nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2012‒09‒03
nineteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Quantity or quality? Collaboration strategies in research and development and incentives to patent By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
  2. (When) Do Stronger Patents Increase Continual Innovation? By Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle
  3. Collaborative R&D as a strategy to attenuate financing constraints By Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hottenrott, Hanna
  4. An 'extended" Knowledge Production Function approach to the genesis of innovation in the European regions By Charlot, S.; Crescenzi, R.; Musolesi, A.
  5. Evidence on the Impact of Education on Innovation and Productivity By Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista; Sørensen, Anders
  6. Tax incentives or subsidies for R&D? By Busom, Isabel; Corchuelo, Beatriz; Martinez Ros, Ester
  7. Managing Absorptive Capacity within R&D Cooperation By Bode, Alexander; Müller, Katja; Hill, Johannes
  8. How to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs on regional development By Donato Iacobucci; Alessandra Micozzi
  9. Regional development in the context of an innovation process By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  10. Research grants, sources of ideas and the effects on academic research By Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
  11. The role of geographical proximity in innovation: Do regional and local levels really matter? By Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
  12. Do R&D tax incentives lead to higher wages for R&D workers? Evidence from the Netherlands By Lokshin, Boris; Mohnen, Pierre
  13. The Emergence of a Small World in a Network of Research Joint Ventures By Stuart McDonald; Mohamad Alghamdi; Bernard Pailthorpe
  14. Agricultural Production, Productivity and R&D over the Past Half Century: An Emerging New World Order By Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie
  15. Competences as drivers and enablers of globalization of innovation: Swedish ICT industry and emerging economies By Chaminade, Cristina; de Fuentes, Claudia
  16. Innovation stratégique et business model des écosystèmes “mobiquitaires”: rôle et identification de l’acteur leader. By Amel Attour
  17. SOEP Innovation Sample (SOEP-IS): Description, Structure and Documentation By David Richter; Jürgen Schupp
  18. Leçons d'innovation sociale des micro-angels By Arvind Ashta; Glòria Estapé-Dubreuil; Jean-Pierre Hédou; Stéphan Bourcieu
  19. Managing People in Organizations: Perspectives of Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship By Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.

  1. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lopes-Bento, Cindy
    Abstract: This study shows for a large sample of R&D-active manufacturing firms that collaborative R&D has a positive effect on firms' patenting in terms of both quantity and quality. When distinguishing between alliances that aim at joint creation of new knowledge and alliances that aim at exchange of existing knowledge, the results suggest that the positive effect on patent quantity is driven by knowledge exchange rather than joint R&D. Firms engaged in joint R&D, on the other hand, receive more forward citations per patent indicating that joint R&D enhances patent quality. In light of literature on strategic patenting, our results further suggest that knowledge creation alliances lead to patents that are filed to protect valuable intellectual property, while exchange alliances drive portfolio patenting, resulting in fewer forward citations. --
    Keywords: R&D Collaboration,Knowledge Exchange,Patents,Innovation,Count Data Models
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Chen, Yongmin; Pan, Shiyuan; Zhang, Tianle
    Abstract: Under continual innovation, greater patent strength expands innovating firms’ profit against imitation, but also shifts profit from current to past innovators. We show how the impact of patents on innovation, as determined by these two opposing effects, varies with industry characteristics. When the discount factor is sufficiently high, the negative profit division effect is negligible, and innovation monotonically increases in patent strength; otherwise, innovation has an inverted-U relationship with patent strength, and stronger patents are more likely to increase innovation when the discount factor or the fixed innovation cost is higher. We also show how the impact of patents on innovation may change with firms’ innovation capability and with the intensity of competition from imitators.
    Keywords: Continual innovation; patents; patent strength; profit expansion; profit division
    JEL: O3 L1
    Date: 2012–08–25
  3. By: Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hottenrott, Hanna
    Abstract: The ability of firms to establish R&D collaborations that combine resources, exploit complementary know-how, and internalize R&D externalities has been shown to be of high importance for the successful creation and implementation of new knowledge. We argue in this article that collaborative R&D may not only be beneficial in terms of appropriability of returns to R&D investment, access to the partner's knowledge base and the exploitation of scale and scope in R&D, but that it may also be a strategy to cope with financing constraints for R&D. Studying panel data we show that collaboration with science alleviates liquidity constraints for research. Horizontal collaboration reduces liquidity constraints for both research as well as R and D. Vertical collaboration has no such effects. --
    Keywords: Collaborative Research,Industry-Science Links,Research and Development,Liquidity Constraints,Innovation Policy
    JEL: O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Charlot, S.; Crescenzi, R.; Musolesi, A.
    Abstract: The paper looks at the genesis of innovation in the EU regions in ordre to shed light on the link between innovative inputs (R&D and Human Capital) and the genesis of economically valuable knowledge. The 'traditional' regional Knowledge Production Function (KPF) is innovatively developed in three complementary directions. Firs, the KPF is 'augmented' in order to control for all possible 'unobsrevable' and 'immesurable' time varying factors that influence the genesis of innovation (i.e. localised institutional and relational factors, regional innovation policies). Second, a semi-parametric approach that relaxes any arbitrary assumption on the 'shape' of the KPF is adopted. Finally, the assumption of homogeneity in the impact of R&D and Human Capital is relaxed by explicity accounting for the differences between 'core' and 'peripherial' regions. The econometric results confirm the importance of accounting for time varying unobserved heterogeneity through the adoption of a 'random growth' specification: R&D efforts exert a significant influence on innovation only after controlling for regional specific time varying unobserved factors. In addition, the semi parametric approach uncovers significant threshold effects for both R&D expenditure and Human Capital and highlights a strong complementarity between these two factors. However, 'core' regions benefit from a persistent advantage in terms of the 'productivity' of their innovation inputs. This has important implications for the EU innovation policies at the regional level.
    JEL: R11 C14 C23
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Junge, Martin; Severgnini, Battista (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School); Sørensen, Anders (Department of Economics, Copenhagen Business School)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of the educational mix of employees at the rm level for the probability of rms being involved in innovation activities. We distinguish between four types of innovation: product, process, organisational, and marketing innovation. Moreover, we consider three di erent types of education for employees with at least 16 years of schooling: technical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Furthermore, we examine the in uence of these di erent innovation activities on rm productivity. Using a rotating panel data sample of Danish rms, we nd that di erent types of innovations are related to distinct educational types. Moreover, we nd that rms that adopt product and marketing innovation are more productive than rms that adopt product innovation but not marketing innovation and rms that adopt marketing innovation but not product innovation. In addition, rms that adopt organisational and process innovation demonstrate greated productivity levels than forms that adopt organisational innovation but not process innovation that again demonstrate greater productivity than rms that do not adopt process innovation but not organisational innovation. Finally, we establish that product and marketing innovation as well as organisational and process innovation are complementary inputs using formal tests for supermodularity. Complementarity can be rejected for all other pairs of innovation types.
    Keywords: educational composition; human capital; innovation; productivity; complementarity
    JEL: D24 J24 O31 O32
    Date: 2012–07–16
  6. By: Busom, Isabel (Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona); Corchuelo, Beatriz (Universidad de Extremadura); Martinez Ros, Ester (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and Universidad Carlos III de Madrid)
    Abstract: This paper studies whether firms' use of R&D subsidies and R&D tax incentives are correlated to two sources of underinvestment in R&D, financing constraints and appropriability. We find that financially constrained SMEs are less likely to use R&D tax credits and more likely to obtain subsidies. SMEs using legal methods to protect their intellectual property are more likely to use tax incentives. Results are ambiguous for large firms. For both having previous experience in R&D increases the likelihood of using tax incentives, while it reduces the likelihood of using exclusively subsidies, suggesting that the latter induce entry into R&D. Results imply that direct funding and tax credits do not have the same ability to address each source of R&D underinvestment, and that on average subsidies may be better suited than tax credits at least for SMEs. From a policy perspective these tools may be complements rather than substitutes
    Keywords: Research and Development, R&D, tax incentives, subsidies, policy mix
    JEL: H25 L60 O31
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Bode, Alexander; Müller, Katja; Hill, Johannes
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Donato Iacobucci (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche); Alessandra Micozzi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: The paper proposes a framework to evaluate the impact of academic spin-offs at regional level and applies it to the context of the Marche region (Italy). Spin-off creation is the most complex way of commercializing academic research, compared to licensing and R&D collaborations, but with the highest potential impact on the regional context. The empirical analysis shows that when measured in quantitative terms the impact of spin-offs on local economies is rather low; however, there are qualitative direct and indirect effects that must be taken into consideration. By focusing on providing R&D services, spin-offs play an important role in promoting the up-grading of the regional industrial system, which is mainly based on small and medium-sized firms in low and medium-tech sectors. Though not very successful in terms of growth and job creation in the short run, spin-offs provide an entrepreneurial experience for a high number of young researchers. We can expect that in the longer terms these people can play an important role within the local system in the start-up of new companies or as agents of innovation for established firms.
    Keywords: spin-offs, technology transfer, regional innovation system
    Date: 2012–08
  9. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify main components and driving forces behind an innovation process in order to support regions in organising their endogenous innovation process. To that end, we study models of an innovation process and analyse the case of Sophia Antipolis. This theoretical study allows us to identify general inputs leading to creation of an endogenous innovation process in a region. --
    Date: 2012
  10. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Lawson, Cornelia
    Abstract: Based on a sample of research units in science and engineering at German universities, this study reports survey evidence showing that research grants impact research content. Research units that receive funds from industry are more likely to source ideas from the private sector. The higher the share of industry funding on the units' total budget, the more likely that large firms influenced the research agenda. Public research grants, on the other hand, are associated with a higher importance of conferences and scientific sources. What is more, the different sources of ideas impact scientific output. Research units that source research ideas from small and medium-sized firms (SMEs) patent more, but not more successful than others in terms of the impact of their inventions on future patents. If, on the other hand, research units source ideas from large firms we find them to publish less and with lower impact on future scientific work. --
    Keywords: University Research,Scientific Productivity,Research Funding,Academic Patents,Technology Transfer
    JEL: C23 I23 O31 O34 O38
    Date: 2012
  11. By: Gust-Bardon, Natalia Irena
    Abstract: Globalisation and the advent of information and communication technology (ICT) change the role of spatial distance in innovation activities. Geographical proximity used to be seen as a necessary condition to share tacit knowledge and to enhance trust between innovators; now this approach is being challenged by claiming that the role played by spatial distance diminishes with time. The aim of this paper is to present territorial innovation models as examples of theories based on assumptions of a crucial role of local environment and spatial distance in innovation processes and to present arguments against the said assumption. The paper concludes advocating the encouragement to cooperate both within the local network area and with distant partners and the creation of territorial innovation models as open systems engaged in interactive learning by global connectivity. --
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Lokshin, Boris (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University); Mohnen, Pierre (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, and School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of the Dutch R&D tax incentive scheme on the wages of R&D workers. We construct firm specific R&D tax credit rates that vary over time following variations in the Dutch R&D tax incentive program. Using instrumental variables we estimate a wage-sharing model with an unbalanced firm-level panel data covering the period 1997-2004. The elasticity of the R&D wage with respect to the fraction of the wage supported by the fiscal incentives scheme is estimated at 0.2 in the short run and 0.24 in the long run.
    Keywords: O32, O38, H25, J30, C23
    Date: 2012
  13. By: Stuart McDonald (School of Economics, The University of Queensland); Mohamad Alghamdi; Bernard Pailthorpe
    Abstract: Using a data set spanning the period 1899-2000, we construct a network of RJVs and track the pattern of growth of this network over time. The resulting R&D network is emergent in the sense that RJVs are contained within it, connected to other RJVs by the existence firms sharing membership with multiple RJVs. This paper shows that the largest growth in the R&D networks occurred during the last three decades of the Twentieth Century. During this growth period, the R&D network has a pattern of collaboration that can be characterized as having the “small world†property. This has implications for the rate of information diffusion across the network, as it implies that many non-collaborating firms are in fact quite close to each other in terms of degree of separation. We show that this network structure is due to the presence of a small number of highly connected firms that collaborate across multiple RJVs. These firms have an important characteristic in that without their presence in the network, the R&D network looses its cohesiveness and the small world property disappears. Hence, these highly connected firms have an important role to play in determining the overall robustness of the R&D network.
    Date: 2012
  14. By: Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; Chan-Kang, Connie
    Abstract: Recent trends in farm productivity and food prices raise concerns about whether the era of global agricultural abundance is over. Agricultural R&D is a crucial determinant of agricultural productivity and production, and therefore food prices and poverty. In this paper we review past and present agricultural production and productivity trends and present entirely new evidence on investments in public agricultural R&D worldwide as an indicator of the prospects for agricultural productivity growth over the coming decades. The agricultural R&D world is changing, and in ways that will definitely affect future global patterns of poverty, hunger and other outcomes. The global picture is mixed. In the world as a whole crop yield growth has slowed. In high-income countries productivity growth has slowed significantly, and real spending on agricultural R&D is being reduced. In China, and other middle-income countries, spending on agricultural R&D is being ramped up and productivity growth has not slowed. The overall picture is one in which the middle-income countries are growing in relative importance as producers of agricultural innovations through investments in R&D and have consequently better prospects as producers of agricultural products.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2012
  15. By: Chaminade, Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University); de Fuentes, Claudia (Saint Mary’s University, Canada)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to discuss the relationship between competences and the global innovation networks in the Swedish ICT industry using both survey data and information from a case company- TELEQUIP. The paper portrays the interplay between the availability of competences in the home country as well as in the host country, with the specific strategy of the firm for engaging in global innovation networks.
    Keywords: competence; globalization; global innovation networks; Sweden
    JEL: F23 O32
    Date: 2012–04–10
  16. By: Amel Attour
    Abstract: Au sein d’un écosystème, plusieurs entreprises peuvent endosser le rôle de firme pivot. Cette recherche propose une grille de lecture permettant d’identifier qui et quelles caractéristiques permettent à une firme pivot de se positionner dans le rôle de leader dans les différentes phases du cycle de vie de l’écosystème. Pour cela elle relève d’une démarche ingénierique au sens de Chanal et al. (1997) et s’appuie sur le projet « Nice Futur Campus (NFCampus) » et montre que seule deux fonctions du business model d’une innovation peuvent octroyer le rôle de leader à une firme pivot.
    Keywords: business models, écosystème d’affaires, innovation, mobiquité, firme pivot.
    Date: 2012
  17. By: David Richter; Jürgen Schupp
    Abstract: The SOEP Group currently is preparing in addition to increasing the size of the core SOEP, to establish a new Innovation Sample (SOEP-IS). This will be established for the period 2012 to 2017 (with a cumulative number of presumably N=5,000 households). Now, in the year 2012, a new subsample is being added for SOEP IS that will also replace the previous SOEP pretest sample. Starting with the 2013 survey, the SOEP will determine the contents of SOEP IS through a competitive refereed application process for the “best” research questions and their operationalizations, and will distribute the SOEP-IS data as part of its regular data releases.
    Date: 2012
  18. By: Arvind Ashta (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Glòria Estapé-Dubreuil (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Jean-Pierre Hédou (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole); Stéphan Bourcieu (CEREN - Centre de Recherche sur l'Entreprise - Start entering a institution, university, grande ecole)
    Abstract: Les micro-entrepreneurs peuvent accroître leur capacité à s'endetter en prenant en même temps des participations, respectant ainsi des ratios de prudence et réduisant le stress. La micro-prise de participation a démarré en France en 1983 sous l'impulsion d'un mouvement socialement innovant, connu sous le nom de CIGALES. Nous envisageons l'évolution du mouvement des CIGALES sous un angle institutionnel, afin de comprendre comment ces clubs de micro-angels se sont multipliés, mais aussi pourquoi le mouvement n'a pas grandi plus vite et de façon plus globale. Nos résultats suggèrent que l'innovation "catalytique" exige non seulement de l'entrepreneur institutionnel qu'il collabore avec d'autres institutions complémentaires, mais aussi qu'il crée ces mêmes institutions. Les barrières à ce mouvement sont à la fois liées à des valeurs internes et aux contraintes institutionnelles externes. La compréhension de ce mouvement pourrait être utile aux efforts de développement à venir.
    Keywords: entrepreneur institutionnel, capital-risque, bonne fée des affaires, innovation catalytique, microfinance, micro-prise de participation
    Date: 2012–08–28
  19. By: Dissanayake, D.M.N.S.W.
    Abstract: The business environment is highly intense and every corporate is seeking for strategies for survival and positioning the value proposition in a proper manner. Besides, the human factor is considered as vital in this regard. Properly selected, recruited, trained, motivated and performing individuals are a key asset for any organization regardless of the business sector. Thus the function of human resourcing is considered as imperative. Further, in the perspective of strategic, the HR department intends to develop HR plans and strategies which are aligning to the organizational strategic direction and the overall business strategy. Various tools and procedures need to be identified in order to execute the strategy. This review detailed about the importance of human resource management in recent business challenges and how the value depends on upon the effective execution of human resource framework. Pertaining empirical investigations have also used to illustrate the importance of managing people at work.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; Human Resource Management
    JEL: Z00 O15 L26
    Date: 2012–08–24

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