nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2008‒10‒28
twelve papers chosen by
Steffen Lippert
Massey University Department of Commerce

  1. Innovation, Technology Transfer and Labor Productivity Linkages: Evidence from a Panel of Manufacturing Industries By Nicholas Apergis; Claire Economidou; Ioannis Filippidis
  2. Searching for Innovations ? The Technological Determinants of Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical Industry By Gautier Duflos; Etienne Pfister
  3. Disentangling Specific Subsets of Innovations : A Micro-Econometric Analysis of their Determinants By Andreas Ziegler
  4. Military R&D: the productivity puzzle By Ruttan, Vernon W.
  5. What Makes Them Tick? Employee Motives and Firm Innovation By Henry Sauermann; Wesley M. Cohen
  6. Innovation and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Analysis Based on Micro Data of the Basic Survey of Business Structure and Activity and the Japanese National Innovation Survey [in Japanese] By Hyeog Ug Kwon; Kyoji Fukao; YoungGak Kim
  7. U.S. R&D and Japanese Medium Term Cycles By R.Anton Braun; Toshihiro Okada; Nao Sudo
  8. Agricultural R&D Policy: A Tragedy of the International Commons By Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; James, Jennifer S.
  9. Determinants of patent withdrawals: evidence from a sample of Italian applications with the EPO By Sterlacchini, Alessandro; Schettino, Francesco
  10. Induced Technical Change, Induced Institutional Change and Mechanism Design By Ruttan, Vernon W.
  11. General Purpose Technology, Revolutionary Technology, and Technological Maturity By Ruttan, Vernon W.
  12. International Technology Spillovers, Human Capital and Productivity Linkages: Evidence from the Industrial Sector By Nicholas Apergis; Claire Economidou; Ioannis Filippidis

  1. By: Nicholas Apergis; Claire Economidou; Ioannis Filippidis
    Abstract: The paper explores the linkages between labor productivity, innovation and technology spillovers in a panel of manufacturing industries. The roles of R&D, human capital and international trade are considered in stimulating innovation and/or facilitating technology transfer. Using panel-based unit root tests and cointegration analysis, the results indicate the existence of a single long-run equilibrium relation between labor productivity, innovation and technology transfer. Further, R&D, trade and human capital have statistically and, especially the latter, quantitatively important effects on labor productivity both directly via innovation and indirectly as they enhance technology diffusion.
    Keywords: productivity, innovation, technology transfer, manufacturing industries, panel cointegration.
    JEL: C23 L60 O30
    Date: 2008–10
  2. By: Gautier Duflos (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENPC - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I - INRA - CNRS); Etienne Pfister (BETA-Règles - Université de Nancy II)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the individual determinants of acquisition activity and target choices in the pharmaceutical industry over the period 1978-2002. The "innovation gap" hypothesis states that acquiring firms lack promising drug compounds and acquire firms with more promising drug prospects. A duration model implemented over a panel of more than 400 firms relates the probabilities of being an purchaser or a target to financial, R&D ant patent data to investigate this explanation more deeply. Results show that purchasers are firms with a lower Tobin's Q and decreasing sales, which could indicate that acquisitions are used to compensate for low internal growth prospects. Firms with a higher proportion of radical patents in their portfolio, especially in pharmaceutical and biothechnological patent classes, face a higher probability of being targeted, indicating that acquiring firms are indeed searching for innovative competencies. However, acquiring firms also present a significant absorptive capacity : their R&D investment increases in the year preceding the operation and their patent stock is larger and more diversified than for non-acquiring firms. Finally, we observe that over the last ten years of the sample period, firms have paid a greater attention to the size of the target's portfolio.
    Keywords: M&A, pharmaceutical, innovations, patent citations.
    Date: 2008–09
  3. By: Andreas Ziegler (CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research at ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Based on a unique firm-level data set from the German manufacturing sector, this paper disentangles environmental and non-environmental product and process innovations. The multivariate probit analysis shows that the various innovation types are determined by different factors. The estimation results suggest a policy mix which comprises the encouragement of R&D activities, certified management systems, and specific management activities referring to environmentally friendly products when the implementation of all innovation types is to be supported.
    Keywords: Product and process innovations, Environmental and non-environmental innovations, Management systems, Multivariate probit models
    JEL: Q55 O31 O32 C35
    Date: 2008–10
  4. By: Ruttan, Vernon W.
    Abstract: A number of very careful econometric studies have been interpreted as showing that publicly funded research and development conducted by private firms has had little discernable impact on firm level profits or productivity. In contrast historical studies have shown that military and defense-related research development and procurement conducted by private firms has been an important source of technology development across a broad spectrum of U.S. manufacturing industries. Careful narrative analysis represents a more effective way of capturing the complementarities between military and defense-related research, development, and procurement on commercial technology development than econometric analysis.
    Keywords: Political Economy, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008–02–23
  5. By: Henry Sauermann; Wesley M. Cohen
    Abstract: We examine the impact of individual-level motives upon innovative effort and performance in firms. Drawing from economics and social psychology, we develop a model of the impact of individuals' motives and incentives upon their innovative effort and performance. Using data on over 11,000 industrial scientists and engineers (SESTAT 2003), we find that individuals' motives have significant effects upon innovative effort and performance. These effects vary significantly, however, by the particular kind of motive (e.g., desire for intellectual challenge vs. pay). We also find that intrinsic and extrinsic motives affect innovative performance even when controlling for effort, suggesting that motives affect not only the level of individual effort, but also its quality. Overall, intrinsic motives, particularly the desire for intellectual challenge, appear to benefit innovation more than extrinsic motives such as pay.
    JEL: O3 O30 O31 O32
    Date: 2008–10
  6. By: Hyeog Ug Kwon; Kyoji Fukao; YoungGak Kim
    Date: 2008–10
  7. By: R.Anton Braun (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo); Toshihiro Okada (School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University); Nao Sudo (Institute for Monetary and Economics Studies, Bank of Japan)
    Abstract: Between 1960 and 1990 Japanese labor productivity rose from 27 percent of the U.S. to 87 percent. These productivity gains are associated with large variations in Japanese TFP. We find that movements in Japanese TFP are associated with prior movements in U.S. R&D expenditures. Model simulations that isolate the contribution of U.S. R&D to Japanese TFP reproduce the most important swings in Japanese economic activity between 1960 and 2002.
    Keywords: Medium term cycles, R&D, Technology diffusion
    JEL: E32 O11 O33
    Date: 2008–10
  8. By: Pardey, Philip G.; Alston, Julian M.; James, Jennifer S.
    Abstract: Over the past 50 years public agricultural research has contributed enormously to humanity, enabling the supply of food to grow faster than demand in spite of a rapidly growing population, income growth, and shrinking natural resources. Nonetheless, in many countries we see waning public support for agricultural R&D, especially in Africa, a diversion of research resources from farm productivity towards other agendas, and early warning signs of a slowdown in agricultural productivity. The world has continued to collectively underinvest in agricultural R&D because of domestic and international market failures associated with appropriability problems. Governments have failed to effectively address these problems, often doing too little, too late. This tragedy of the international commons may be getting worse. In the past, developing countries benefited considerably from technological spillovers from developed countries, but because of changes occurring in developed countries, spillovers from developed countries may not be available to developing countries in the same ways or to the same extent . In this article, the factors contributing to persistent global underinvestment in agricultural R&D are described from a developingcountry perspective, estimates of agricultural R&D spending trends are presented, and incentive mechanisms for increasing rates of investment in agricultural R&D are described and assessed.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008–09–12
  9. By: Sterlacchini, Alessandro; Schettino, Francesco
    Abstract: This paper analyses the propensity to withdraw European patent applications within a regional sample of Italian applicants. The procedure for obtaining a granted patent from the EPO is composed of a series of sequential and selective steps imposing additional costs to the applicants. Accordingly, we argue that early withdrawals - i.e. those occurring before the proper examination process begins - should be treated separately from late withdrawals. Our findings show the probability of an early withdrawal is higher for applicants with lower resources and competencies and rises with the number of backward citations added by EPO examiners to the original application. Late withdrawals, instead, are negatively affected by one factor only: the size of patent family, which approximates the sunk costs born by applicants in order to extend the geographical scope of patent protection. Such a limited explanation suggests that the (unobserved) interventions of EPO examiners are likely to play a significant role in inducing late withdrawals.
    Keywords: Patent withdrawals; Applicants’ features; Patent quality; Patent examination.
    JEL: O34 O31
    Date: 2008–10–22
  10. By: Ruttan, Vernon W.
    Abstract: In this paper I review the theories of induced technical and institutional change. I discuss the sources of the demand and supply of institutional innovation. The sources of institutional innovation are illustrated by changes in land tenure relations in Philippine agriculture, by the development of institutional design principles based on studies of small scale resource management systems and by the transition from command and control to market based systems of resource management in the United States. I introduce the concept of incentive compatible mechanism and institutional design. In a final section I elaborate a pattern model that maps the relationships among changes in resource endowments, cultural endowments, technology and institutions.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008–03–25
  11. By: Ruttan, Vernon W.
    Abstract: An important inference of the theoretical literature on the development of general purpose technologies is that public investment in their development is necessary if economic growth is to be sustained. The theoretical results are broadly consistent with the empirical generalization that the public sector, particularly military and defense related research, technology development and procurement, has played an important role in the development of most of the general purpose technologies in which the United States is presently globally competitive. These sources are, however, unlikely to play such an important role in the development of new general purpose technologies in the immediate future. Nor is the private sector, burdened by impatient capital, likely to become an important source of new general purpose technology.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008–05–07
  12. By: Nicholas Apergis; Claire Economidou; Ioannis Filippidis
    Abstract: The paper estimates an empirical model that is consistent with a variety of R&D-driven model of growth where technology is transmitted via trade to other industries, both domestically and internationally, by being embodied in differentiated intermediate goods. The evidence is based on data from 21 manufacturing industries in six EU countries for the period 1980-1997. The contribution of the paper lies in showing how by including human capital in the model and employing suitable econometric procedures, the magnitude of R&D spillovers reported in the existing literature can be affected, while pointing to a major role of human capital in economic growth process.
    Keywords: total factor productivity, technology spillovers, human capital, panel cointegration, manufacturing industries
    JEL: C23 F1 L6 O33
    Date: 2008–10

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