nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2009‒08‒16
fifteen papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
Massey University Department of Commerce

  1. How to play the “Names Game”: Patent retrieval comparing different heuristics By Julio Raffo; Stéphane Lhuillery
  2. Why Do Some Firms Undertake R&D Whereas Others Do Not? By Richard Harris; Mary Trainor
  3. Innovative Sales, R&D and Total Innovation Expenditures: Panel Evidence on their Dynamics By Wladimir Raymond; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm; Sybrand Schim van der Loeff
  4. What Determines the Attractiveness of the European Union to the Location of R&D Multinational Firms? By Siedschlag, Iulia; Smith, Donal; Turcu, Camelia; Zhang, Xiaoheng
  5. The role of entrepreneurial culture and human capital in innovation By Isabel Pizarro; Juan C.Real; M.Dolores de la Rosa
  6. Are Patent Laws Harmful to Developing Countries? Evidence from China By Belton M. Fleisher; Mi Zhou
  7. On the Real Effects of Private Equity Investment: Evidence from New Business Creation. By Alexander Popov; Peter Roosenboom
  8. The Impact of Higher Education Research and Development on Australian Gross State Product By Claudia Burgio-Ficca
  9. R&D, investment and structural change in Finland: Is low investment a problem? By Elina Berghäll
  10. Innovation Behaviour At Farm Level â Selection And Identification By Sauer, Johannes; Zilberman, David
  11. National Innovation System and the Emergence of Indian Information and Software Technology Multinationals By Jaya Prakash Pradhan
  12. Government Oversight of Public Universities: Are Centralized Performance Schemes Related to Increased Quantity or Quality? By A. Abigail Payne; Joanne Roberts
  13. Is the U.S. Losing Its Preeminence in Higher Education? By James D. Adams
  14. Research / Science / Development By Stefan Hornbostel
  15. Innovation through Discrimination!? A Formal Analysis of the Net Neutrality Debate By Krämer, Jan; Wiewiorra, Lukas

  1. By: Julio Raffo (Chaire en Economie et Management de l'Innovation, MTEI, CDM, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne / CEPN, Université Paris Nord); Stéphane Lhuillery (Chaire en Economie et Management de l'Innovation, MTEI, CDM, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne)
    Abstract: Patent statistics represent a critical tool for scholars, statisticians and policy makers interested in innovation and intellectual property rights. Many analyses are based on heterogeneous methods delineating the inventors’ or firms’ patent portfolios without questioning the quality of the method employed. We assess different heuristics in order to provide a robust solution to automatically retrieve inventors in large patent datasets (PATSTAT). The solution we propose reduces the usual errors by 50% and casts doubts on the reliability of statistical indicators and micro-econometric results based on common matching procedures. Guidelines for researchers, TTOs, firms, venture capitalists and policy makers likely to implement a names game or to comment on results based on a names game are also provided.
    Keywords: patents, inventors, names, matching algorithm, indicators, PATSTAT
    JEL: C63 C81 C88 O34
    Date: 2009–07
  2. By: Richard Harris; Mary Trainor
    Abstract: Data for the UK show Northern Ireland remains at the bottom of the productivity leaguetable, and that its R&D performance is consistently amongst the lowest across the UKregions. This paper analyses the data from a survey of some 250 matched firms operating inNorthern Ireland (approximately half undertaking R&D and half not), in order to provide amore detailed analysis of attitudes to undertaking R&D in the Province. We consider a rangeof factors that determine whether R&D takes place (such as absorptive capacity, marketorientation, business objectives, and competitive advantages). Conditional on whether R&Doccurs, the analysis then looks at, firstly, the determinants of the R&D capital stock andintensity; before concentrating on those firms who undertook no R&D and analysing whichfactors might make them likely to engage in such activities in the future. Policy conclusionsare then drawn as to what might be done to boost both the amount of R&D undertaken andthe number of firms engaged in R&D in the Province.
    Keywords: R&D, regional policy, matching
    JEL: D24 H32 O18 O32
    Date: 2009–04
  3. By: Wladimir Raymond; Pierre Mohnen; Franz Palm; Sybrand Schim van der Loeff
    Abstract: This paper studies the dynamic relationship between input and output of innovation in Dutch manufacturing using an unbalanced panel of enterprise data from five waves of the Community Innovation Survey during 1994-2004. We estimate by maximum likelihood a dynamic panel data bivariate tobit with double-index sample selection accounting for individual effects. We find persistence of innovation input and innovation output, a lag effect of the former on the latter and a feedback effect of the latter on the former. The lag effect remains significant in the high-tech sector even after four years. Firm and industry effects are also important. <P>Dans cette étude nous estimons une fonction de production de l’innovation dynamique sur base des données de panel de cinq vagues d’enquêtes d’innovation communautaires (CIS) aux Pays-Bas couvrant la période 1994 à 2004. Nous estimons par maximum de vraisemblance un modèle tobit bivarié avec une double sélection et prise en compte des effets individuels. Nous trouvons une persistence dans l’innovation tant au niveau de l’intrant que de l’extrant et des effets de retard croisés entre les deux. Les retards perdurent au-delà de 4 ans dans le secteur high-tech. Les effets individuels et les effets particuliers aux industries sont également significatifs.
    Keywords: innovation production function, panel data, CIS data, bivariate dynamic tobit, Netherlands, fonction de production de l’innovation, données de panel, tobit bivarié dynamique, Pays-Bas
    JEL: C33 C34 O31
    Date: 2009–08–01
  4. By: Siedschlag, Iulia (ESRI); Smith, Donal (ESRI); Turcu, Camelia (CRIEF, University of Poitiers); Zhang, Xiaoheng (ESRI)
    Abstract: We analyse 446 location decisions of foreign affiliates in the R&D sector incorporated in the European Union over 1999-2006. Our results suggest that on average, the location probability increases with the size of demand, agglomeration economies, low production cost, R&D intensity, flexibility of labour markets, access to skilled labour and information technology infrastructure. Our evidence suggests that after controlling for the R&D intensity of regions, European Union?s regional policy and country level tax differences have had no significant effects in fostering the attractiveness of regions to R&D foreign investment. We find evidence of geographical structures relevant for the location choice of R&D multinational firms across the European Union. Further, we find that European investors have responded differently to location characteristics in comparison to North American investors.
    Date: 2009–07
  5. By: Isabel Pizarro (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); Juan C.Real (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide); M.Dolores de la Rosa (Department of Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide)
    Abstract: The objective of the present study is to analyze the role played by the entrepreneurial culture of the organization and the value and uniqueness of employees’ knowledge (human capital) in generating innovation. This research has been conducted with a sample of companies in the most innovative sectors of Spanish industry, applying the Partial Least Squares (PLS) technique. The results demonstrate significant relationships between innovation and the two dimensions of the human capital .We have also found that entrepreneurial culture acts as a moderating variable between human capital and innovation, in the way that employees of high value generate more innovation in the presence of this type of culture.
    Keywords: Innovation; human capital; entrepreneurial culture
    Date: 2009–06
  6. By: Belton M. Fleisher (Department of Economics, Ohio State University); Mi Zhou (College of Economics and Trade, Hunan University)
    Abstract: Has upgrading and enforcing its patent laws slowed China’s economic growth? The answer we draw from detailed analysis of provincial aggregate data covering roughly the period 1990 through 2007 is strongly negative, but understanding the channels through which stricter protection of intellectual property rights has contributed to more rapid productivity growth is elusive. Our best estimate of the direct impact of the 1992 and 2001 patent laws on TFP growth amounts to not quite 15 percent of the average TFP growth rate over the period, but a much larger share of TFP growth is associated with enactment of the laws in a simple interpretation of our empirical investigation. We estimate that virtually none of the laws’ impact on TFP growth can be directly associated with increased quantity of FDI or R&D, although both series are strongly positively correlated with promulgation of the patent laws. We infer that amount of technology transfer through a FDI and the focus of R&D activity, decline of state ownership and increased marketization, growth of the human capital stock, and movement of the labor force from agriculture to manufacturing and service industries are all processes that were encouraged and whose effect has been magnified by stronger IPR protection. Moreover, adopting and enforcing the patent laws probably cannot be treated as an independent event with causation running in only one direction to China’s economic development..
    Keywords: Patent law, Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS, TFP Growth
    JEL: O31 O33 O34
    Date: 2009–09
  7. By: Alexander Popov (European Central Bank, Kaiserstrasse 29, D-60311 Frankfurt am Main, Germany.); Peter Roosenboom (Department of Finance, Rotterdam School of Management (RSM), Erasmus University Rotterdam, Burgemeester Oudlaan 50, NL 3062PA Rotterdam, The Netherlands.)
    Abstract: Using a comprehensive database of European firms, we study how private equity affects the rate of firm entry. We find that private equity investment benefits new business incorporation, especially in industries with naturally higher entry rates and R&D intensity. A two standard deviation increase in private equity investment explains as much as 5.5% of the variation in entry between high-entry and low-entry industries. We address endogeneity by exploiting data on laws that regulate private equity investments by pension funds. Our results hold when we correct for barriers to entry, general access to credit, protection of intellectual property, and labor regulations. JEL Classification: G24, L26, M13.
    Keywords: private equity, venture capital, firm entry.
    Date: 2009–08
  8. By: Claudia Burgio-Ficca (Deakin University)
    Abstract: Recent years have seen a growing interest in research and development in Australia. The Commonwealth Government has responded through the commissioning of a number of reports. Whilst examining the current state of R&D in Australian, these reports have done little to analyse relationship between R&D and Australian output. This paper examines the impact of R&D on Australian state production between 1979 and 1999. Results indicate that both total and higher education R&D are important and significant in generating output. In particular, it is shown that particular types of research contribute more significantly to Australian output.
    Keywords: Higher education research, Australian, gross state product
    Date: 2009–08–13
  9. By: Elina Berghäll
    Abstract: Low aggregate investment in Finland has been argued to merely reflect structural change to an innovation economy, with high R&D levels adequately compensating for reduced physical investment. This paper briefly reviews the issues and discusses the severity and persistence of the shortage. Immaterialization of investment clearly plays a role and outward FDI crowds out domestic investment to some extent. Yet, we find no obvious explanation to low investment in the real economy relative to other western economies, since Finland fares rather well in multi-factor productivity and country risk and the supply of capital abode before the onset of the global crisis. We conclude that if investment was low when capital flew abundantly to any potentially high return end, it will most certainly be seriously damaged by the repercussions of the present global financial crisis. R&D and other intangible investment may not be able to compensate, if other factors, such as exchange rate policies, act against them and long-term growth prospects are generally bleak.
    Keywords: Investment, R&D, productivity, structural change, high-technology
    JEL: H50 F21 O38 E22
    Date: 2009–06–10
  10. By: Sauer, Johannes; Zilberman, David
    Abstract: Using a squential logit model and a mixed-effects logistic regression approach this empirical study investigates factors for the adoption of automatic milking technology (AMS) at the farm level accounting for problems of sequential sample selection and behaviour identification. The results suggest the importance of the farmerâs risk perception, significant effects of peer-group behaviour, and a positive impact of previous innovation experiences.
    Keywords: Innovation, Dairy Farming, Sample Selection, Mixed-Effects Modelling., Marketing, D21, Q12, C5,
    Date: 2009–04–01
  11. By: Jaya Prakash Pradhan
    Abstract: This study analyzes the factors leading to the emergence of these Indian IST firms as multinationals in the global market. Applying the theoretical framework of national innovation system (NIS), the study establishes that origin of Indian IST multinationals are critically linked to the overall policy environment and strategic government intervention in skill formation, development of supporting institutions, proactive role of Indian households in undertaking human capital investment and providing risk taking entrepreneurs , and also to the firm-level business strategies.
    Keywords: multinational, national innovation system (NIS), Indian, IST firms, economy, global market,
    Date: 2009
  12. By: A. Abigail Payne; Joanne Roberts
    Abstract: Universities are engaged in many activities; primarily, research and teaching. Many states have instituted performance measures that focus on evaluating a university's success in teaching. We suggest that multitasking may be important in this context, and we consider research outcomes after adoption. We find striking results that depend on university status. Research activity is higher at flagship institutions after the adoption of performance measures. Most of this increase in activity is with respect to the level of research funding and the number of articles produced. In contrast, research funding and the number of publications is dramatically lower at non-flagship institutions. There is some evidence that citations per publication at non-flagship institutions are higher after the adoption of performance standards. The evidence suggests that universities have become more specialized since the introduction of these programs.
    JEL: H3 H4
    Date: 2009–01–23
  13. By: James D. Adams
    Abstract: The expansion of U.S. universities after World War II gained from the arrival of immigrant scientists and graduate students, the broadening of access to universities, and the development of military research and high technology industry. Since the 1980s, however, growth of scientific research in Europe and East Asia has exceeded that of the U.S., suggesting convergence in world science and engineering and a falling U.S. share. But the slowdown of U.S. publication rates in the late 1990s is a different matter, in that the rise of science elsewhere does not imply a U.S. slowdown in any obvious sense. Using a panel of U.S. universities, fields and years, evidence is found of a slowdown in the growth of resources. In turn, this has caused a deceleration in the growth of research output in public universities and university-fields falling into the middle 40 percent and bottom 40 percent of their disciplines. These developments can be traced to slower growth in tuition and state appropriations in public universities compared to revenue growth, including from endowment, in private universities.
    JEL: I23 J31 L31 O31
    Date: 2009–08
  14. By: Stefan Hornbostel
    Abstract: As in other societal realms also in research, science, and development governments and parliaments increasingly have to legitimize their actions and want to base their future activities on informed decisions. Consequently, performance measures, benchmarking, comparative analysis, “foresight studies” are increasingly asked for. Ranking, ratings and evaluations are introduced throughout the system supposedly providing on the one hand the requested transparency and at the same time acting as stimuli to improve the performance. However, to date central questions relating to the underlying methodologies and indicators used are unanswered. These questions concern the availability and appropriateness of the data, indicator construction and methodologies on the one hand, tackle issues as how to deal with effects due to disciplinary, sectoral, regional or national differences, and concern the intended and unintended effects of the instruments used. In the contribution these issues are described and discussed in more detail. In Germany so far infrastructural deficiencies e.g. the fragmentation of research groups addressing those issues prevent adequately addressing the open research questions. Behind this background the two most important tasks identified are them the development of a decentralized data collection system enabling standard definitions and the development of a competitive research infrastructure.
    Keywords: Science Indicators, R&D, Research Funding, Governance
    Date: 2009
  15. By: Krämer, Jan; Wiewiorra, Lukas
    Abstract: We model the main arguments of the net neutrality debate in a two-sided market framework with network congestion sensitive content providers and Internet consumers on each side, respectively. The platform is controlled by a monopolistic Internet service provider, who may choose to sell content providers prioritized access to its customers. We explicitly consider the adverse effects of traffic prioritization to the remaining best-effort class and find that network discrimination has overall positive effects on welfare, because congestion is better allocated to those content providers with congestion inelastic advertisement revenues. In the long-run, network discrimination leads to infrastructure investments in transmission capacity and encourages innovation on the content provider side. In the short-run, however, discrimination has no effect on innovation because the ISP expropriates the content providers' increased surplus through the price for priority access. This is the downside of network discrimination: Albeit total welfare is increased, content providers will--at least in the short-run--be worse off than under network neutrality.
    Keywords: Telecommunication; Network Neutrality; Two-Sided Market; Traffic Prioritization; Innovation; Broadband Investment
    JEL: L5 L96 D4
    Date: 2009–08–05

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