nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2011‒06‒25
twenty-one papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
Massey University, Albany

  1. Innovation and diffusion of clean/green technology: Can patent commons help? By Hall, Bronwyn H.; Helmers, Christian
  2. The link between public support and private R&D effort: What is the optimal subsidy? By Néstor Duch-Brown; José García-Quevedo; Daniel Montolio
  3. The when and where of research in agricultural innovation trajectories: Evidence and implications from RIU's South Asia projects By Reddy, Vamsidhar; Hall, Andy; Sulaiman, Rasheed
  4. Beyond knowledge brokerage: An exploratory study of innovation intermediaries in an evolving smallholder agricultural system in Kenya By Kilelu, Catherine W.; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Hall, Andy
  5. Survey of Photovoltaic Industry and Policy in Germany and China By Thilo Grau; Molin Huo; Karsten Neuhoff
  6. R&D and productivity in the Indian pharmaceutical firms By Sharma, Chandan
  7. Privacy and Innovation By Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker
  8. The effectiveness of virtual R&D Teams in SMEs: experiences of Malaysian SMEs By Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Abdul Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Taha, Zahari
  9. A Quality Index for Patent Systems By Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Matthis de Saint-Georges
  10. Innovationskooperationen und Wissenstransfer von Unternehmen im Raum Jena By Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang
  11. Global Innovation Networks: what are they and where can we find them? (Conceptual and Empirical issues) By Barnard, Helena; Chaminade, Cristina
  12. Innovationsbedingte Beschäftigungs- und Umsatzeffekte bei Unternehmen im Raum Jena By Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang
  13. Unmasking the Porter hypothesis: Environmental innovations and firm-profitability By Rexhäuser, Sascha; Rammer, Christian
  14. The dynamics of national innovation systems: a panel cointegration analysis of the coevolution between innovative capability and absorptive capacity By Fulvio, Castellacci; Jose Miguel, Natera
  15. Changes in the French defence innovation system: New roles and capabilities for the Government Agency for Defence By Nathalie Lazaric; Valérie Mérindol; Sylvie Rochhia
  16. A Spatially-related Note on Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth By Torben Klarl
  17. Dynamics of biosciences regulation and opportunities for biosciences innovation in Africa: Exploring regulatory policy brokering By Kingiri, Ann; Hall, Andy
  18. Access to universities' public knowledge: Who's more nationalist? By Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.
  19. Research & Development and Long-Term Economic Growth: A Bayesian Model Averaging Analysis By Roman Horváth
  20. Les incitations à l'innovation dans le secteur privé By Claire Bonnard
  21. The Effect Of Academic Consulting On Research Performance: Evidence From Five Spanish Universities By Rentocchini, Francesco; Manjarrés-Henrìquez, Liney; D'Este, Pablo; Grimaldi, Rosa

  1. By: Hall, Bronwyn H. (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University, UC Berkeley, NBER, and IFS); Helmers, Christian (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, LSE)
    Abstract: This paper explores the characteristics of 238 patents on 94 “inventions” contributed by major multinational innovators to the “Eco-Patent Commons”, which provides royalty-free access to third parties to patented climate change related innovations. By comparing the pledged patents to other patents in the same technologies or held by the same multinationals, we investigate the motives of the contributing firms as well as the potential for such commons to encourage innovation and diffusion of climate change related technologies. This study, therefore, indirectly provides evidence on the role of patents in the development and diffusion of green technologies. More generally, the paper sheds light on the performance of hybrid forms of knowledge management that combine open innovation and patenting.
    Keywords: patent commons, green technology, eco-aptents, diffusion, climate change
    JEL: H23 H42 K11 O33 O34
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Néstor Duch-Brown (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); José García-Quevedo (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain)); Daniel Montolio (Department of Public Economy, Political Economy and Spanish Economy and Barcelona Institute of Economics (IEB), University of Barcelona. Av Diagonal 690. 08034 Barcelona (Spain))
    Abstract: The effectiveness of R&D subsidies can vary substantially depending on their characteristics. Specifically, the amount and intensity of such subsidies are crucial issues in the design of public schemes supporting private R&D. Public agencies determine the intensities of R&D subsidies for firms in line with their eligibility criteria, although assessing the effects of R&D projects accurately is far from straightforward. The main aim of this paper is to examine whether there is an optimal intensity for R&D subsidies through an analysis of their impact on private R&D effort. We examine the decisions of a public agency to grant subsidies taking into account not only the characteristics of the firms but also, as few previous studies have done to date, those of the R&D projects. In determining the optimal subsidy we use both parametric and nonparametric techniques. The results show a non-linear relationship between the percentage of subsidy received and the firms’ R&D effort. These results have implications for technology policy, particularly for the design of R&D subsidies that ensure enhanced effectiveness.
    Keywords: R&D, public subsidies, evaluation
    JEL: O38 H32
    Date: 2011–06
  3. By: Reddy, Vamsidhar (RIU); Hall, Andy (RIU, LINK, Open University, and UNU-MERIT); Sulaiman, Rasheed (RIU)
    Abstract: The question of how agricultural research can best be used for developmental purposes is a topic of some debate in developmental circles. The idea that this is simply a question of better transfer of ideas from research to farmers has been largely discredited. Agricultural innovation is a process that takes a multitude of different forms, and, within this process, agricultural research and expertise are mobilised at different points in time for different purposes. This paper uses two key analytical principles in order to find how research is actually put into use. The first, which concerns the configurations of organisations and their relationships associated with innovation, reveals the additional set of resources and expertise that research needs to be married up to and sheds light on the sorts of arrangements that allow this marriage to take place. The second - which concerns understanding innovation as a path-dependent, contextually shaped trajectory unfolding over time - reveals the changing role of research during the course of events associated with the development and diffusion of products, services and institutional innovations. Using these analytical principles, this paper examines the efforts of the DFID-funded Research Into Use (RIU) programme that sought to explore the agricultural research-into-use question empirically. The paper then uses this analysis to derive implications for public policy and its ongoing efforts to add value to research investments.
    Keywords: Agricultural Innovation, Value Chain Innovation, Research Into Use, South Asia, Innovation Trajectories, Research for Development, Policy
    JEL: N55 O13 O19 O22 O31 O32 O33 O53 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Kilelu, Catherine W. (RIU, Communication and Innovation Studies Group, Wageningen University); Klerkx, Laurens (Communication and Innovation Studies Group, Wageningen University); Leeuwis, Cees (Communication and Innovation Studies Group, Wageningen University); Hall, Andy (RIU, LINK, Open University, and UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents findings of an explorative case study that looked at 22 organisations identified as fulfilling an intermediary role in the Kenyan agricultural sector. The results show that these organisations fulfill functions that are not limited to distribution of knowledge and putting it into use. The functions also include fostering integration and interaction among the diverse actors engaged in innovation networks and working on technological, organisational and institutional innovation. Further, the study identified various organisational arrangements of innovation intermediaries with some organisations fulfilling a specialised innovation brokering role, even as other intermediaries take on brokering as a side activity, while still substantively contributing to the innovation process. Based on these findings we identify a typology of 4 innovation intermediation arrangements, including technology brokers, systemic brokers, enterprise development support and input access support. The results indicate that innovation brokering is a pervasive task in supporting innovation and will require policy support to embed it in innovation support arrangements. The paper is not normative about these arrangements.
    Keywords: Smallholder agriculture, innovation intermediaries, agriculture innovation, knowledge brokers, Kenya
    JEL: L26 L32 N5 N57 O13 O19 O31 O32 O55 Q12 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Thilo Grau; Molin Huo; Karsten Neuhoff
    Abstract: As building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) solutions can meet around one-third of electricity demand in Germany and China, both countries are interested in exploring this potential. PV technologies have demonstrated significant price reductions, but large-scale global application of PV requires further technology improvements and cost reductions along the value chain. We analyze policies in Germany and China, including deployment support, investment support for manufacturing plants and R&D support measures, and we survey the industrial actors they can encourage to pursue innovation. While deployment support has been successful, investment support for manufacturing in these nations has not been sufficiently tied to innovation incentives, and R&D support has been comparatively weak. The paper concludes with a discussion of the opportunities for global policy coordination.
    Keywords: Photovoltaics, Technology Policy, Innovation, Investment Support
    JEL: O31 Q42 Q48
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Sharma, Chandan
    Abstract: Recent researches for developing countries suggest knowledge generating activates is no silver bullet for productivity growth. In this context, this paper examines the impact of R&D activities on firms’ performance for the Indian pharmaceutical industry by utilizing the data of the post reform period (1994-2006). The empirical analysis is performed in two stages. In first stage, we examine the relative productivity performance of R&D vis-à-vis non- R&D. Subsequently, we construct two empirical frameworks, namely, growth accounting and production function. Results of analysis indicate that R&D firms have productivity edge over non- R&D firms. Regression results based on the growth accounting framework suggest that R&D intensity has a positive and significant effect (15%) on TFP. The results also confirm that the performance of foreign firms operating in the industry is more sensitive towards R&D than the local firms. Furthermore, the estimation results of the production function approach indicate that the output elasticity to R&D capital varies from 10% to 13%. Therefore, we support the argument that ‘manna from heaven’ impact is large and significant.
    Keywords: Productivity; R&D; Indian Pharmaceutical
    JEL: D24 O3
    Date: 2011–02–12
  7. By: Avi Goldfarb; Catherine Tucker
    Abstract: Information and communication technology now enables firms to collect detailed and potentially intrusive data about their customers both easily and cheaply. This means that privacy concerns are no longer limited to government surveillance and public figures' private lives. The empirical literature on privacy regulation shows that privacy regulation may affect the extent and direction of data-based innovation. We also show that the impact of privacy regulation can be extremely heterogeneous. Therefore, we argue that digitization means that privacy policy is now a part of innovation policy.
    JEL: O31 O38
    Date: 2011–06
  8. By: Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Abdul Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Ahmed, Shamsuddin; Taha, Zahari
    Abstract: The number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially those involved with research and development (R&D) programs and employed virtual teams to create the greatest competitive advantage from limited labor are increasing. Global and localized virtual R&D teams are believed to have high potential for the growth of SMEs. Due to the fast-growing complexity of new products coupled with new emerging opportunities of virtual teams, a collaborative approach is believed to be the future trend. This research explores the effectiveness of virtuality in SMEs’ virtual R&D teams. Online questionnaires were emailed to Malaysian manufacturing SMEs and 74 usable questionnaires were received, representing a 20.8 percent return rate. In order to avoid biases which may result from pre-suggested answers, a series of open-ended questions were retrieved from the experts. This study was focused on analyzing an open-ended question, whereby four main themes were extracted from the experts’ recommendations regarding the effectiveness of virtual teams for the growth and performance of SMEs. The findings of this study would be useful to product design managers of SMEs in order to realize the key advantages and significance of virtual R&D teams during the new product development (NPD) process. This in turn, leads to increased effectiveness in new product development's procedure.
    Keywords: Virtual Teams; New Product Development; Survey Finding; Small and Medium Enterprises.
    JEL: L17 P23 O32 O31 L15 P4
    Date: 2011–04–07
  9. By: Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Matthis de Saint-Georges
    Abstract: This paper presents a quality index for patent systems. The index is composed of nine operational design components that help shape the transparency of patent systems and affect the extent to which they comply with patentability conditions. Seven factors are related to rules and regulations (e.g. grace period, opposition process and continuation-inparts), while two factors measure patent offices’ resource allocation (i.e. workload per examiner and incentives). The index is computed for 32 national patent systems, it displays a high heterogeneity across countries. Cross-sectional quantitative analyses suggest that the demand for patent rights -or the propensity to patent- is lower in patent systems with a higher quality index, controlling for research efforts, patent fees and the “strength” of enforcement mechanisms.
    Keywords: patent system; quality; patent propensity; intellectual property
    Date: 2011–06
  10. By: Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang
    Abstract: Die im Rahmen des vom Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF) geförderten Projektes KompNet2011 - Erfolgsfaktoren regionaler Innovationsnetze - durchgeführte Befragung untersucht die Innovationskooperationen sowie Wissenstransferaktivitäten von schwerpunktmäßig kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen (KMU) in der Region Jena. Die Studie konzentriert sich auf drei Aspekte: Mit welcher Intensität werden die verschiedenen Transferkanäle für die Übertragung des Wissens zwischen den kooperierenden Partnern genutzt? Welche Innovationsrelevanz wird den einzelnen Transferarten durch die Unternehmen beigemessen? In welchem räumlichen Kontext finden diese Transferbeziehungen statt? Es konnte festgestellt werden, dass vertikale Kooperationsbeziehungen von mehr als 75% der innovativen Unternehmen praktiziert werden. Unentbehrlich für den Erfolg von Kooperationen sind regelmäßige face-to-face-Kontakte zwischen den Beteiligten. Obwohl die Unternehmen bei Innovationsvorhaben mit zahlreichen Partnern zusammenarbeiten, ist die Eigenentwicklung die mit Abstand wichtigste Entwicklungsart. Mehr als 80% der Befragten nutzen unmittelbare Wissenstransferformen, wie Aus-/Weiterbildungsleistungen und Workshops. Humankapitalorientierte Kanäle, wie die Beschäftigung von Praktikanten und Werkstudenten oder die Betreuung von Seminar- bzw. Abschlussarbeiten werden von mehr als 50% praktiziert. Weniger als die Hälfte der Unternehmen nutzt hingegen klassische F&E-Transferkanäle. Neben den unmittelbaren Kanälen und der Verbundforschung zeichnen sich auch die unterdurchschnittlich ausgeübten klassischen F&E-Transferarten durch eine hohe Innovationsrelevanz aus, d.h. sowohl Transferkanäle für stillschweigendes (implizites) Erfahrungswissen als auch für explizites technologisches Wissen sind für den Innovationserfolg wichtig. Die Transferaktivitäten werden - unabhängig von dem genutzten Transferkanal - vorwiegend regional und mit Partnern aus der eigenen Branche durchgeführt. Der Import von Wissen aus dem Ausland ist für die innovativen Unternehmen im Raum Jena von untergeordneter Bedeutung. -- The research project KompNet 2011 - Factors determining the success of regional innovation networks, funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), examines the cooperation activities of predominant small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in and closely around Jena (Thuringia). The study focuses on three aspects: How do the different channels used in the transfer process between cooperating partners vary with regard to their intensity? Which types of knowledge transfer are relevant for the development of innovations? In which spatial context do these transfer relations occur? The study reveals that vertical cooperative relations are practiced by more than 75% of the survey participants. Regular personal contacts face-to-face areessential for the success of these relations. Although the regional SME collaborate with numerous partners in innovation projects, nevertheless in-house development is the most important form of creating innovative products. Over 80% of the participants use direct channels of knowledge transfer, such as education/training services and workshops. Human capital oriented channels, such as the employment of apprentices/students, are practiced by 50% of the surveyed firms. Less than half of the participants use traditional R&D transfer channels, e.g. collaborative research and R&D contracts. Direct transfer channels and collaborative research, but also the classical R&D transfer types, which are practiced with less intensity, are very important for the innovation success. Tacit and codified transfer channels are equally important for the success of innovation projects. Furthermore the study reveals that knowledge transfer activities are - regardless of transmission type - primarily regionally oriented and focus on partner from the same industry. The import of knowledge from abroad is less important for the innovative companies in the region of Jena.
    Keywords: Innovationskooperation,Wissenstransfer,Kooperationspartner,Transferkanal,Innovation,KMU,co-operation partners,innovation cooperation,knowledge transfer,transfer channel,innovation,SME
    JEL: D85 L14 O31 O32
    Date: 2011
  11. By: Barnard, Helena (GIBS, U. Pretoria); Chaminade, Cristina (CIRCLE, Lund University)
    Abstract: The rapid move of China and India from low-cost producers to innovators has triggered an increasing interest in the globalization of innovation activities and more specifically, on the surge of global innovation networks (GINs). However, hitherto most of the literature is either theoretical or based on a handful of cases. We do not know what are the different forms of GINs in which firms participate, both in terms of the various degrees of globalness, innovativeness and neworkedness as well as their main characteristics. In this paper, we propose a taxonomy of global innovation networks that takes into account these different dimensions. This paper provides empirical evidence about the characteristics of the different variants of global innovation networks, observed in seven European countries as well as Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It relies on firm-level data collected through a survey in 2010 and provides for the first time a theoretical and empirical overview of the different forms of global innovation networks.
    Keywords: Globalization; innovation networks; taxonomy; Europe; South Africa; Brazil; China; India
    JEL: O19 O32 O57
    Date: 2011–06–13
  12. By: Kaps, Katharina; Pfeil, Silko; Sauer, Thomas; Stoetzer, Matthias-Wolfgang
    Abstract: Vorliegendes Paper analysiert den Innovationserfolg von schwerpunktmäßig kleinen und mittelständischen Unternehmen (KMU) in der Region Jena auf Basis der Datensätze des Projektes KompNet2011 - Erfolgsfaktoren regionaler Innovationsnetze. Hierbei wird der Innovationserfolg sowohl mit Hilfe von Mengen- als auch Wertindikatoren gemessen. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass alle innovativen Unternehmen im Betrachtungs-zeitraum 2006 bis 2010 im Durchschnitt sowohl ihren Mitarbeiterstamm als auch ihren Umsatz ausweiten konnten. Letzteres gilt jedoch nicht für Unternehmen, die schwerpunktmäßig an subjektiven Prozessinnovationen arbeiteten. Um den relativen Erfolg in Abhängigkeit der Innovationsstrategie zu ermitteln, wurde die Abweichung von der durchschnittlichen Wachstumsrate betrachtet. Betriebe, deren Innovationsstrategie auf die Entwicklung gänzlich neuer Produkte bzw. Prozesse gerichtet ist, weisen ein überdurchschnittliches Beschäftigungs- und Umsatzwachstum auf, während Unternehmen mit subjektiven Prozessneuheiten und Organisationsinnovationen nur unterdurchschnittlich wachsen. Bei allen anderen Innovationsarten fällt die Beurteilung des Innovationserfolges je nach Erfolgsindikator einerseits unter- und andererseits überdurchschnittlich aus. Abschließend konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Unternehmen, die seit 2006 mehrmals innovativ waren, im betrachteten Vier-Jahres-Zeitraum eine überdurchschnittlich expansive Entwicklung verzeichnen konnten. -- We examine the innovation success of predominant small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) in and closely around Jena (Thuringia) by using the data sets of the research project KompNet 2011 - Factors determining the success of regional innovation networks. We measure the innovation success via different indicators, e.g. number of employees and revenue. In the period under control, 2006 until 2010, the analysis reveals on average an increase of the number of employees and a growth in revenue for all innovative firms. Only enterprises whose innovation strategy is focused on the introduction of processes new to the firm show a decline in revenue. To evaluate the relative success according to the innovation strategy we analyse the deviance from the average growth rates. Companies whose innovation strategy is to develop objective innovation types (market innovations, objective process innovations) reach superior employment and revenue growth rates. In contrast, enterprises with subjective process innovations and organizational innovations grow below average. For all other innovation types the evaluation of the innovation success differs subject to the used indicator. Furthermore we show steady expansive development of those companies, which introduce two or more product/process innovations since 2006.
    Keywords: Beschäftigungseffekte,Innovationserfolg,Marketinginnovation,organisatorische Innovation,Produktinnovation,Prozessinnovation,Umsatz,employment effects,innovation success,marketing innovation,organizational innovation,product innovation,process innovation,revenue
    JEL: M12 O32 O33
    Date: 2011
  13. By: Rexhäuser, Sascha; Rammer, Christian
    Abstract: We examine impacts of different types of environmental innovations on firm profits. Following Porter's (1991) hypothesis that environmental regulation can improve firms' competitiveness we distinguish regulation induced and voluntary environmental innovations. We find that innovations which reduce environmental externalities reduce firms' profits, as long as they are induced by regulations. However, innovation that increases a firm's material or energy efficiency in terms of material or energy consumption has a positive impact on profitability. This positive result holds both for regulation induced and voluntary innovations, although the effect is significantly larger for regulation-driven innovation.We conclude that the Porter hypothesis does not hold in general for its 'strong' version but has to be qualified by the type of environmental innovation. Our finding rest on firm level data from the German part of the Community Innovation Survey in 2009. --
    Keywords: Environmental innovation,environmental regulation,Porter hypothesis,competitiveness
    JEL: Q55 Q58
    Date: 2011
  14. By: Fulvio, Castellacci; Jose Miguel, Natera
    Abstract: This paper puts forward the idea that the dynamics of national innovation systems is driven by the coevolution of two main dimensions: innovative capability and absorptive capacity. The empirical analysis employs a broad set of indicators measuring national innovative capabilities and absorptive capacity for a panel of 98 countries in the period 1980-2008, and makes use of panel cointegration analysis to investigate long-run relationships and coevolution patterns among these variables. The results indicate that the dynamics of national systems of innovation is driven by the coevolution of three innovative capability variables (technological output, scientific output, innovative input), on the one hand, and three absorptive capacity factors (income per capita, infrastructures and international trade), on the other.
    Keywords: national systems of innovation; innovative capability; absorptive capacity; economic growth and development; coevolution; panel cointegration analysis
    JEL: F00 O30 O10 F43 C33 O40
    Date: 2011–06
  15. By: Nathalie Lazaric (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Valérie Mérindol (IMRI - Université Paris Dauphine - Paris IX); Sylvie Rochhia (GREDEG - Groupe de Recherche en Droit, Economie et Gestion - CNRS : UMR6227 - Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis)
    Abstract: Defence innovation systems are structured around two main groups of players that interact in the development of complex programmes: the state (the client and the government agency) and the systems integrators. Technological and institutional changes since the 1990s have affected the division of labour and knowledge in the industry. In this paper we show the origins of these changes based on information derived from 45 qualitative interviews conducted between 2000 and 2008, which demonstrate the new capabilities that have been created within the national innovation system (NIS). We explain how the role and the capabilities of the French Government Agency for Defence (Direction Générale de l'Armement - DGA) have developed from " project architect " to " project manager ". These new capabilities create new interactions in the French Defence innovation system and new roles for the DGA.
    Keywords: Technological systems, Capabilities, Knowledge, Government agency, Co-evolution, National Innovation System, Defence, Institutional Change.
    Date: 2011
  16. By: Torben Klarl (University of Augsburg, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: A large and still growing body of literature suggests that entrepreneurship is of exceptional importance in explaining knowledge spillovers. Although quantifying the impact of entrepreneurial activity for economic growth is an interesting issue – particularly at the regional level – a concise formulation within a theoretical growth model is still missing. This paper in general tries to uncover the link between own- and neighbour-related regional entrepreneurial activity in innovation and regional growth within a spatial semi-endogenous growth model in the spirit of Jones (1995) reflecting recent empirical findings on entrepreneurial activity for economic growth. The paper derives an explicit solution for the transitional as well as for the balanced growth path level of ideas.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, economic growth, innovation, knowledge spillover
    JEL: M13 O31 R5
    Date: 2011–06
  17. By: Kingiri, Ann (RIU); Hall, Andy (RIU, LINK, Open University, and UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Knowledge brokering has been explored in the innovation literature to understand how different innovation tasks are organised toward technological development. This paper reflects upon the role of different organisations as knowledge brokers in regulatory policy processes towards putting biosciences research into use. It identifies a practical function-based typology that describes four categories of policy brokers who perform different tasks, with the potential to impact biosciences regulatory policy change. The paper concludes with a brief exploration of how policy can support the different functions of regulatory policy brokerage to enhance the translation of biosciences research into use for the benefit of the poor. Using regulatory policy-making in Kenya as an example, it contributes to growing scholarship that seeks to link knowledge emanating from research with policy-making and economic development, particularly in an African context.
    Keywords: Biosciences, Biotechnology Regulation, Knowledge Brokers, Policy Brokering, Africa, Kenya
    JEL: L26 L33 N57 O13 O19 O32 O33 O55 P48 Q12 Q16 Q28
    Date: 2011
  18. By: Azagra-Caro, Joaquín M.
    Abstract: Access to public knowledge is a prerequisite for the good functioning of developed economies. Universities strive and are also requested to contribute to this knowledge both locally and internationally. Traditional studies on the geography of knowledge flows have identified a localisation effect; however, these studies do not use the country as the unit of observation and hence do not explore national patterns. In this paper, we hypothesise that the localisation of university knowledge flows is directly related to share of firm expenditure on research and development. To test this hypothesis, we use references to universities in patent documents as indicators based on a data set of around 20,000 university references, for 37 countries in the period 1990-2007. We build indicators for the university knowledge flows both inside and outside the applicant country, which we explain as a function of some proxies for national scientific size and structure based on econometric estimations. We draw some conclusions as to the importance of national business scientific strength for fostering increased domestic university knowledge flows.
    Keywords: Universities; Knowledge flows; R&D expenditure
    Date: 2011–06–13
  19. By: Roman Horváth (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; Czech National Bank)
    Abstract: We examine the effect of research and development (R&D) on long-term economic growth using the Bayesian model averaging (BMA) to deal rigorously with model uncertainty. Previous empirical studies investigated the effect of dozens of regressors on long-term growth, but they did not examine the effect of R&D due to data unavailability. We extend these studies by proposing to capture the R&D intensity by the number of Nobel prizes in science. Using our indicator, our estimates show that R&D exerts a positive effect on long-term growth with posterior inclusion probability of 0.25 using our preferred parameter and model priors.
    Keywords: research and development, economic growth, Bayesian model averaging.
    JEL: O30 O32 O10
    Date: 2011–06
  20. By: Claire Bonnard (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - CNRS : UMR5225 - Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: L'innovation est devenue un facteur clé de croissance économique. La question des incitations à l'innovation au sein des entreprises est donc primordiale. Dans ce papier, nous nous intéressons au type d'incitations monétaires reçues par les inventeurs au sein des entreprises avec une attention particulière à la mobilité inter-firme de ces derniers. Les résultats montrent un rendement salarial positif pour les inventeurs, celui-ci est plus important pour les inventeurs ayant connu une mobilité inter-firme, ce qui pourrait suggérer que les entreprises soient prêtes à payer les connaissances acquises par les inventeurs au sein des autres entreprises. Par contre, l'utilisation de stock-options comme incitation pour les inventeurs semble moins répandue dans les entreprises françaises que dans les entreprises étrangères.
    Keywords: Incitation ; Innovation ; Entreprise ; Secteur privé ; R&D
    Date: 2011–06–02
  21. By: Rentocchini, Francesco; Manjarrés-Henrìquez, Liney; D'Este, Pablo; Grimaldi, Rosa
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether engagement in consulting activities has a significant impact on the research performance of academic scientists. The study relies on a sample of 2678 individual faculty, from five Spanish universities, who have been recipients of publicly funded grants or have been principal investigators in activities contracted by external agents over the period 1999-2004. By implementing a propensity score matching estimator method, we show that engaging in consulting activities has an overall negative impact on the average number of ISI-publications. However, the effect of consulting on the scientific productivity of academic scientists depends on the scientific fields and the intensity of engagement in consulting activities. Academic consulting is found to have a negative impact in the fields of ?Natural and Exact Sciences? and ?Engineering?, but not in the case of ?Social Sciences and Humanities?. When the intensity of consulting activity is taken into account at the discipline level, engaging in consulting activities has an overall negative impact on scientific productivity only for high levels of involvement in consulting activities, but not for moderate ones.
    Keywords: Academic consulting; Economics of science; Technology transfer
    JEL: O31 O32 O33 Z19 L31
    Date: 2011–06–17

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