nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2013‒06‒16
twenty-two papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Metrics of innovation: measuring the Italian gap By Michele Benvenuti; Luca Casolaro; Elena Gennari
  2. Exporting and Innovation: Theory and Firm-Level Evidence from the People's Republic of China By Lin, Faqin; Tang, Hsiao Chink
  3. Innovation and firm growth: Does firm age play a role? By Coad, Alex; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; Teruel, Mercedes
  4. The Effectiveness of R&D Tax Credits: Cross-Industry Evidence By Russell Thomson
  5. The Relationship Between Innovation and New Firm Growth By McKelvie, Alexander; Brattström, Anna; Wennberg, Karl
  6. R&D Strategy, Metropolitan Externalities and Productivity By Lööf, Hans; Johansson, Börje
  7. Outsourcing and Innovation: An Empirical Study of Causes and Effects. By Sasan Bakhtiari; Robert Breunig
  8. Financial constraints and the failure of innovation projects By Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; García Quevedo, José; Teruel, Mercedes
  9. Clean and Dirty International Technology Diffusion By Valentina Bosetti; Elena Verdolini
  10. “Network for innovation as a way to enhance competitiveness: an overview of Italian food SMEs entering networks” By Minarelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Viaggi, D.
  11. Buy, Keep or Sell: Theory and Evidence from Patent Resales By Ufuk Akcigit; Murat Alp Celik; Jeremy Greenwood
  12. Models and Methods of University Technology Transfer By Bradley, Samantha R.; Hayter, Christopher S.; Link, Albert N.
  13. Innovation in Germany - Results of the German CIS 2006 to 2010. Background report on the Innovation Surveys 2007, 2009 and 2011 of the Mannheim Innovation Panel By Aschhoff, Birgit; Baier, Elisabeth; Crass, Dirk; Hud, Martin; Hünermund, Paul; Köhler, Christian; Peters, Bettina; Rammer, Christian; Schricke, Esther; Schubert, Torben; Schwiebacher, Franz
  14. Greening global value chains : innovation and the international diffusion of technologies and knowledge By Glachant, Matthieu; Dussaux, Damien; Meniere, Yann; Dechezlepretre, Antoine
  15. Trade Liberalization, Absorptive Capacity and the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights By Arghya Ghosh; Jota Ishikawa
  16. Matching of PATSTAT applications to AIDA firms: discussion of the methodology and results By Francesca Lotti; Giovanni Marin
  17. Templates of smart specialisation: Experiences of place-based regional development strategies in Germany and Austria By Baier, Elisabeth; Kroll, Henning; Zenker, Andrea
  18. Innovation and government payments in the Italian digital agenda By Carlo Maria Arpaia; Raffaele Doronzo; Pasquale Ferro
  19. Public Management, Policy Capacity and Innovation By Erkki Karo; Rainer Kattel
  20. Trade and Industrial Policy Subtleties with International Licensing By ISHIKAWA Jota; OKUBO Toshihiro
  21. Universities as local knowledge hubs under different technology regimes: New evidence from academic patenting By Dornbusch, Friedrich; Brenner, Thomas
  22. Measuring the International Mobility of Inventors: A New Database By Ernest Miguelez; Carsten Fink

  1. By: Michele Benvenuti (Banca d'Italia); Luca Casolaro (Banca d'Italia); Elena Gennari (Banca d'Italia)
    Keywords: innovation, R&D, patents
    JEL: O30 O57 L20 I25 D83 D A D D
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Lin, Faqin (Central University of Finance and Economics); Tang, Hsiao Chink (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how exporting affects firm innovation. We embed innovation into a firm heterogeneity model with productivity, where in equilibrium the model shows that exporters invest more in innovation, such as research and development (R&D), than non-exporters. Using firm-level data from the People’s Republic of China (PRC), we apply the Levinsohn and Petrin (2003) method of estimating firm productivity and matching econometrics to control for endogeneity. The results show, on average, in contrast to non-exporters, exporters increase their R&D intensity by more than 5%, raise their R&D expenditure by more than 33%, and are 4% more likely to engage in R&D activity. In addition, we find exporting to have a smaller impact on innovation among firms that export processed goods, specifically, those in the electronics sectors, located in coastal provinces, and foreign-owned.
    Keywords: Exporting; innovation; firm heterogeneity; matching
    JEL: D21 F14 O31
    Date: 2013–04–01
  3. By: Coad, Alex; Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; Teruel, Mercedes
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between firm growth, innovation and firm age. We hypothesize that young firms undertake riskier innovation activities and are more oriented towards employment growth than towards harvesting returns in the form of sales growth. Using an extensive sample of Community Innovation Survey for the period 2004-2010, we apply quantile regressions and a Heckman sample selection technique to study the impact of R&D activities on firm growth according to firm age. Our results show that R&D intensity is positively associated with firm growth. However, for young firms R&D shows an increasing influence across the quantiles, while for old firms R&D shows a stable or perhaps decreasing effect over the quantiles. Firm age shows a significant negative impact among young firms, while for the sample of old firms the impact of firm age becomes non-significant. Our Heckman estimations show the evolution of the impact of the R&D on firm growth confirming a significant impact on sales and productivity growth, while the impact is negligible for employment growth. Keywords: firm age, firm growth, innovation, quantile regression. JEL CODES: L25, L20
    Keywords: Empreses -- Creixement, Organització industrial, Innovacions tecnològiques, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Russell Thomson (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: This paper presents new estimates of the efficacy of R&D tax incentives using cross-countrycross-industry data and a novel measure of tax policy that incorporates differences in the average capital–labour ratio in R&D investment across industries and variation in the tax treatment of different expenditure types across countries and over time. The results suggest that, in the short run, industry increases R&D investment by 0.24 dollars for every dollar of tax revenue forgone. The results appear to be more robust than estimates based on crosscountry or firm-level data.
    Keywords: Innovation policy, R&D tax credits, determinants of R&D investment
    JEL: E22 O31 O57
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: McKelvie, Alexander (Syracuse University); Brattström, Anna (Stockholm School of Economics); Wennberg, Karl (Ratio)
    Abstract: This paper seeks to untangle the relationship between new firm’s innovative activities and subsequent growth. We theorize about the inter-related roles of managerial growth willingness, inputs and outputs of innovative activities, and their subsequent link to sales growth. Investigating a longitudinal sample of 282 new Swedish firms reveals a complex set of mediating relationships that, when combined, help explain how innovation affects growth. First, we find growth willingness has an important relationship with innovative inputs such as R&D and market knowledge competence. Second, these inputs affect important innovative outputs such as new product development and the percentage of sales from new products. Third, these outputs directly affect growth – whereas the innovative inputs such as R&D do not have a direct impact. Taken together, our paper highlights the joint importance of managerial attitudes and strategic choices that help to shed new light on the effect of innovation on new firm growth. Implications for research and public policy are discussed.
    Keywords: New Firm Growth; Innovation; RD; Growth Willingness
    JEL: L22 L26 M13
    Date: 2013–03–05
  6. By: Lööf, Hans (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology); Johansson, Börje (CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies, Royal Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: This paper studies the influence of metropolitan externalities on productivity for different types of long run R&D engagement based on information from the Community Innovation Survey. We apply a dynamic general method of moments model to a panel of manufacturing and service firms with different locations in Sweden, classified as a metropolitan region, the largest metropolitan region, a metropolitan city, the largest metropolitan city and a non-metropolitan area. This analysis generates three distinct results. First, the productivity premium associated with persistent R&D is close to 8 percent in non-metro locations and about 14 percent in the largest city. Second, a firm without any R&D engagement does not benefit at all from the external milieu in metro areas. Third, no productivity premium is associated with occasional R&D effort regardless of the firm’s location.
    Keywords: R&D; innovation strategy; productivity; metropolitan; externalities
    JEL: C23 O31 O32
    Date: 2013–06–05
  7. By: Sasan Bakhtiari (The University of New South Wales); Robert Breunig (Australian National University)
    Abstract: We study the implications of vertical integration on innovation performance using firm-level data on Australian manufacturing. We use the data to distinguish between low-cost-oriented and innovation-oriented outsourcing. Outsourcing without innovation lowers costs at the expense of damaging the future chances of innovation, while innovation-oriented outsourcing leads to higher costs but increases the likelihood of future innovation. For firms that innovate and outsource, the probability of future innovation is 54 per cent compared to 15 per cent for those who outsource without innovating. Comparing across firms that innovate, simultaneously outsourcing increases the probability of future innovation by 4 per cent. Innovation-oriented outsourcing is accompanied by firms shifting focus to research and marketing of new products. Our results offer strong support that outsourcing may be used not just as a cost-cutting strategy, but as part of comprehensive firm strategy to innovate and improve.
    Keywords: Outsourcing, Innovation, Firm Performance, Business Strategy.
    JEL: D22 L21 L24 L6
    Date: 2012–09
  8. By: Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; García Quevedo, José; Teruel, Mercedes
    Abstract: Theoretical and empirical approaches have stressed the existence of financial constraints in innovative activities of firms. This paper analyses the role of financial obstacles on the likelihood of abandoning an innovation project. Although a large number of innovation projects are abandoned before their completion, the empirical evidence has focused on the determinants of innovation while failed projects have received little attention. Our analysis differentiates between internal and external barriers on the probability of abandoning a project and we examine whether the effects are different depending on the stage of the innovation process. In the empirical analysis carried out for a panel data of potential innovative Spanish firms for the period 2004-2010, we use a bivariate probit model to take into account the simultaneity of financial constraints and the decision to abandon an innovation project. Our results show that financial constraints most affect the probability of abandoning an innovation project during the concept stage and that low-technological manufacturing and non-KIS service sectors are more sensitive to financial constraints. Keywords: barriers to innovation, failure of innovation projects, financial constraints JEL Classifications: O31, D21
    Keywords: Innovacions tecnològiques, Conducta organitzacional, 33 - Economia,
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Valentina Bosetti (Department of Economics, Bocconi University, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change); Elena Verdolini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection and Environmental Policies (EPs) on clean (renewable) and dirty (fossil-based) technology diffusion from top-innovators. IPR protection and EPs are extensively debated policy tools, as IPR protection addresses knowledge market failure, while EPs respond to pressing local and global environmental externalities. A model of monopolistic competition inspired by the recent trade literature shows that the profits associated with exporting a blueprint are a function of the quality of the idea and of market and institutional characteristics of the receiving country. We test the empirical implications of our model using patent data in renewable and fossil efficient power technologies for 13 top innovating countries and 40 patenting authorities. We improve on previous contributions by accounting for unobserved heterogeneity and for the endogeneity of policy proxies through a Generalized Method of Moment estimator. We show that knowledge transfer through patent duplication increases with the level of IPR protection, but with slight diminishing marginal returns. The effect is stronger for clean technologies, which are arguably less mature and more sensitive to uncertainty. Commitment to EPs also increases the incentives for patent duplication. The magnitude of the effect is conditional on the nature of the technology and on the specific policy instrument.
    Keywords: Technology Diffusion and Transfer, Innovation, Patents, Energy Technologies, Environmental Policy, Intellectual Property Rights
    JEL: O33 O34 Q55
    Date: 2013–05
  10. By: Minarelli, F.; Raggi, M.; Viaggi, D.
    Abstract: Nowadays innovation represents a strategy to face the economic crisis affecting many sectors globally. It is believed that innovation is one of the most significant factors for the enhancement of competitiveness. Innovation is identified with the creation of value by companies, and networking is believed to be a key way to contribute to the better value creation. In particular networking is object of increasing interest not only by academics but also by political institutions, firstly European Union, due to the beliefs that it can foster innovation among SMEs and hence enhances competitiveness. The development of innovation may requires R&D support from outside and the collaboration with other organizations. It is hence recognized the essential role of networking for the innovation and the participation of SMEs in networks as pivotal strategy. European economy is characterized by SMEs and particularly the agri-food sector. This study carries out an investigation, based on a web survey of Italian food SMEs, presenting an overview of Italian food SMEs engaged in collaborations for innovation purposes. Especially, the examination focuses on the identification of types of organizations mainly involved in collaborations for the resources acquisition and structural factors characterizing such SMEs. Data collection of Italian food SMEs is accomplished by standardized questionnaires designed to be compiled on line in anonymous way. Findings show higher frequency of SMEs involved in collaboration with suppliers for innovation purposes. However, in term of realized innovation, SMEs collaborating with universities demonstrate higher frequency of enhanced innovation. This work presents an additional value in term of comprehension not only for their impact on the nature of the network but also for the conceptualization of proper network able to encourage firm’s participation. Additionally, it must be point out that results from such studies cannot be generalized and extended to outside SMEs nation, hence factors involved in other SMEs cultures need to be carefully investigated at each country’s level.
    Keywords: network, innovation, SMEs, Industrial Organization, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, O31, O32,
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Ufuk Akcigit (University of Pennsylvania); Murat Alp Celik (University of Pennsylvania); Jeremy Greenwood (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: An endogenous growth model is developed where each period firms invest in researching and developing new ideas. An idea increases a firm's productivity. By how much depends on how central the idea is to a firm's activity. Ideas can be bought and sold on a market for patents. A firm can sell an idea that is not relevant to its business or buy one if it fails to innovate. The developed model is matched up with stylized facts about the market for patents in the U.S. The analysis attempts to gauge how efficiency in the patent market affects growth
    Keywords: Growth, Ideas, Innovation, Misallocation, Patents, Patent Agents, Research and Development, Search frictions
    JEL: O31 O41
    Date: 2013–06
  12. By: Bradley, Samantha R. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Hayter, Christopher S. (New York Academy of Sciences); Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper argues that a linear model of technology transfer is no longer sufficient, or perhaps even no longer relevant, to account for the nuances and complexities of the technology transfer process that characterizes the ongoing commercialization activities of universities. Shortcomings of the traditional linear model of technology transfer include inaccuracies—such as its strict linearity and oversimplification of the process, composition, a one-size-fits-all approach, and an overemphasis on patents—and inadequacies—such as failing to account for informal mechanisms of technology transfer, failing to acknowledge the impact of organizational culture, and failing to represent university reward systems within the model. As such, alternative views of technology transfer are presented here that better capture the progression of the university towards an entrepreneurial and dynamic institution, and that advance the body of knowledge about this important academic endeavor.
    Keywords: Technology transfer; Entrepreneurial university; Intellectual property; Patents; Innovation; Commercialization
    JEL: L26 O31 O34
    Date: 2013–06–06
  13. By: Aschhoff, Birgit; Baier, Elisabeth; Crass, Dirk; Hud, Martin; Hünermund, Paul; Köhler, Christian; Peters, Bettina; Rammer, Christian; Schricke, Esther; Schubert, Torben; Schwiebacher, Franz
    Abstract: Innovation is regarded as a key driver of productivity and market growth and thus has a great potential for increasing wealth. Surveying innovation activities of firms is an important contribution to a better understanding of the process of innovation and how policy may intervene to maximise the social returns of private investment into innovation. Over the past three decades, research has developed a detailed methodology to collect and analyse innovation activities at the firm level. The Oslo Manual, published by OECD and Eurostat (2005) is one important outcome of these efforts. In 1993 both organisations have started a joint initiative, known as the Community Innovation Survey (CIS), to collect firm level data on innovation across countries in concord (with each other). The German contribution to this activity is the so-called Mannheim Innovation Panel (MIP), an annual survey implemented with the first CIS wave in 1993. The MIP fully applies the methodological recommendations laid down in the Oslo Manual. It is designed as a panel survey, i.e. the same gross sample of firms is surveyed each year, with a biannual refreshment of the sample. The MIP is commissioned by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and conducted by the Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovation Research (ISI) and the Institute for Applied Social Science (infas). (...) --
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Glachant, Matthieu; Dussaux, Damien; Meniere, Yann; Dechezlepretre, Antoine
    Abstract: Using novel data on patents, trade of equipment goods, and foreign direct investments and insights from the economic literature, the paper seeks to lay out the state of knowledge on the role of innovation and the diffusion of technologies in the greening of global value chains as well as some of the main policy issues. A special emphasis is put on developing countries -- distinguishing emerging economies and least-developed countries -- and on climate-mitigation technologies. Emerging economies are already reasonably well integrated in the global economy. As a consequence, technologies flow in through the imports of capital goods and local investments by multinational enterprises owning technologies. Pushing further technology transfer requires strengthening intellectual property rights, lowering barriers to trade and investments and improving technological absorptive capacities. In contrast, their role in innovation is limited. Standard tools of innovation policy - public research and development, public support to private research and development, better access to finance - should develop. But studies also suggest that governments should introduce more stringent environmental policies with proper enforcement at home to go beyond the adoption of foreign technologies. The situation of least-developed countries is very different: they do not import green technologies and low barriers to trade and foreign direct investment or strict intellectual property rights are unlikely to trigger technology transfer. In these countries, the focus should be on building technological capacities.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Technology Industry,ICT Policy and Strategies,E-Business,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases
    Date: 2013–05–01
  15. By: Arghya Ghosh (School of Economics, the University of New South Wales); Jota Ishikawa (Faculty of Economics, Hitotsubashi University)
    Abstract: We examine how trade liberalization afects South’s incentive to protect intellectual property rights (IPR) in a North-South duopoly model where a low-cost North firm competes with a high-cost South firm in the South market. The extent of effective cost difference between North and South depends on South’s imitation, which in turn depends on South’s IPR protection and absorptive capacity and North firm’s location choice and masking effort, all of which are endogenously determined in our model. Even though innovation is exogenous to the model (and hence unffected by South’s IPR policy) we find that strengthening IPR protection in South can improve its welfare. The relationship between trade cost and the degree of IPR protection that maximizes South welfare is non-monotone. South does not have any incentive to protect IPR when trade costs are either zero or prohibitive, while for moderate values of trade cost, South government can strengthen IPR protection, induce FDI and increase South’s welfare. In an extension of the model, where North firm can mask its technology, we show that, even when trade costs are zero or prohibitive, strengthening IPR protection can improve South’s welfare by deterring the North firm from masking its technology. The relationships between location choice/masking decision and South’s investment in absorptive capacity are also explored.
    Keywords: intellectual property rights, absorptive capacity, FDI, oligopoly, imitation, masking
    JEL: F12 F13 D43
    Date: 2013–11
  16. By: Francesca Lotti (Bank of Italy); Giovanni Marin (CERIS-CNR)
    Abstract: This paper is a brief methodological note on the matching of Italian firms in the AIDA database with applicants at the European Patent Office from the PATSTAT database. The need to match data on patent applications with balance-sheet information stems from the importance of patent statistics as a source of information on the innovative performance of firms. Starting from recent efforts to match applicants in PATSTAT with firms in the Bureau van Dijk databases (ORBIS, AMADEUS, FAME), we added an improved cleaning routine to maximize exact matches, followed by an approximate matching based on multiple combination of similarity scores. Starting with 272,475 firms, we matched 49,369 EPO applications in the period 1977-2009. The matching covers 68 percent of EPO applications by Italian firms for the entire period and 89 percent for 2000-2009. Finally, we describe the time, sector, size, geographical location and technology distribution of the matched applications.
    Keywords: names harmonization, patents, approximate matching, PATSTAT, AIDA
    JEL: C81 O31 O34
    Date: 2013–06
  17. By: Baier, Elisabeth; Kroll, Henning; Zenker, Andrea
    Abstract: [Introduction] The notion of 'smart specialisation' is set to become an important policy rationale in the upcoming structural funding period 2014-2020. Although the original academic concept of this policy approach was sectorally oriented and rooted in the analysis of the EU-US productivity gap (e.g. Foray et al. 2009), the concept is increasingly applied to regional contexts. Essential for the application of the smart specialisation concept in a regional context is the fact that regions are often faced with scarce resources and limited budgets which they should allocate according to external influences (e.g. global competition) and inherited structures (sectoral foci, linkages between sectors, innovation infrastructure). Therefore, and in accordance with the smart specialisation strategy (S3), regional governments need to design policies in such a way as to support the most promising areas of present and future comparative advantage in order to foster regional prosperity. Although the ideas behind smart specialisation are not entirely new on the regional level, the smart specialisation concept is going to expand its influence to regional innovation policy making. Thus, this contribution illuminates the interface between the smart specialisation concept and regional systems of innovation approach, since innovation is going to be a key issue in the next structural funding period. Key arguments for the usefulness of the smart specialisation concept in the field of the design of regional innovation policy making will be collected and three examples are presented in form of case studies. This contribution aims to demonstrate that the principles of smart specialisation have been implicitly applied in certain European regions for years in form of future-oriented transformation processes. Likewise this contribution aims to illustrate how the experiences from these regions can contribute to policy learning. In doing so, the structure is the following: firstly, existing literature on the smart specialisation concept is revised and secondly, these findings are reconsidered with regard to the regional systems of innovation approach. In particular, if and how the smart specialisation concept will influence regional development processes and potentially regional innovation systems. Three key working theses adopt these ideas and guide the empirical analyses. Methodologically, the paper pursues a case study approach. The policy trajectories of three different case study regions are analysed within the innovation systems approach and conclusions are drawn concerning the smart specialisation concept. Finally, the paper closes with a conclusion, concerning the influencing potential of the smart specialisation concept on regional innovation systems. --
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Carlo Maria Arpaia (Banca d'Italia); Raffaele Doronzo (Banca d'Italia); Pasquale Ferro (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: We examine the main items on the European and the Italian Digital Agenda and the rules of the Digital Administration Code, in particular on-line payments. We then highlight the part played by the Bank of Italy in overall administrative modernization through its role as provider of the State Treasury service. We analyse the latest international studies on e-government, comment on the data from the Bank’s survey on local government computerization in order to see how innovation can affect local authorities’ on-line services, and offer some considerations on the outlook for the government payments system.
    Keywords: innovation, general government, digital agenda, payments
    JEL: H11 H83
    Date: 2013–06
  19. By: Erkki Karo; Rainer Kattel
    Abstract: In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacityand under what circumstances development-oriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We develop the notion of policy capacity into a concept that reflects the variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes between political and policy ideas, public management and private-sector dynamism. We argue that the interactions between these factors are reflected in three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; policy choices on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and third, policy choices on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Using the historical case studies of the East Asian developmental state of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European development polices of the 1990s-2010s, we show how and why these economies developed almost opposite institutional systems for financing, building and managing techno-economic systems and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.
    Date: 2013–05
  20. By: ISHIKAWA Jota; OKUBO Toshihiro
    Abstract: We see various hybrid forms of organization and competition in which domestic and foreign firms may cooperate in some phases of production such as technology development and then compete in product markets. We assume that for a foreign firm to produce a good for export into its rival's domestic market, it has to acquire technology either through research and development (R&D) or licensing from the domestic firm. The domestic firm has an incentive to offer a licensing contract that deters the foreign firm from conducting its own R&D, but this in turn creates an interdependency not considered in the traditional literature. We show that both domestic and foreign optimal policies with licensing can be the exact opposite of optimal policies without licensing. Interestingly, by imposing an export tax on the "foreign" firm, the foreign government can shift the licensing revenue from the "domestic" firm.
    Date: 2013–06
  21. By: Dornbusch, Friedrich; Brenner, Thomas
    Abstract: --
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Ernest Miguelez (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland); Carsten Fink (World Intellectual Property Organization, Economics and Statistics Division, Geneva, Switzerland)
    Abstract: This paper has two objectives. First, it describes a new database mapping migratory patterns of inventors, extracted from information included in patent applications filed under the Patent Cooperation Treaty. We explain in detail the information contained in the database and discuss the usefulness and reliability of the underlying data. Second, the paper provides a descriptive overview of inventor migration patterns, based on the information contained in the newly constructed database. Among the largest receiving countries, we find that the United States exhibits by far the highest inventor immigration rate, followed by Australia and Canada. European countries lag behind in attracting inventive talent; in addition, France, Germany, and the UK see more inventors emigrating than immigrating. In relation to the number of home country inventors, Central American, Caribbean and African economies show the largest inventor brain drain.
    Keywords: brain drain, skilled international migration, inventors, PCT patents
    JEL: F22 J61 O3 O15
    Date: 2013–05

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