internationalisierung von F&E auf Innovation und Produktivität (und damit auf das Wachstum) der heimischen Wirtschaft aus? Der Beitrag zeigt u.a., dass die mancherorts gehegte Befürchtung, dass F&E-Investitionen an ausländischen Standorten die Wissensbasis der inländischen Wirtschaft schwächt, unbegründet ist. Im Weiteren wird deutlich, dass der Nutzen, den die Präsenz multinationaler Unternehmen mit sich bringt umso grösser ist, je stärker diese in die heimische Wirtschaft (inkl. Hochschulsektor) eingebettet sind („embeddedness“) und je besser inländische Firmen in der Lage sind, Wissen und Technologien von Auslandtöchtern aufzunehmen und in ihre eigene Wissensbasis zu integrieren („absorptive capacity“). Um das Potential der Internationalisierung von F&E ausschöpfen zu können, müssen Bildung und Forschung gestärkt, Hightech-Clusters gefördert und bestehende Markteintrittsschranken (vor allem für Hightech-Jungunternehmen und Auslandfirmen) abgebaut werden.
    Keywords: Internationalisation of R&D, Determinants of foreign R&D, International R&D and performance, R&D spillovers
    JEL: F23 L24 O3
    Date: 2013–10
  15. By: Pradhan, Jaya Prakash
    Abstract: This study examines the regional profiles of patenting activities in India. The number of most dynamic sub-national spaces in patent applications is found to be limited to just two to three regions or countries. Regionally, West India, North India and South India mostly dominated the patenting activities during 1990‒2010. The patent performance is highly concentrated among individual countries: the two leading states, namely Maharashtra and Delhi accounted for more than half of total patent applications filed in India in the study period. Empirical analysis further emphasized that states patenting activities are shaped by the size of local markets, availability of skilled labour force, knowledge institutions and urban centres.
    Keywords: Patent, Region, India
    JEL: N75 O30 P25
    Date: 2013–10–12
  16. By: Fulvio Castellacci (Department of International Economics, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI), Norway)
    Keywords: Business groups, innovation, institutional voids, entry barrieris, market development, emerging economics, Latin America
    Date: 2013–10–09
  17. By: Paul Nightingale (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK); Alex Coad (SPRU, University of Sussex, UK)
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Jon creation, Self-employment, New firm formation, Innovation
    JEL: L26 M13 J24
    Date: 2013–10–09
  18. By: Sovinsky, Michelle (Department of Economics, University of Warwick & The University of Zurich); Eric Helland (Claremont McKenna College)
    Abstract: Every year thousands of firms are engaged in research joint ventures (RJV), where all knowledge gained through R&D is shared among members. Most of the empirical literature assumes members are non-cooperative in the product market. But many RJV members are rivals leaving open the possibility that firms may form RJVs to facilitate collusion. We examine this by exploiting variation in RJV formation generated by a policy change that affects the collusive benefits but not the research synergies associated with a RJV. We use data on RJVs formed between 1986 and 2001 together with firm-level information from Compustat to estimate a RJV participation equation. After correcting for the endogeneity of R&D and controlling for RJV characteristics and firm attributes, we find the decision to join is impacted by the policy change. We also find the magnitude is significant: the policy change resulted in an average drop in the probability of joining a RJV of 34% among telecommunications firms, 33% among computer and semiconductor manufacturers, and 27% among petroleum refining firms. Our results are consistent with research joint ventures serving a collusive function. JEL classification: research and development ; research joint ventures ; antitrust policy ; collusion JEL codes: L24 ; L44 ; K21 ; O32
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Mariagrazia Squicciarini; Hélène Dernis
    Abstract: This work proposes a characterisation of the patenting behaviours of firms. It relies on patent data linked to firm data from a commercial dataset, regards firms of 20 or more employees located in 15 countries, and refers to the period 1999-2010. The way in which patent assignees’ names are linked to firm names is explained, and the coverage and representativeness of the firm database used is discussed using information from structural business statistics. The profile of patenting and non-patenting firms is delineated on the basis of characteristics such as firm size, ownership, firm age and industry, and of combinations thereof. Statistics related to the sector-specific patterns of patent renewals are also shown.
    Date: 2013–09–10
  20. By: Malgarini, Marco
    Abstract: The paper aims at evaluating the position of the Italian research system in the international scenario, using data from ISI-Web of Sciences and Scopus database for the period 1981-2010. Bibliometric information have been first of all organized according to the Italian classification of scientific disciplines; the analysis concentrated on hard sciences, medical sciences, engeneering and economics, where the use of bibliometric indicators to evaluate research is rather widespread. Indicators analysed concern scientific production and its impact, scientific collaboration, scientific productivity and research excellence. We show that scientific productivity in Italy is remarkably high; Italy is on par with the international average in terms of scientific production and impact, but it is still lagging behind with respect to major competitors in Europe (Germany, Netherlands, Uk) and in the world (US).
    Keywords: spesa in R&S; indicatori bibliometrici; confronti internazionali; produzione scientifica
    JEL: H52 I20 I23
    Date: 2013–06–30

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