nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2011‒12‒19
twenty-two papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
University of Otago, Dunedin

  1. Technological innovation persistence : Literature survey and exploration of the role of organizational innovation By Christian Le Bas; Caroline Mothe; Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi
  2. Does founders’ human capital matter for innovation? Evidence from Japanese start-ups By Masatoshi Kato; Hiroyuki Okamuro; Yuji Honjo
  3. Cooperating firms in inventive and absorptive research By Ben Youssef, Slim; Breton, Michèle; Zaccour, Georges
  4. Linking scientific and practical knowledge in innovation systems By Isaksen, Arne; Nilsson, Magnus
  5. The success of the R&D tax credit shows that there can be a role for public policy in stimulating innovation and growth. By Van Reenen, John
  6. Innovation and Foreign Technology in Italy,1861-2011 By Federico Barbiellini Amidei; John Cantwell; Anna Spadavecchia
  7. The Role of Information in Competitive Experimentation By Ufuk Akcigit; Qingmin Liu
  8. Entry deterrence through cooperative R&D over-investment By Christin, Clémence
  9. Innovation and monopoly: The position of Schumpeter By laino, antonella
  10. Organizational structure, strategic delegation and innovation in oligopolistic industries By Evangelos Mitrokostas; Emmanuel Petrakis
  11. European SMEs, external relationships and innovation: some empirical evidence By A. Lasagni
  12. Inducement Prizes and Innovation. By Brunt, Liam; Lerner, Josh; Nicholas, Tom
  13. The protection of industrial inventions: analysis of the regulation and policy evaluation. By Daniele Sabbatini
  14. Innovation, Research and Development, and Productivity: Case Studies from Peru By Juana Kuramoto
  15. Technological Dynamics and Social Capability: Comparing U.S. States and European Nations By Fagerberg, Jan; Feldman, Maryann; Srholec, Martin
  16. Analyses on efficiency of national innovation system for BRICS and the influencing factors: A comparative study based on DEA and panel data analysis By Cai, Yuezhou
  17. Les motivations de l'inscription des investissements en R&D à l'actif : Divulgation volontaire d'informations ou gestion des résultats ? By Samah Rebai Azouz
  18. SMEs´ absorptive capacities and large firms´ knowledge spillovers: Micro evidence from Mexico By De Fuentes, Claudia; Dutrénit, Gabriela
  19. L'innovation : une incitation à la gestion des résultats ? By Constant Djama; Guillaume Dumas; Isabelle Martinez
  20. Innovation, Diffusion, and Trade: Theory and Measurement By Santacreu, Ana Maria
  21. Italian Firms in History: Size, Technology and Entrepreneurship By Franco Amatori; Matteo Bugamelli; Andrea Colli
  22. Traitement comptable des dépenses de R&D et motivations de gestion des résultats : une étude empirique sur des entreprises françaises cotées By Sana Triki Damak; Khamoussi Halioui

  1. By: Christian Le Bas (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon); Caroline Mothe (IREGE - Institut de Recherche en Gestion et en Economie - Université de Savoie); Thuc Uyen Nguyen-Thi (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: In this paper, we will review the literature on technological innovation persistence and provide a general theoretical framework to analyze the main determinants of this innovative behavior. Moreover, no previous empirical study has taken into account organizational innovation practices as possible determinants of innovation persistence. We will therefore include them, as previous studies have shown the interaction effects between the two types of innovation, and produce empirical results on technical innovation persistence. A multinomial probit model was used to estimate the likelihood of belonging to each of the three longitudinal innovation profiles. Results confirm the differentiated impact of determinants on process and technological innovation persistence, and the effect of R&D intensity, R&D cooperation and competition intensity. As hypothesized, we also found that organizational innovation is a determinant factor for innovation persistence and, more generally speaking, for technological innovation, in particular organizational practices such as knowledge management and external partnerships.
    Keywords: Persistence; Innovation; Technological innovation; Organizational innovation; R&D
    Date: 2011–12–07
  2. By: Masatoshi Kato (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University); Hiroyuki Okamuro (Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University); Yuji Honjo (Faculty of Commerce, Chuo University)
    Abstract: Using a sample from an original questionnaire survey in Japan, this paper explores whether and how founders’ human capital affects innovation outcomes by start-ups. The results provide evidence that founders with greater human capital are more likely to yield innovation outcome. However, because certain types of founders’ human capital may boost R&D investment, which possibly results in innovation outcomes, we estimate the determinants of innovation outcomes by an instrumental variable probit model taking into account the endogeneity of R&D investment. Our findings suggest that specific human capital for innovation, such as founders’ prior innovation experience, is directly associated with innovation outcomes after start-up, while generic human capital, such as founders’ educational background, indirectly affects innovation outcomes through R&D investment.
    Keywords: Founder, Human capital, Innovations, R&D investment
    JEL: L24 M13 O31
    Date: 2011–12
  3. By: Ben Youssef, Slim; Breton, Michèle; Zaccour, Georges
    Abstract: We consider a duopoly competing in quantity, where firms can invest in both innovative and absorptive R&D to reduce their unit production cost, and where they benefit from free R&D spillovers between them. We analyze the case where firms act non cooperatively and the case where they cooperate by forming a research joint venture. We show that, in both modes of play, there exists a unique symmetric solution. We find that the investment in innovative R&D is always higher than in absorptive R&D. We also find that the value of the learning parameter has almost no impact on innovative R&D, firms profits, consumer's surplus and social welfare. Finally, differences in investment in absorptive research and social welfare under the two regimes are in opposite directions according to the importance of the free spillover.
    Keywords: Innovative R&D; Absorptive R&D; Learning Parameter; Spillover; Research Joint Venture
    JEL: C7 C61 O32
    Date: 2011–12
  4. By: Isaksen, Arne (Dept of working life and innovation); Nilsson, Magnus (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: New research indicates that firms combining the science-based STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) and the experience-based DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting) modes of innovation are more efficient when it comes to improving innovation capacity and competitiveness. With regard to innovation policy, the STI mode calls for a supply driven policy, typically aimed to commercialise research results. The DUI mode suggests a demand driven policy approach, such as supporting the development of new products or services to specific markets. This paper analyses how the two types of innovation policy and the two innovation modes can be combined in regional innovation systems. The analysis builds on studies of the food industry and related knowledge organisations in two counties, Rogaland County (Norway) and Skåne County (Sweden), and two policy initiatives (NCE Culinology and Skåne Food Innovation Network) aimed at strengthening the innovative capability of the regional innovation systems. The analysis indicates that policies aimed to link science and user driven innovation activity should focus on building absorptive capacity of DUI firms (e.g. through increased scientific competence) and implementation capacity of STI firms (e.g. through increased market and process competence).
    Keywords: innovation policy; scientific knowledge; practical knowledge; regional innovation systems; food industry; Norway; Sweden
    JEL: O33 O38
    Date: 2011–12–12
  5. By: Van Reenen, John
    Abstract: Competition and labour market flexibility are key for spurring productivity growth, but there are other ways in which policymakers can influence innovation more directly. John Van Reenen argues that tax credits for business spending on research and development can increase UK firms’ market value, productivity and innovation.
    Date: 2011–12–05
  6. By: Federico Barbiellini Amidei (Bank of Italy); John Cantwell (Rutgers University); Anna Spadavecchia (University of Reading)
    Abstract: The paper explores the long run evolution of Italy’s performance in technological innovation as a function of international technology transfer, reconstructing the different phases and dimensions of Italian innovative activity, tracking the transfer of foreign technological knowledge through a number of channels, analysing the impact of imported technology. The study is based on a newly constructed dataset, over the 1861-2009 period, composed of variables related to: innovation activity performance; foreign technology transfer; domestic absorptive and innovative capability. The analysis highlights, also by econometric assessment, the significant contribution of foreign technology both to innovation activity results and to productivity growth. Differences across channels of technology transfer and historical phases emerge, also in connection with the evolution of human capital endowment and domestic innovative capacity. Machinery imports contributed positively both to innovation activity and to productivity growth; inward FDI contributed positively to productivity growth, but not to indigenous innovation activity; the accumulation of technical human capital fuelled both. In the long Italian Golden Age, for the first time the association of foreign technological knowledge with indigenous innovation processes strengthened productivity significantly. More recently instead the dismal productivity growth is negatively associated with formalised innovation activity under-performance and reduced imports of disembodied technology
    Keywords: Italy,Technology Transfer,Innovation,Absorptive Capability,Patenting
    JEL: N10 O31 O33 F23 O19
    Date: 2011–10
  7. By: Ufuk Akcigit (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania); Qingmin Liu (Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: Technological progress is typically a result of trial-and-error research by competing firms. While some research paths lead to the innovation sought, others result in dead ends. Because firms benefit from their competitors working in the wrong direction, they do not reveal their dead-end findings. Time and resources are wasted on projects that other firms have already found to be dead ends. Consequently, technological progress is slowed down, and the society benefits from innovations with delay, if ever. To study this prevalent problem, we build a tractable two-arm bandit model with two competing firms. The risky arm could potentially lead to a dead end and the safe arm introduces further competition to make firms keep their dead-end findings private. We characterize the equilibrium in this decentralized environment and show that the equilibrium necessarily entails significant efficiency losses due to wasteful dead-end replication and a flight to safety - an early abandonment of the risky project. Finally, we design a dynamic mechanism where firms are incentivized to disclose their actions and share their private information in a timely manner. This mechanism restores efficiency and suggests a direction for welfare improvement.
    Keywords: Learning, Two-arm Bandit, R&D Competition, Dead-end Inefficiency, Trial-and-error
    JEL: O31 D83 D92
    Date: 2011–11–08
  8. By: Christin, Clémence
    Abstract: In this paper, we highlight new conditions under which R&D agreements may have anti-competitive effects. We focus on cases where two firms compete with each other and with a competitive fringe. R&D activities need a specific input available to all firms on a common market, the price of which increases with demand for the input. In such a context, if a firm increases its R&D expenses, it increases the cost of R&D for its rivals. This induces exit from the fringe and may increase the final price. Therefore, by contrast to the case where the cost of R&D for one firm is independent of its rivals' R&D decisions, cooperation between strategic firms on the upstream market may induce more R&D by strategic firms, in order to exclude firms from the fringe and increase the final price. --
    Keywords: Competition policy,Research and Development Agreements,Collusion,Entry deterrence
    JEL: L13 L24 L41
    Date: 2011
  9. By: laino, antonella
    Abstract: When it speaks of Schumpeterian hypothesis we refer to the close relationship that exists between the degree of innovation and market structure. The entrepreneur represented by Schumpeter's is strongly creative and innovative to condition to be able to get e/o to maintain a market power, and thus make a extra profit
    Keywords: Innovation; monopoly; Schumpeter; Market structure
    JEL: D42 L12 A11
    Date: 2011
  10. By: Evangelos Mitrokostas (University of Portsmouth); Emmanuel Petrakis (University of Crete; Economics, Universitat Jaume I (Castellón, Spain))
    Abstract: We endogenize firms’ organizational structures in a homogenous goods duopoly where firms invest in cost reducing R&D and compete in quantities, and examine their impact on R&D efforts, market performance and social welfare. Each firm’s owner can either delegate to a manager both market competition and R&D investment decisions (Full Delegation strategy) or delegate the market competition decision alone (Partial Delegation strategy). We show that when the initial marginal cost is relatively high, Universal Full Delegation emerges in equilibrium. Otherwise, an asymmetric equilibrium with one owner choosing a Full Delegation strategy and the other a Partial Delegation strategy arises. Welfare is always higher in the asymmetric equilibrium configuration, thus, market and societal incentives are not always aligned. Finally, Universal Partial Delegation can arise in equilibrium only if goods are poor substitutes or if competition is in prices.
    Keywords: Organizational Structure, Strategic Delegation, Innovation, Oligopolistic Industries
    JEL: L1 L22 O33
    Date: 2011
  11. By: A. Lasagni
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of external relationships as key drivers of small business innovation. An empirical analysis is based on data for approximately 500 small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in six European countries. The results indicate that innovation performance is higher in SMEs that are proactive in strengthening their relationships with innovative suppliers, users and customers. Furthermore, the findings of this paper support the view that SMEs will have better new product development results if they improve their relationships with laboratories and research institutes.
    Keywords: : SMEs, open innovation, networks, external relationships
    JEL: L60 O31
    Date: 2011
  12. By: Brunt, Liam (Dept. of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Lerner, Josh (Harvard Business School); Nicholas, Tom (Harvard Business School)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of prizes on innovation using data on awards for technological development offered by the Royal Agricultural Society of England at annual competitions between 1839 and 1939. We find large effects of the prizes on competitive entry and we also detect an impact of the prizes on the quality of contemporaneous patents, especially when prize categories were set by a strict rotation scheme, thereby mitigating the potentially confounding effect that they targeted only “hot” technology sectors. Prizes encouraged competition and medals were more important than monetary awards. The boost to innovation we observe cannot be explained by the re-direction of existing inventive activity.
    Keywords: Awards; Patents; Contests.
    JEL: N40 O30 O31
    Date: 2011–12–15
  13. By: Daniele Sabbatini (Banca d'Italia)
    Abstract: The Italian and European regulatory framework for patents would benefit from further improvements in order to foster dynamic competition between Italian firms. At the national level the exclusive allocation of the right to patent inventions to universities, rather than to researchers, would promote better commercial exploitation. At the European level a more integrated system of protection (provision of a single patent that is valid in all Member States, the abolition of translation requirements, a unitary system of fees, and the integration of the litigation system) is essential to lower costs and expand the geographic scope of the protection, thus fostering dynamic competition. Further improvements in the language requirements are needed. The objective of reducing the cost of patenting inventions without raising costs for competitors would be better achieved were English the sole official language of the system (instead of the present choice between English, French and German), to make it easier for competitors to know which is the valid version of the patent.
    Keywords: patents, industrial inventions, judicial trial, European patent
    JEL: K11 K41 L51 O31 O32 O34
    Date: 2011–11
  14. By: Juana Kuramoto
    Abstract: This paper analyzes quantitative findings on the innovative behavior of firms in the production chains of pisco and shoe manufacture in Peru, which are served by the network of Technological Innovation Centers (CITEs), the most important technology policy instrument available in Peru. These two chains, in low and medium-technology industries, are representative of Peru’s manufacturing sector. Of particular interest is the role of technical standards as a means of technological diffusion, which is stressed in the work of the CITEs. For the pisco chain, that role involves the definition of the product itself, for which Peru is seeking a World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) denomination. In the shoe chain, the technical standard should act as a coordination mechanism that will help increase efficiency throughout the chain, which at present is often fractured.
    JEL: O14 O25 O33
    Date: 2011–06
  15. By: Fagerberg, Jan (CIRCLE, Lund University); Feldman, Maryann (University North Carolina); Srholec, Martin (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes factors that shape the technological capabilities of individual U.S. states and European countries, which are arguably comparable policy units. The analysis demonstrates convergence in technological capabilities from 2000 to 2007. The results indicate that social capabilities, such as a highly educated labor force, an egalitarian distribution of income, a participatory democracy and prevalence of public safety, condition the growth of technological capability. The analysis also considers other aspects of territorial dynamics, such as the possible effects of spatial agglomeration, urbanization economies, and differences in industrial specialization and knowledge spillovers from neighboring regions.
    Keywords: innovation; technological capabilities; European Union; United States Disclaimer: All
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2011–12–12
  16. By: Cai, Yuezhou
    Abstract: Efficiency scores of the National Innovation System (NIS) for 22 countries, including the BRICS, G7, are calculated with the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Relevant factors that may affect the innovation system efficiency are summarized based on the NIS Approach and the New Growth Theory. Empirical study is further made with the Panel Data Analysis (PDA) and the Principal Component Analysis. The results of efficiency calculation and empirical test show that: (1) The BRICS differ greatly in the efficiency of NIS, with China, India and Russia ranking fairly high, and Brazil, South Africa among the few bottom; (2) The influencing factors involve a lot of elements, including the ICT infrastructure, enterprise R&D, market environment, government governance, education system, economic scale, natural endowments, external dependence, which is conformed to the NIS approach and New Growth Theory; (3) Enterprises innovation activities are of key importance to the NIS. To improve the efficiency of the innovation system, efforts should be made to improve the market circumstance, governance, and financial structure, and create a sound environment for innovation. (4) ICT infrastructure, economic scale and openness affect the diffusion of knowledge and technology, and in turn the NIS efficiency. (5) The BRICS have characters of low governance level and high natural resources dependency in common, which is determined by their developing stage and extensive growth pattern. To avoid the so called middle-income trap in the coming future, the BRICS should dedicate to transform the factor-driven pattern to an innovation-driven one. As for China, there is still much to be improved in the fields of ICT infrastructure, government governance, education system. During the 12th Planning, more efforts should be put into these fields and make better external conditions for innovation activities. --
    Keywords: The BRICS,National Innovation System (NIS),NIS efficiency,Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA),Panel Data Analysis (PDA)
    JEL: O30 O57 P52
    Date: 2011
  17. By: Samah Rebai Azouz (REPONSE - Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, IHEC - IHEC de Sfax)
    Abstract: Inscrire la R&D en charges de l'exercice ou à l'actif du bilan est un choix qui s'offre aux dirigeants des entreprises françaises. A travers ce choix, se dessinent deux stratégies managériales différentes, mais non mutuellement exclusives, à savoir diffuser plus d'informations sur les investissements en R&D et/ou gérer les résultats de l'entreprise. Sur la base d'un échantillon de 87 entreprises industrielles françaises appartenant à l'indice SBF 250 pendant la période 2000-2004, les résultats de l'étude montrent que l'inscription à l'actif de la R&D permet, contrairement à sa comptabilisation en charges, d'améliorer l'indice de divulgation volontaire d'informations sur la politique de R&D.
    Keywords: R&D ; choix comptables ; indice de divulgation ; gestion des résultats ; discrétion managériale
    Date: 2011
  18. By: De Fuentes, Claudia (CIRCLE, Lund University); Dutrénit, Gabriela (Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between large firms´ knowledge spillovers and small and medium enterprises absorptive capacities. We build ad-hoc indicators for these two concepts following a factor analysis methodology, and we carry out a structural equations analysis to determine the relationship between them. Based on firm level original data from a survey that focuses on SMEs in a Mexican locality, this paper argues that in a low-tech and mature sector, such as the machine shop sector, that operates in a loosely articulated local system, two knowledge spillover mechanisms are relevant: the backward linkages and the employees´ mobility. Regarding SMEs’ absorptive capacities they are strongly influenced by organizational capabilities and innovation and learning activities. We also argue that large firms’ knowledge spillovers are strongly correlated to SMEs absorptive capacities within the sector and locality analyzed.<p>
    Keywords: Absorptive capacities; Knowledge spillovers; SME-large firms interaction; Mexico
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2011–01–20
  19. By: Constant Djama (CRM - Centre de Recherche en Management - IAE de Toulouse - Université Toulouse I Capitole - CNRS : EAC5032); Guillaume Dumas (LGC - Laboratoire de Gestion et de Cognition - Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III); Isabelle Martinez (LGC - Laboratoire de Gestion et de Cognition - Université Paul Sabatier - Toulouse III)
    Abstract: L'innovation est-elle une incitation à la gestion des résultats comptables ? C'est à cette question de recherche que nous tentons ici de répondre. Pour ce faire, un échantillon d'entreprises innovantes a été constitué sur la base des critères définis par OSEO. Sur cet échantillon, nous mesurons en 2009 la gestion des résultats par les variables comptables de régularisation discrétionnaires. Les résultats révèlent une gestion à la hausse des résultats comptables et confortent l'hypothèse selon laquelle l'innovation, qui est une activité complexe, risquée et incertaine, accroît l'asymétrie informationnelle et donc la latitude managériale. Quant aux facteurs susceptibles d'expliquer le comportement comptable des entreprises innovantes, ni l'endettement, ni la structure des actifs ne sont statistiquement significatifs.
    Keywords: Innovation ; gestion des résultats ; variables comptables de régularisation
    Date: 2011
  20. By: Santacreu, Ana Maria
    Abstract: Growth and imports are correlated across countries, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not well understood. I develop a multi-country model in which imports and growth are connected by technological innovations and their international diffusion through trade. Fitting the model to data on innovation, productivity, and trade in varieties, I find that most of the growth-imports correlation is explained by these two mechanisms. I also find that the trade channel has been particularly important in developing countries, accounting for about three-fourths of their growth. Finally, I run counterfactuals analysis.
    Keywords: Trade; productivity; innovation; technology diffusion; growth
    JEL: O47 O30 F12 F43
    Date: 2011–12–07
  21. By: Franco Amatori (Università Commerciale "Luigi Bocconi", Milan); Matteo Bugamelli (Bank of Italy); Andrea Colli (Università Commerciale "Luigi Bocconi", Milan)
    Abstract: The economic performance of a country depends, among other things, on the strategies and structures of its firms. In the framework that is designed by institutions and policies and determined by technology and macroeconomic cycles, entrepreneurs decide how to allocate available resources in order to face off competitors and to hook up with demand cycles. This paper looks at the evolution of the Italian economy across the last 150 years from a business history perspective. Analyzing Italian firms over the long-term cycles of the global economy and with respect to the different paradigms of the three industrial revolutions, we identify some structural features that explain successes and failures of the Italian economy. In doing this we explicitly connect the micro level of the business enterprise to the macro one of the national business system and explain the comparatively good performance of the Italian economy from the end of the 19th century to the 1970s. Over the last three decades this performance has turned negative, highlighting the role played by the small average size of firms and the failure of institutions to provide incentives for growth.
    Keywords: firm size, technological paradigms, innovation, entrepreneurship
    JEL: N83 N84 P12 O33 O38
    Date: 2011–10
  22. By: Sana Triki Damak (Corporate Finance and Financial Theory (COFFIT) - Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Sfax); Khamoussi Halioui (Corporate Finance and Financial Theory (COFFIT) - Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion de Sfax, ISAE de Gafsa - ISAE de Gafsa)
    Abstract: Le traitement comptable des dépenses de recherche et développement (R&D) est un sujet controversé qui pourrait être, dans certains cas, motivé par des incitations à manipuler les résultats. En se basant sur un échantillon d'entreprises françaises cotées en bourse, cette étude traite la question : Dans quelle mesure les décisions des entreprises concernant la capitalisation ou non des dépenses de la R&D sont-elles guidées par des motivations de gérer les résultats? Le contexte français constitue un terrain d'étude favorable à la vérification de nos hypothèses : En effet, les normes IFRS appliquées en France sur les sociétés cotées depuis 2005 offrent le choix entre la capitalisation et le passage en charges des dépenses en R&D. En utilisant un modèle de régression logistique, nous constatons que les entreprises françaises cotées en bourse ont tendance à utiliser la capitalisation des dépenses de R&D pour des fins, tant, de lissage des résultats que par souci de ne pas violer les clauses restrictives d'endettement.
    Keywords: comptabilité des dépenses de R&D ; gestion des résultats; lissage des résultats ; clauses restrictives des contrats d'endettement; entreprises françaises.
    Date: 2011

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