nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2012‒01‒03
25 papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. The determinants of YIc's R&D activity By José García-Quevedo; Gabriele Pellegrino; Marco Vivarelli
  2. Does Founders’ Human Capital Matter for Innovation? Evidence from Japanese Start-ups By Kato, Masatoshi; Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Yuji
  3. The Innovation and Imitation Dichotomy in Spanish firms: do absorptive capacity and the technological frontier matter? By Verònica Gombau; Agustí Segarra
  4. From wires to partners: How the Internet has fostered R&D collaborations within firms By Chris CM Forman; Nicolas van Zeebroeck
  5. The Impact of Stronger Property Rights in Pharmaceuticals on Innovation in Developed and Developing Countries By Ming Liu; Sumner LaCroix
  6. Disruptive Innovation…in Reverse: a Theoretical Framework to Look at New Product Development from Emerging Economies By Simone Corsi; Alberto Di Minin
  7. Innovation versus Imitation: Intellectual Property Rights in a North-South Framework By Michael Wycherley
  8. Where do Innovations Come From? Transformations in the U.S. Economy, 1970-2006 By Fred Block; Matthew R. Keller
  9. Innovation Policy and Employment: Evidence from an Impact Evaluation in Argentina By Victoria Castillo; Alessandro Maffioli; Sofía Rojo; Rodolfo Stucchi
  10. Impact of SME policies on innovation capabilities: The Turkish case By Elif Bascavusoglu-Moreau; Mustafa Colakoglu
  11. Innovation barriers for small biotech, ICT and clean tech firms:Coping with knowledge leakage and legitimacy deficits By Erik Stam; Neil Thompson; Andrea Herrmann; Marko Hekkert
  12. Innovation in Services: The Hard Case for Latin America and the Caribbean By Ezequiel Tacsir
  13. Environmental and innovation performance in a dynamic impure public good framework By Massimiliano Corradini; Valeria Costantini; Susanna Mancinelli; Massimiliano Mazzanti
  14. Research, Science, and Technology Parks: Vehicles for Technology Transfer By Link, Albert N.; Scott, John T.
  15. Inter-firm R&D networks in the global pharmaceutical biotechnology industry during 1985 - 1998: A conceptual and empirical analysis By Krogmann, Yin; Schwalbe, Ulrich
  16. The determinants of eco innovation in green supply chains: evidence form an Italian sectoral study By Marco Frey; Fabio Iraldo; Francesco Testa
  17. Effects of innovation on employment in Latin America By Crespi, Gustavo; Tacsir, Ezequiel
  18. Endogenous specialization of heterogeneous innovative activities of firms under technological spillovers By Bondarev, Anton A.
  19. Value of invention, prolific inventor productivity and mobility : evidence from five countries, 1975-2002 By William Latham; Christian Le Bas; Dmitry Volodin
  20. Imports, Innovation and Employment after Crisis: Evidence from a Developing Country By Caroline Paunov
  21. Analyzing R&D Activities of Foreign Enterprises in Emerging Economies. Lessons from Turkey By M. Teoman Pamukçu; Erkan Erdil
  22. R&D Costs and Productivity in Biopharmaceuticals By Scherer, F. M.
  23. Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A Model Based on Entrepreneur Development By Lorenzo Vicens; Sergio Grullón
  24. A relational approach to knowledge spillovers in biotech. Network structures as drivers of inter-organizational citation patterns By Ron Boschma; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Dieter Kogler
  25. Leading the Way: Coalitional Stability in Technological Cooperation & Sequential Climate Policy By Heinrich H. Nax; Thomas W.L. Norman

  1. By: José García-Quevedo (Barcelona Institute of Economics - University of Barcelona, Barcelona); Gabriele Pellegrino (Barcelona Institute of Economics - University of Barcelona, Barcelona; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza and Milano); Marco Vivarelli (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza and Milano; IZA, Bonn; SPRU, University of Sussex, Brighton)
    Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of young innovative companies’ (YICs) R&D activities taking into account the autoregressive nature of innovation. Using a large longitudinal dataset comprising Spanish manufacturing firms over the period 1990-2008, we find that previous R&D experience is a fundamental determinant for mature and young firms, albeit to a smaller extent in the case of the YICs, suggesting that their innovation behaviour is less persistent and more erratic. Moreover, our results suggest that firm and market characteristics play a distinct role in boosting the innovation activity of firms of different age. In particular, while market concentration and the degree of product diversification are found to be important in boosting R&D activities in the sub-sample of mature firms only, YICs’ spending on R&D appears to be more sensitive to demand-pull variables, suggesting the presence of credit constraints. These results have been obtained using a recently proposed dynamic type-2 tobit estimator, which accounts for individual effects and efficiently handles the initial conditions problem.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, Young Innovative Companies (YICs), dynamic type-2 tobit estimator.
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2011–12
  2. By: Kato, Masatoshi; Okamuro, Hiroyuki; Honjo, Yuji
    Abstract: Using a sample from an original questionnaire survey in Japan, this paper explores whether and how founders’ human capital affects innovation outcomes by start-ups. The results provide evidence that founders with greater human capital are more likely to yield innovation outcome. However, because certain types of founders’ human capital may boost R&D investment, which possibly results in innovation outcomes, we estimate the determinants of innovation outcomes by an instrumental variable probit model taking into account the endogeneity of R&D investment. Our findings suggest that specific human capital for innovation, such as founders’ prior innovation experience, is directly associated with innovation outcomes after start-up, while generic human capital, such as founders’ educational background, indirectly affects innovation outcomes through R&D investment.
    Keywords: Start-up, Founder, Human capital, Innovations, R&D investment
    JEL: L24 M13 O31
    Date: 2011–12
  3. By: Verònica Gombau (Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d’Economia, CREIP, XREAP, Grup de Recerca d’Indústria i Territori, Av. Universitat, 1, 43204 Reus, Spain); Agustí Segarra (Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Departament d’Economia, CREIP, XREAP, Grup de Recerca d’Indústria i Territori, Av. Universitat, 1, 43204 Reus, Spain)
    Abstract: This paper analyses whether a firm’s absorptive capacity and its distance from the technological frontier affect the choice between innovation and imitation in innovative Spanish firms. From an extensive survey of 5,575 firms during the 2004-2009 period, we found two significant results. With regard to the role of absorptive capacity, the empirical evidence shows that when innovative firms have difficulties in accessing external information and hire skilled workers, their innovative capacity is reduced. Meanwhile, with regard to distance from the technological frontier, the firms that reduce this gap manage to increase their innovative capacity at the expense of imitation. To summarise, when we studied firms’ absorptive capacity and their relative position to the technological frontier in tandem, we found that the two factors directly affected firms' ability to innovate or imitate.
    Keywords: R&D sources, innovation and imitation strategies, absorptive capacity, technological frontier, ordered probit
    Date: 2011–12
  4. By: Chris CM Forman; Nicolas van Zeebroeck
    Abstract: How did the diffusion of the Internet influence research collaborations within firms? We examine the relationship between business use of basic Internet technology and the size and geographic composition of industrial research teams between 1992 and 1998. We find robust empirical evidence that basic Internet adoption is associated with an increased likelihood of collaborative patents from geographically dispersed teams. On the contrary, we find no evidence of such a link between Internet adoption and within-location collaborative patents, nor do we find any evidence of a relationship between basic Internet and single-inventor patents. We interpret these results as evidence that adoption of basic Internet significantly reduced the coordination costs of research teams, but find little evidence that a drop in the costs of shared resource access significantly improved research productivity.
    Keywords: R&D organization, geography of innovation, internet adoption, IT
    JEL: O30 O32 L60
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Ming Liu (Deptartment of Finance, Nankai University); Sumner LaCroix (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii)
    Abstract: An instrumental variable econometric model is specified to investigate how changes in a country’s patent protection for pharmaceutical innovations are related to patent awards from the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to the country’s applicants. We use a new measure of patent protection for pharmaceutical innovations, the PIPP Index, to account for cross-country variation in pharmaceutical protection. Using GMM and other IV estimators, we find that stronger pharmaceutical patent protection in the applicant’s home country does not increase the number of U.S. pharmaceutical patents awarded to developed and developing country inventors.
    Keywords: Patent, pharmaceutical, GMM, instrument, innovation, TRIPS
    JEL: O1 O31 O34
    Date: 2011–11–23
  6. By: Simone Corsi (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa); Alberto Di Minin (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa)
    Abstract: It is now clear that emerging economies are gaining increasing importance in the global innovation system. Their actual role is perhaps the central question driving the growing interest in this topic and to which this paper attempts to respond. Although several authors have identified and discussed the process of innovation from emerging economies, it remains under-explored. We view the disruptive innovation (Christensen, 1997) and reverse innovation (Immelt et al, 2009) paradigms side by side: two theories that we think offer interesting and complementary perspectives when we position emerging markets at the centre of the stage as a source of innovation. By analyzing different definitions and descriptions provided by the literature on innovation for and from emerging economies, this paper attempts a reinterpretation of the concept of reverse innovation, defined as a type of disruptive innovation.
    Keywords: Disruptive Innovation, Reverse Innovation, Emerging Economies, Product Development, Cost Innovation, R&D Internationalization.
    JEL: O32 F23 F44 M16
    Date: 2011–04–01
  7. By: Michael Wycherley (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin, Ireland)
    Abstract: This paper examines differences in the optimal strength of intellectual property rights protection in a North-South endogenous growth model where it is possible for the South to engage in imitation, innovation or both. The possibility of Southern innovation implies sharp breaks in optimal policy at different stages of development in the South depending on whether it is optimal to induce innovation in the South. These sharp breaks imply strong policy conflict between the North and the South at intermediate levels of development but policy agreement elsewhere.
    Keywords: Intellectual Property Rights, Innovation, Economic Development
    JEL: O34 O31
    Date: 2011–12
  8. By: Fred Block; Matthew R. Keller
    Abstract: This article brings to bear new data on the issue of structuring national innovation systems. Drawing on a unique data set of prize winning innovations between 1971 and 2006, we document three key changes in the U.S. economy. The first is an expanding role of interorganizational collaborations in producing award winning innovations. The second is the diminishing role of the largest corporations as sources of innovation. The third is the expanded role of public institutions and public funding in the innovation process. This leads us to the surprising conclusion that the U.S. increasingly resembles a Developmental Network State in which government initiatives are critical in overcoming network failures and in providing critical funding for the innovation process. The paper concludes by addressing the implications of these finding for debates over the appropriate regime for intellectual property rights.
    Date: 2011–05
  9. By: Victoria Castillo; Alessandro Maffioli; Sofía Rojo; Rodolfo Stucchi
    Abstract: This paper presents the evaluation of the Enterprise Restructuring Support Program in Argentina. The aim of the program was to increase the competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises by cofinancing technical assistance that can be classified as either support for process innovation or support for product innovation. Although these types of programs do not primarily aim to create jobs, they are implemented assuming that they do, or at least that they do not destroy jobs. This paper tests this assumption. It compares the impact of each type of support on employment and the type of employment measured by the wages paid by firms to their employees. To control for self-selection into the program, propensity score matching and difference in differences were combined. The study found that by supporting both process and product innovation-related activities, the program was able to create more and better jobs. The effect on wages was also found to be higher when supporting product innovation activities.
    Keywords: Private Sector :: SME, Labor :: Workforce & Employment, Science & Technology :: Research & Development, Science & Technology :: New Technologies, innovation, employment, wages, policy evaluation, SMEs, Argentina
    JEL: D2 J23 L8 O31 O33
    Date: 2011–12
  10. By: Elif Bascavusoglu-Moreau (Centre for Business Research, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge); Mustafa Colakoglu (TTGV Turkey Technology Development Foundation)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the determinants of innovative capabilities in an emerging country context. We focus more particularly on the impact of recent changes in SME policies in Turkey. Using a unique firm-level survey conducted on 45.000 SMEs, innovative capabilities of firms are assessed at three different levels; their innovation efforts, innovation decision and innovative intensity. We analyze and compare the impact of two different incentive schemes; one a purely financial support, and the second, consultancy and technological assistance coupled with financial facilities. Whereas all firms seem to benefit from financial support, only less innovative firms take full advantage of the advisory services. Overall, the determinants of innovative capabilities depend considerably on the type of firms, suggesting the need for differentiated policy measures.
    Keywords: Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), technological capability building, innovation, SME policies
    Date: 2011–05
  11. By: Erik Stam; Neil Thompson; Andrea Herrmann; Marko Hekkert
    Abstract: Innovative high-tech small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) are thought to be drivers of economic renewal and growth. However, due to their limited size, SMEs face two fundamental innovation barriers: the risk that other organizations appropriate the returns to the newly created knowledge by SMEs (knowledge leakage), and a lack of understanding and recognition of their business on the part of potential stakeholders (legitimacy deficits). Based on a panel study of 196 SMEs this paper shows that biotech, ICT and clean tech firms choose different strategies to deal with knowledge leakage and legitimacy deficits. To prevent knowledge leakage, high-tech SMEs are very selective in choosing their R&D partners and collaborate with basic rather than applied technology developers. Furthermore, to gain organizational legitimacy, high-tech SMEs pursue activities that focus not only on product development but also on generating awareness and understanding of their technologies.  
    Date: 2011–12–23
  12. By: Ezequiel Tacsir
    Abstract: Recent research conducted by the IDB shows that innovation positively affects productivity growth in the Latin American and Caribbean region, although the evidence comes almost exclusively from the manufacturing sector. The dearth of evidence regarding innovation in services is related, at least in part, to uncertainty with respect to how innovation in services actually works, how it can best be measured and whether or not old measurement tools (biased toward manufacturing and R&D) are really applicable to innovation in service sector environments. This paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the dynamics at play in the service sector in the region and the relationship between productivity and innovation in services (as well as specific sub-sectors of services) represents a policy making opportunity that, if ignored, could contribute to prolonged productivity lags in the region, while, if well designed and implemented, could have large economic payoffs. This paper was presented at the Fifth Americas Competiveness Forum for the Inter-American Development Bank and Compete Caribbean Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, October 5-7, 2011.
    Keywords: Science & Technology :: New Technologies, Science & Technology :: Research & Development, Economics :: Economic Development & Growth, Economics :: Productivity, productivity, innovation, services, innovation in services, Fifth Americas Competiveness Forum for the Inter-American Development Bank
    Date: 2011–11
  13. By: Massimiliano Corradini; Valeria Costantini; Susanna Mancinelli; Massimiliano Mazzanti
    Abstract: We model investment decisions regarding innovation and emissions abatement in a dynamic theoretical framework, where knowledge stock is considered as an impure public good. The reaction function between one representative agent’s investments in innovation and the other agents’ investments in the public characteristic of the impure public good has positive slope under general conditions and that its sensitiveness is affected by assumptions on the elasticity of substitution in the benefit function as well as on the degree of complementarity between the private and the public characteristic. The positivity of the reaction function is then empirically tested in an econometric estimation. We exploit an original database by gathering innovation efforts as well as emissions over the period 1996-2006 for 15 European countries and 23 manufacturing sectors. Empirical results show that innovation investment is positively driven by the public characteristics provided by other sectors, with different reactivity strength for different polluting emissions.
    Keywords: impure public goods, environmental externalities, innovation spillovers
    JEL: D21 H41 O33 Q53 Q55
    Date: 2011–11
  14. By: Link, Albert N. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Scott, John T. (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Research, science, and technology parks are increasingly seen as a means to create dynamic clusters that accelerate economic growth and international competitiveness through the transfer of knowledge and technology. As such, it is important to understand the academic literature related to research, science, and technology parks (hereafter R-S-T parks, or simply parks) because that literature, albeit embryonic, has had and will continue to frame public policies related to park formations and growth. The purpose of this chapter is thus to overview the extant academic literature on knowledge and technology transfer to and from parks, and to discuss its importance to public policy issues.
    Keywords: Science park; Innovation; Public policy
    JEL: O30 O43
    Date: 2011–12–21
  15. By: Krogmann, Yin; Schwalbe, Ulrich
    Abstract: This paper analyses a large database on inter-firm R&D cooperation formed in the pharmaceutical biotechnology industry during the period 1985 - 1998. The results indicate that network size largely grows, whereas the density of the network declines during the periods. In the network analysis that emphasizes individual structural positions, the empirical results show that small biotechnological companies had a crucial bridging role for the large pharmaceutical firms in the second half of the 1980s. In the 1990s, the bridge role of biotechnology companies became less important and established pharmaceutical companies developed into dominant start players with many collaborators while holding central roles in the research network. The current analysis also shows that degree-based and betweenness-based network centralization are both low implying that the overall positional advantages are relatively equally distributed in the inter-firm R&D network of the pharmaceutical biotechnology industry. --
    Keywords: R&D networks,pharmaceutical biotechnology,network analysis,conceptual centrality,network visualization software
    JEL: C88 D85 L24 L65 O32
    Date: 2011
  16. By: Marco Frey (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa); Fabio Iraldo (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa); Francesco Testa (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa)
    Abstract: In the last years attention has increased to the eco-innovation topic. Empirical studies have demonstrated that innovating firms grow faster, have higher productivity and are more profitable than their less innovative counterparts (Geroski et al., 1993; Roper and Hewitt-Dundas, 1998). Drawing upon a database of over 300 enterprises operating within eight defined green production chains working in the Province of Milan, this paper assesses the determinants and drawbacks of innovation. In particular, using an econometrical approach, we tested the following propositions: a) small dimension of enterprises is an obstacle to their innovation power; b) The adoption of an international strategy of production and commercialisation is an opportunity and a stimulus to eco-innovation; c) cooperation with research partners can help SMEs to overcome difficulties and help them to develop and offer eco-sustainable products and services. The econometric analysis shows a positive impact of dimension and level of internationalization on innovation capabilities. In addition, cooperation with research centers and access to capital market are positively related with effective innovations.
    Keywords: SME, eco-innovation, supply chain, green economy.
    JEL: M20 Q55
    Date: 2011–03–01
  17. By: Crespi, Gustavo; Tacsir, Ezequiel
    Abstract: This study examines the impact of process and product innovation on employment growth across four Latin American countries (Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Uruguay) using micro data from innovation surveys. Specifically, we relate employment growth to process innovations and to the growth of sales separately due to innovative and unchanged products. Results show that that compensation effects are prevalent, and the introduction of new products is associated with employment growth at the firm level. Specifically, we find that for the manufacturing firms as a whole, the introduction of process innovations only affects the employment growth in the countries case of Chile. At the same time, we observe no evidence of displacement effects due to the introduction of product innovations. In fact, the observed compensation effects resulting from the introduction of new products imply, in turn, employment growth even when the replacement of old products is taken into account.
    Keywords: Innovation; Employment; Developing countries; Latin America; Innovation surveys
    JEL: O31 J23
    Date: 2011–09–28
  18. By: Bondarev, Anton A.
    Abstract: This paper proposes a reduced form model of dynamic duopoly in the context of heterogeneous innovations framework. Two agents invest into product and process innovations simultaneously. Every newly introduced product has its own dimension of process-improving innovations and there is a continuum of possible new products. In the area of process innovations the costless imitation effect is modelled while in the area of product innovations agents are cooperating with each other. As a result the specialization of innovative activity is observed. This specialization arises from strategic interactions of agents in both fields of innovative activity and is endogenously defined from the dynamics of the model.
    Keywords: Innovations; Dynamics; Multiproduct; Spillovers; Distributed Control; Differential Games
    JEL: L0 C02 O31
    Date: 2011–12–15
  19. By: William Latham (Department of Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA); Christian Le Bas (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France); Dmitry Volodin (Department of Economics, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19711, USA)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide new insights into (1) the determinants of the value of inventions and (2) the role that mobility plays in the behavior of prolific inventors, whom we identify based on the number of patents exceeding a threshold of productivity. We examine mobility in two dimensions : from firm to firm (inter-firm) and from one technical field to another. We exploit data on patents filed by inventors from five countries (France, the UK, Germany, the US and Japan) in the US Patent and Trademark office during the period from 1975 to 2002. From our regressions we obtain a rich set of results. In particular we show that : (1) as predicted by evolutionary theory, inventor productivity is a positive determinant of invention value, (2) inter-firm mobility is a consistently positive determinant of productivity and (3) technological mobility is a negative determinant. The last implies that the more specialized an inventor is, the higher his productivity is.
    Keywords: prolific inventor, mobility, productivity, value of invention
    JEL: O31
    Date: 2011
  20. By: Caroline Paunov
    Abstract: Imports are often perceived as a threat to employment. However, access to imported intermediate inputs can be essential to stimulate innovation and generate employment. We investigate this question based on a unique dataset of Ecuadorian manufacturing firms, their final products and intermediate inputs. Using fixed effects instrumental variable estimation we find that firms' importing activities lead to product innovation, increase firms' product scope, reduce production costs and create employment. These impacts arise not only for producers in high-tech industries but also for firms in more traditional sectors. Employment effects are much stronger several years after the country's economic crisis.
    Keywords: imports, employment, Ecuador, economic crisis, multi-product firms, intermediate inputs, product innovation, product scope, input production costs
    JEL: D22 F16 L6 O12 O30 O54
    Date: 2011–12–19
  21. By: M. Teoman Pamukçu (TEKPOL, Science and Technology Policy Studies, Middle East Technical University); Erkan Erdil (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University)
    Date: 2011–04
  22. By: Scherer, F. M. (Harvard University)
    Abstract: This article characterizes the activities required to launch a new pharmaceutical molecule into the market, summarizes studies that have attempted to pinpoint the research and development costs incurred per approved new molecule, and analyzes the various critiques levied against published R&D cost estimates. It finds that by any reckoning, R&D costs per approved molecule have risen sharply over time, most likely at a rate of approximately 7 percent per year after stripping out the effects of general economic inflation.
    Date: 2011–12
  23. By: Lorenzo Vicens; Sergio Grullón
    Abstract: This article proposes a person-centered model for entrepreneurship, rather than one based on an idea or business plan. It analyzes the characteristics of entrepreneurship development programs worldwide and presents a representative sample of best practices. On the basis of the main findings and lessons learned, this paper defines the characteristics and components of a new model for entrepreneur development and presents recommendations as to how to deploy the model in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    Keywords: Science & Technology, Economics :: Economic Development & Growth, Private Sector :: Business Development, entrepreneurship, innovation, Latin America and the Caribbean, innovation model, person-centered model for entrepreneurship, best practices
    Date: 2011–11
  24. By: Ron Boschma; Pierre-Alexandre Balland; Dieter Kogler
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the geography of knowledge spillovers in biotech by investigating the way in which knowledge ties are organized. Following a relational account on knowledge spillovers, we depict knowledge networks as complex evolving structures that build on pre-existing knowledge and previously formed ties. In economic geography, there is still little understanding of how structural network forces (like preferential attachment and closure) shape the structure and formation of knowledge spillover networks in space. Our study investigates the knowledge spillover networks of biotech firms by means of inter-organizational citation patterns based on USPTO biotech patents in the years 2008-2010. Using a Stochastic Actor-Oriented Model (SAOM), we explain the driving forces behind the decision of actors to cite patents produced by other actors. Doing so, we address directly the endogenous forces of knowledge dynamics.
    Keywords: knowledge spillovers, network structure, patent citations, biotech, proximity
    JEL: B15 R11 R12
    Date: 2011–12
  25. By: Heinrich H. Nax; Thomas W.L. Norman
    Abstract: The World’s nations have yet to reach a truly effective treaty to control the emission of greenhouse gases. The importance of compatibility with private incentives of individual countries has been acknowledged (at least by game theorists) in designing climate policies for the post-Kyoto world. Individually incentive-compatible agreements, however, may still be spoilt if coalitional incentives to deviate as a group exist. As a first step toward understanding these incentives from a game-theoretic perspective, we propose a hybrid noncooperative-cooperative game theory model of coalition formation in technology collaboration. Serious coalitional instabilities inherent to the existing climate policy architectures are revealed. It turns out that coalitionally stable agreements are achieved via intermediate self-selecting subcoalitions. The sequence of coalitions forming and the size of the direct and spillover effects of R&D collaboration on countries’ individual production technologies determine the effectiveness of the agreements to reduce carbon emissions. These coalitional group motives are already becoming important in the practice of climate change negotiations.
    Keywords: Climate change policy, Coalitions, Cooperative game theory, Environmental agreements, Externalities, Mechanism design, Noncooperative game theory, R&D
    JEL: C71 C73 D62 D86 F53 H87 Q54
    Date: 2011

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