nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2012‒12‒15
fourteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Is innovative firm behavior correlated with age and gender composition of the workforce? Evidence from a new type of data for German enterprises By Pfeifer, Christian; Wagner, Joachim
  2. New-to-Market Product Innovation and Firm Performance: Evidence from a firm-level innovation survey in Japan By ISOGAWA Daiya; NISHIKAWA Kohei; OHASHI Hiroshi
  3. Inclusive Institutions, Innovation and Economic Growth: Estimates for European Countries By d'Agostino, Giorgio; Scarlato, Margherita
  4. Original innovation, learnt innovation and cities: Evidence from UK SMEs By Neil Lee; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
  5. Developing and implementing a smart specialisation strategy at regional level: some open questions By Donato Iacobucci
  6. Carbon Taxes, Path Dependency and Directed Technical Change: Evidence from the Auto Industry By Philippe Aghion; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; David Hemous; Ralf Martin; John Van Reenen
  7. L'innovation dans les services publics By Faridah Djellal; Faïz Gallouj
  8. Managing Spillovers: An Endogenous Sunk Cost Approach By Olena Senyuta; Kresimir Zigic
  9. The dynamics of relational quality in co-development alliances By Francis Bidault
  10. Moteurs et dynamiques des innovations environnementales des firmes. Le cas du Poitou-Charentes By Adeline Ugaglia; Marie Ferru; Benjamin Guimond
  11. A Theory of Intelligence and Total Factor Productivity: Value Added Reflects the Fruits of Fluid Intelligence By Harashima, Taiji
  12. Governance Typology of Universities' Technology Transfer Processes By Anja Schoen; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Joachim Henkel
  13. Which Model of Technology Transfer for Nanotechnology? By Corine Genet; Khalid Errabi; Caroline Gauthier
  14. Almost Anonymous Implicit Contracting By Paul Castãneda Dower; Andrei Bremzen

  1. By: Pfeifer, Christian (Leuphana University Lueneburg and IZA); Wagner, Joachim (Leuphana University Lueneburg, CESIS)
    Abstract: This empirical research note documents the relationship between composition of a firm's workforce (with a special focus on age and gender) and its performance with respect to innovative activities (outlays and employment in research and development (R&D)) for a large representative sample of enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany using unique newly available data. We find that firms with a higher share of older workers have significantly lower proportions of R&D outlays in total revenues and of R&D employment in total employment, whereas firms with a higher share of female employment seem to be more active in R&D.
    Keywords: Ageing; firm performance; gender; Germany; innovation; R&D
    JEL: D22 D24 J21 J24 L25
    Date: 2012–12–06
  2. By: ISOGAWA Daiya; NISHIKAWA Kohei; OHASHI Hiroshi
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the economic impact of new-to-market product innovation using firm-level data obtained from the Japanese National Innovation Survey. It accounts for possible technological spillovers in innovation activities and examines the extent to which new-to-market product innovation contributes to firm performance. The paper offers several new insights on product innovation.
    Date: 2012–12
  3. By: d'Agostino, Giorgio; Scarlato, Margherita
    Abstract: This paper investigates the theoretical and empirical foundations of the links between inclusive institutions, innovation and economic growth. Its first contribution to the literature is to provide a non-scale R&D-based growth model incorporating negative externalities linked to low institutional quality that not only affect the productivity of private and human capital, but also constrain the diffusion of existing technological knowledge. In turn, these negative externalities reduce economic growth. The second contribution of this paper is to run estimates for a sample of European Union countries. Empirical analysis based on pooled long- and short-run estimates confirms the importance of private capital and technology as instruments to increase economic growth in European countries and suggests the existence of a positive relationship between inclusive institutions, innovation and economic growth. The estimates also show that market failures linked to the degree of market competition and to the level of network interaction in the economic system significantly condition the influence of formal institutions on private capital, technology and GDP growth.
    Keywords: Innovation; economic growth models; institutions and growth
    JEL: O41 O43 O30 C23
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Neil Lee; Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
    Abstract: One of the key benefits of cities is that they allow the exchange of knowledge and information between economic actors. This may have two effects: it may create the conditions for entirely new innovations to emerge, and it may allow firms to learn innovations from those nearby. Yet few studies have considered the impact of an urban location on whether innovations are original or learnt. This paper tests these hypotheses using large-scale survey evidence for over 1,600 UK SMEs. We show that while urban firms tend to be both product and process innovators, urban firms are disproportionately likely to introduce process innovations which are only new to the firm, rather than entirely original. Instead, the urban advantage in product innovation appears to come from a combination of the effects. The results highlight a need for a nuanced view of the link between cities and innovation.
    Keywords: Innovation, Cities, SMEs, Learning, United Kingdom
    JEL: O31 O33 O38
    Date: 2012–11
  5. By: Donato Iacobucci (Dept. of Information Engineering Università Politecnica delle Marche, Italy)
    Abstract: The smart specialisation strategy (S3) requires the identification in each region of one or more thematic areas where R&D and innovation policy should be focused on to create and sustain a competitive advantage. Not necessarily the chosen areas will belong to the core, general purpose technology that are generally identified as high-tech sectors (ICT, biotech, etc.). For most of the (peripheral) regions the application of the S3 will involve the identification of production domains in which general purpose technology can be applied and adapted. The aim of this paper is to discuss the theoretical underpinning of the S3, focusing the analysis on three concepts: embeddedness, relatedness and connectivity. The analysis is carried out by reviewing the available documents about the definition and implementation of the smart specialisation strategy and the early proposals developed by some European regions. S3 is an important advancement in the design of regional innovation policy. A better clarification of its theoretical basis and implementation problems can improve its effectiveness.
    Keywords: smart specialisation; regional innovation policy; low and medium tech-industries
    JEL: L52 O25 R11
    Date: 2012–12
  6. By: Philippe Aghion; Antoine Dechezleprêtre; David Hemous; Ralf Martin; John Van Reenen
    Abstract: Can directed technical change be used to combat climate change? We construct new firm-level panel data on auto industry innovation distinguishing between "dirty" (internal combustion engine) and "clean" (e.g. electric and hybrid) patents across 80 countries over several decades. We show that firms tend to innovate relatively more in clean technologies when they face higher tax-inclusive fuel prices. Furthermore, there is path dependence in the type of innovation both from aggregate spillovers and from the firm's own innovation history. Using our model we simulate the increases in carbon taxes needed to allow clean to overtake dirty technologies.
    JEL: L62 O13 O3
    Date: 2012–12
  7. By: Faridah Djellal (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies); Faïz Gallouj (CLERSE - Centre lillois d'études et de recherches sociologiques et économiques - CNRS : UMR8019 - Université Lille 1 - Sciences et Technologies)
    Abstract: Après une longue phase de méconnaissance et de sous-estimation, la question de l'innovation dans les services est désormais prise au sérieux dans la théorie économique, comme dans les politiques publiques. Tel n'est pas encore toujours le cas de l'innovation dans les services publics. L'objectif de cet article est de proposer une relecture de la littérature sur l'innovation dans les services à la lumière des services publics. En nous appuyant sur la grille assimilation, démarcation, inversion et intégration souvent mobilisée pour rendre compte de l'innovation dans les services marchands, nous réexaminons la manière dont les principaux travaux réalisés durant deux décennies de recherche sur l'innovation dans les services prennent explicitement en compte - ou peuvent être extrapolés pour prendre en compte - l'innovation dans les services publics. Nous cherchons également à identifier les lacunes de cette littérature et à tracer des pistes de recherche et d'action.
    Keywords: Innovation, service public,
    Date: 2012–10–01
  8. By: Olena Senyuta; Kresimir Zigic
    Abstract: We introduce spillover e¤ect into John Sutton's (1991,1998) concept of endogenous sunk costs. These sunk costs appear in the form of R&D investment into quality in our framework. We show that with spillovers increasing and the effectiveness of investment in raising quality decreas- ing, the Sutton lower bound on concentration for an industry decreases and ultimately collapses to zero when spillovers are large enough and/or effectiveness of investment in raising quality is low enough. In the second part, we allow firms to protect their investment against spillovers We focus on symmetric pure strategy Nash equilibria, where all firms either protect their investment or do not protect at all. Contrary to the result with exogenous spillovers assumed in the first part, in the second part of the paper we show that higher ex ante spillovers and/or lower effectiveness of investment in raising quality may induce firms to protect themselves against spillovers, leading to higher investment in quality, and to more concentrated market structure. Thus, the Sutton's result on the concentration bound is preserved, if we allow firms to manage spillovers via private protection.
    Keywords: endogenous sunk costs; knowledge spillovers; R&D, inno- vations; market concentration
    JEL: L13 O30
    Date: 2012–11
  9. By: Francis Bidault (ESMT European School of Management and Technology)
    Abstract: Co-development alliances are formed to create new capabilities (technologies, products, services, processes, etc.) that partner organizations need in order to reach their goals. They involve the combination of competencies, and other intangible assets. These alliances typically face a high level of risks in terms of undesired leakages of confidential knowledge or failure to achieve the expected development. Relational quality, an important consideration in all alliances, is particularly key. Without it, partners might not be open enough to combine their knowledge effectively with the partners’. This article proposes a framework for defining, assessing, and monitoring relational quality in co-development alliances.
    Keywords: alliances, creative collaboration, innovation management, technology management, new product management, co-development, joint innovation
    Date: 2012–12–05
  10. By: Adeline Ugaglia (ISVV - Institut des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin - INRA : UMR1219 - Université Sciences et Technologies - Bordeaux I - Université Victor Segalen - Bordeaux II); Marie Ferru (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers); Benjamin Guimond (CRIEF - Centre de Recherche sur l'Intégration Economique et Financière - Université de Poitiers)
    Abstract: Alors que la littérature met l'accent sur le rôle de la réglementation dans la dynamique environnementale des firmes, nous proposons une analyse approfondie des différents moteurs des innovations environnementales. Il s'agit donc d'étudier pourquoi les entreprises adoptent ces innovations mais également comment évoluent ces "bonnes" pratiques. Des données originales, relatives à l'adoption d'innovations environnementales et issues d'entretiens auprès d'établissements du Poitou-Charentes, nuancent d'une part le rôle de la réglementation et révèlent d'autre part le caractère prioritaire des démarches curatives. Une analyse exploratoire multidimensionnelle souligne enfin l'existence de dynamiques environnementales différenciées selon les caractéristiques des établissements et des innovations.
    Keywords: innovation environnementale, incitations, réglementation, marché
    Date: 2012–11–29
  11. By: Harashima, Taiji
    Abstract: In this paper, a theory of total factor productivity (TFP) that incorporates a model of intelligence is formulated and described. In particular, the fluid intelligence of ordinary workers is emphasized as an important element in TFP because such workers have the intelligence to innovate, even though their innovations are minor. Nevertheless, these innovations are essential for production because they solve many small but unexpected problems that ordinary workers must address. The TFP model is based on item response theory, which is widely used in psychology and psychometrics. TFP is assumed to be an increasing function of ordinary workers’ fluid intelligence, without which production is virtually impossible. Therefore, the model suggests that TFP is derived from the fruits of human intelligence.
    Keywords: Total factor productivity; Intelligence; Innovation; Item response theory; Experience curve effect
    JEL: O47 O15 O20 O31 D24
    Date: 2012–12–07
  12. By: Anja Schoen; Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Joachim Henkel
    Abstract: Despite the growing interest in university-to-industry technology transfer, there are very few studies on the governance of universities’ technology transfer offices (TTOs). The few existing ones tend to focus on U.S. universities and generally tackle one dimension of the governance. The present paper aims at contributing to this literature in two ways. First, it takes into account the diversity of organizational models with a theoretical perspective: the paper presents a discussion on which combinations of four structural dimensions should yield viable configurations. Four main types of TTOs are identified: (1) classical TTO; (2) autonomous TTO; (3) discipline-integrated Technology Transfer Alliance; and (4) discipline-specialized Technology Transfer Alliance. Second, the paper relies on 16 case studies of universities located in six European countries in order to address the pros and cons of the four types of TTOs. The results provide both a conceptual understanding and an empirical overview of how universities organize their technology transfer and intellectual property management.
    Keywords: Technology transfer offices; organizational structure; governance; academic patents
    JEL: L30 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2012–12
  13. By: Corine Genet (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Khalid Errabi (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM)); Caroline Gauthier (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: Nanotechnologies are often presented as breakthrough innovations, where technology transfer and knowledge-bridging will play a pivotal role in the industrial dynamics. This article investigates the model of knowledge transfer in the nanotechnologies in depth, by comparing it with the models of two recently emerged technologies: biotech and microelectronics. Our results show that the nanotechnology transfer model is very different from that involved in biotechnology evolution: while small-medium firms play a valuable technology-bringing role, the central function of "translating" new knowledge between public research and industry is carried by the larger firms, just as it was in the early stages of the microelectronics sector. These results suggest that specific policy initiatives to facilitate biotech's transfer are inappropriate to boost the diffusion of nanotechnology.
    Keywords: Nanotechnology; Biotechnology; Microelectronics; Technology transfer
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Paul Castãneda Dower (New Economic School); Andrei Bremzen (New Economic School)
    Abstract: Economists use relational or reputational concerns to explain the implicit enforcement of contracts. Both mechanisms require special assumptions concerning contracting parties' identities; in particular, these assumptions would not hold in one-period settings in which outcomes cannot affect reputation. In such a setting, this paper shows how a signaling mechanism can support the implicit enforcement of contracts that Pareto improve upon the null contract. Furthermore, this mechanism is independent of the discount factor and can outperform the relational contract in a range of cases. We find empirical support for our theory using contracts from nancing alliances in the biotech industry.
    Keywords: Implicit contracts, biotech alliances, identity
    JEL: D29 L24 O31
    Date: 2012–09

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