nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2012‒06‒13
ten papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Intellectual property rights in a quality-ladder model with persistent leadership By Christian Kiedaisch
  2. Firm technological innovation persistence: Organizational innovation matters By Naciba Haned; Christian Le Bas; Caroline Mothe; Uyen Nguyen
  3. A framework for assessing innovation collaboration partners and its application to India By De Prato, Giuditta; Nepelski, Daniel
  4. Internet Diffusion, Innovation and Employment Growth in the Costa Rican Manufacturing Sector By Ricardo Monge-González; Juan A. Rodríguez; John Hewitt; Keynor Ruiz; Jeffrey Orozco
  5. Stimulating Different Types of Eco-Innovation in the UK: Government Policies and Firm Motivations By Pelin Demirel; Effie Kesidou
  6. Internationalisation of ICT R&D in Asia vis a vis the world regions By Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta
  7. Trust and innovation activity in European regions: A geographic instrumental variables approach By Schild, Christopher-Johannes
  9. Establishment and Development of Academic Spin Off Firms by Evidence from Turkey and Some Policy Recommendations By Yelda Erden; Alp Eren Yurtseven
  10. L'institutionnalisation des pratiques comme vecteur de diffusion des innovations pétrolières : le cas des normes comptables By Véronique Blum

  1. By: Christian Kiedaisch
    Abstract: This article analyzes the effects of intellectual property rights in a quality-ladder model in which incumbent firms preemptively innovate in order to keep their position of leadership. Unlike in models with leapfrogging, granting non-expiring forward protection reduces the rate of innovation and imposing a non-obviousness requirement reduces R&D spending. It is shown that full protection against imitation, granted independently of the size of the lead, maximizes the average innovation rate.
    Keywords: Intellectual property rights, persistent leadership, cumulative innovation, preemption, forward protection, non-obviousness requirement, patent policy
    JEL: L40 O31 O34
    Date: 2012–05
  2. By: Naciba Haned (ESDES Ecole de management de Lyon - Université Catholique de Lyon); Christian Le Bas (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure - Lyon); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Uyen Nguyen (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: Organizational innovation favors technological innovation, but does it also influence technological innovation persistence ? This article investigates empirically the pattern of technological innovation persistence and tests the potential impact of organizational innovation using firm-level data from three waves of the French Community Innovation Surveys. Evidence shows a positive effect of organizational innovation on technological innovation persistence, according to various measures of organizational innovation. Moreover, this impact is more significant for complex innovators (i.e., those who innovate in both products and processes). These results highlight the complexity of managing organizational practices with regard to the firm's technological innovation. They also add to comprehension of the drivers of innovation persistence, through a focus on an often forgotten dimension of innovation in a broader sense.
    Keywords: Organizational Innovation; Technological Innovation; Persistence
    Date: 2012–06–01
  3. By: De Prato, Giuditta; Nepelski, Daniel
    Abstract: We develop a framework for assessing innovation collaboration partners. Based on the evidence from existing empirical studies, we identify four elements relevant as drivers of innovation collaboration. These elements include inventive capacity, technological specialization patterns, openness to international innovation collaboration and economic potential of technology. In order to make the framework operational, we propose a set of patent-based indicators that capture the relevant elements. In a second step, we apply the framework to analyse the attractiveness of India as a partner for innovation collaboration. Except for mapping India’s technological specialization patterns evolution, we show that it is a country very open to international collaboration. Moreover, as a lion’s share of India’s inventions is patented outside of the country, it can be expected that the technology developed in India has supranational commercial potential.
    Keywords: collaborative innovation; science and technology collaboration; globalisation of technology; patent analysis; India
    JEL: O30 F23 O57 D80 O14
    Date: 2012–05–31
  4. By: Ricardo Monge-González; Juan A. Rodríguez; John Hewitt; Keynor Ruiz; Jeffrey Orozco
    Abstract: This study assesses the direct impact of Internet diffusion on total labor demand, the demand for skilled labor, and the demand for female labor. Using data from a sample of manufacturing firms in Costa Rica from 2006 to 2007, the study finds that both process and product innovations are positively related to employment growth and that the use of the Internet by workers for business purposes does not impact demand for labor. The positive impact of product innovation on labor demand increases when workers use the Internet for business purposes. This relationship was not found in cases of skilled and female labor demand. These findings underscore the Internet's importance in improving the impact of product innovation on employment growth and suggest that employee use of the Internet is neither a labor displacement innovation nor a gender or skill-biased innovation.
    Keywords: Science & Technology :: Research & Development, Science & Technology :: New Technologies, Science & Technology :: Telecommunications, skills, gender, information technologies, communication technologies
    JEL: D22 O31 O38
    Date: 2012–05
  5. By: Pelin Demirel (Nottingham University Business School, Nothingham University); Effie Kesidou (Nottingham University Business School, Nothingham University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we adopt a recent OECD framework and examine the role of external policy tools and internal firm specific factors for stimulating three different types of eco-innovations that range on a spectrum of lower to higher technological and environmental impact: End-of-Pipeline Pollution Control Technologies, Integrated Cleaner Production Technologies and Environmental R&D. Using a novel firm-level dataset from a DEFRA survey, we estimate a Tobit model, which provides empirical evidence showing that these eco-innovations are motivated by different external policy tools and internal firm specific factors. Our findings indicate that End of Pipeline Technologies and Integrated Cleaner Production Technologies are mainly driven by equipment upgrade motives with a view of improving efficiency while environmental regulations are effective in stimulating the End-of-Pipeline technologies and Environmental R&D. Interestingly, alongside government induced regulations, we find that market factors, mainly motivated by cost savings, are effective in driving Environmental R&D. Finally, ISO14001 certification is effective in strengthening the positive impact of environmental management systems on both End-of-Pipeline technologies and Environmental R&D while CSR policies have no significant impact on motivating any of the eco-innovations.
    Keywords: Cleaner Production, Environmental Regulation, Environmental Taxes, Environmental Management Systems, Eco-R&D, ISO14001
    Date: 2012–05
  6. By: Nepelski, Daniel; De Prato, Giuditta
    Abstract: We analyse the internationalisation of ICT R&D in Asia and compare it with the other world regions. Despite the strong linkages between Japan, the US and the EU, Asia seems to be very attractive as a location for R&D activities. It is also striking how the role of Japan as a partner of other Asian countries decreased mainly in favour of the US. At the aggregate level, there are strong differences in R&D internationalisation across regions. This might indicate that each region follows a different R&D internationalisation path. Alternatively, it might also be a sign of unequal capabilities of "going global". In this respect, the US offers an interesting example of a region which benefit from the process of internationalisation of inventive activity not only through building research collaborations with foreign inventors, but also through successfully capturing innovations developed by foreign researchers.
    Keywords: Globalisation; R&D internationalization; R&D location; patent statistics
    JEL: O32 D80
    Date: 2011–12–01
  7. By: Schild, Christopher-Johannes
    Abstract: For a cross-section of 123 European regions, a positive causal effect of generalised trust on innovation activity is identified using a set of geographic instrumental variables from climate and soil data. The geographic instrumental variables are defined and discussed. The popular explanation for spatial clustering of innovation by 'interregional knowledge spillovers' is empirically tested. It is found that spatial clustering of innovation activity can be better explained by a positive in uence of trust on innovation combined with the fact that neighboring regions typically show similar levels of trust. --
    Keywords: Social Capital,Trust,Innovation,Regional Economics,Europe
    JEL: O31 R11 R12 Z13
    Date: 2012
  8. By: Guillaume Dumas (LGCO - Laboratoire de Gouvernance et Contrôle des Organisations - IAE de Toulouse)
    Abstract: Cette recherche détermine la mesure dans laquelle les dirigeants adoptent un comportement myopique d'investissement en R&D ; défini comme l'ajustement intentionnel des investissements de long terme dans l'objectif d'atteindre des résultats sur le court terme. Cette recherche s'interroge ensuite sur la propension qu'a eu la réduction de discrétion managériale en matière de comptabilisation des dépenses de R&D (lors de l'adoption des normes IFRS) sur la gestion réelle des résultats par l'investissement en R&D. Les résultats montrent que les dirigeants ajustent intentionnellement à la baisse leurs investissements en R&D pour atteindre le résultat bénéficiaire et dans une moindre mesure le résultat de l'année précédente. La réduction de l'investissement en R&D pour atteindre le résultat bénéficiaire est légèrement plus prononcée sous le référentiel IFRS.
    Keywords: Comportement myopique d'investissement, R&D, gestion des résultats, norme comptable.
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Yelda Erden (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Alp Eren Yurtseven (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the main characteristics of academic spin off firms, which evolve from universities through commercialization of intellectual property and transfer of technology developed within academic institutions. Academic spin off firms can be conceptualized as a subset of new technology-based firms and they emerge as important actors of the innovation system in Turkey. Despite the extensive empirical evidence pointing to the conclusion that most new technology-based firms do not grow and more importantly do not even want to grow, the dominating view of new technology-based firms is presuming rapid growth, or at least an aspiration towards it. In addition to problems associated with the liability of newness, academic spin off firms also face two fundamentally different difficulties: Academic spin off firms evolve from non commercial environments, i.e. universities and research laboratories, and have to overcome substantial obstacles on the way to become a profitable organization. Moreover key stakeholders in the founding process (i.e. the academic entrepreneurs, university management, finance suppliers etc.) may have conflicting interests, which may influence the growth pattern of academic spin off firms. Solution of these problems call for a redefinition of parent organization’s structure and mission statement. Recently emerging third mission paradigm puts forward entrepreneurialism as a new pillar in addition to teaching and research. This study attempts to highlight key characteristics of ASOF’s and obtained results are expected to contribute to the intellectual debate about transformation of universities with an entrepreneurial mind set. Obtained results indicate that founders of academic spin off firms have precedent joint research experience, i.e. network of researchers and role of research group as a quasi- firm is influential in the founding process of academic spin off firms. Moreover academic spin off firms are embedded in networks, rather than being atomistic entities and either structure of these networks change, or academic spin off firms partake in different networks during their development.
    Keywords: Academic spin-off, new technology-based firm, entrepreneurial university
    Date: 2012–05
  10. By: Véronique Blum (Grenoble 2 UPMF - Université Pierre Mendès France - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Les normes comptables constituent-elles un moyen d'institutionnalisation des pratiques innovantes en facilitant leur diffusion ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous examinons le cas des innovations en provenance du secteur pétrolier historiquement à la source de pratiques désormais banalisées. La théorie de la diffusion des innovations telle que redéfinie par Wejnert (2002) est mobilisée pour montrer que l'institutionnalisation des pratiques constitue un mode privilégié d'uniformisation globale. Le DP/2010/1, projet de norme relatif aux "Activités d'extraction", est examiné comme potentiellement bénéficiaires de conditions semblables de diffusion. Des divergences dans les modalités de diffusion sont identifiées et commentées.
    Keywords: Normes internationales - Diffusion - Innovation - Pétrole
    Date: 2012

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