nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2007‒10‒20
twenty-two papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Utrecht University

  1. Cooperation in Innovation Practices among Portuguese Firms: Do Universities Interface Innovative Advances? By Silva, Maria José; Leitão, João
  2. Anticommons and optimal patent policy in a model of sequential innovation By Gaston Llanes; Stefano Trento
  3. A multilevel approach to geography of innovation By Martin Srholec
  4. Knowledge Flows through Social Networks in a Cluster: Interfirm versus University- Industry Contacts By Christian R. Østergaard
  5. The puzzle of patent value indicators By Nicolas van Zeebroeck
  6. The Economics of Inefficient Technology Use By Paul Beaudry; Patrick Francois
  7. More Secrecy...More Knowledge Disclosure? On Disclosure Outside of Patents By Carlos J Ponce
  8. Different Rules for Different Owners: Does a Non-Competing Patentee have a Right to Exclude? A Study of Post-eBay Cases By Sujitha Subramanian
  9. Learning to Grow: A Comparative Analysis of the Wind Energy Sector in Denmark and India By Kari Kristinsson; Rekha Rao
  10. Private governance in royalty collection: Effectiveness and limitations in tracing GM soybean in Brazil By Patricio Mendez Del Villar; Carlos Magri Ferreira; Juliana Galvarros Bueno Lobo Ribeiro; Josema Xavier De Madeiros; Pasquale Lubello; Jean-Louis Le Guerroué; Michel Fok
  11. Hard and Soft Locational Factors, Innovativeness and Firm Performance : An Empirical Test of Porter's Diamond Model at the Micro-Level By Alexander Eickelpasch; Anna Lejpras; Andreas Stephan
  12. Research valorisation through spin-off ventures: Integration of existing concepts and typologies By De Cleyn S.; Braet J.
  13. The Global Challenges of the Knowledge Economy: China and the EU By Huang, Can; Soete, Luc
  14. The financing of small innovative firms: The Italian case By Silvia Magri
  15. A Conceptual Note on Classification of Literature on Capabilities By Dixit M.R.; Karna Amit; Sharma Sunil
  16. Technological Diversification By Koren, Miklós; Tenreyro, Silvana
  17. Technological performance of Belgium: is it really so bad? By Dumont M.
  18. Investigating New Technology Based Firm (NTBF) Internationalization: the Impact on Performance, the Process and the Antecedents By Kiederich A.
  19. Comparative advantage patterns and domestic determinants in emerging countries: an analysis with a focus on technology By Daniela Marconi; Valeria Rolli
  20. Role of ‘corporate persistence’ and ‘environmental support’ in building breakthrough capability: Empirical investigation of Samsung’s initiatives in memory and microwave oven business By Dixit M.R.; Sharma Sunil; Karna Amit
  21. The due diligence process – Guiding principles for early stage innovative products By De Cleyn S.; Braet J.
  22. Large shareholders and firm value: Are high-tech firms different? By Irena Grosfeld

  1. By: Silva, Maria José; Leitão, João
    Abstract: This paper aims to identify the nature of the relationships that are established amongst agents who co-operate in terms of innovation practices. It analyses whether the entrepreneurial innovation capability of firms is stimulated through the relationships developed with external partners. The data of 2nd Community Innovation Survey of EUROSTAT is used in a logistic model. In the estimation process of the Logit function, the entrepreneurial innovation capability is considered as the answer variable. The scientific agents who cooperate in terms of innovation activities impact, positively, on the propensity to engage in innovative advances revealed by the firms, at the level of product innovation. The paper presents policy implications, which may be used in the design of public policies for fostering open innovation networks between scientific agents and firms.
    Keywords: Innovation; Networks; Entrepreneurial Innovation Capability.
    JEL: O32 I28 O31 I23
    Date: 2007–10–15
  2. By: Gaston Llanes; Stefano Trento
    Abstract: When innovation is sequential, the development of new products depends on the access to previous discoveries. As a consequence the patent system affects both the revenues and the cost of the innovator. We construct a model of sequential innovation in which an innovator uses n patented inputs in R&D to invent a new product. We ask three questions: (i) what is the net effect of patents on innovation as technologies become more complex (n increases)? (ii) are patent pools welfare enhancing? (iii) what is the optimal response of patent policy as technological complexity increases? We find that the answers to these questions depend on the degree of complementarity and substitutability between the inputs used in research.
    Date: 2007–06
  3. By: Martin Srholec (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how research on geography of innovation can benefit from multilevel modeling. Using explanatory factors operating at different levels of the analysis, we assess the hypothesis that regional innovation systems influence the firm’s likelihood to innovate. We estimate a logit multilevel model of innovation on micro data from the third Community Innovation Survey in the Czech Republic. The results indicate that the quality of the regional innovation system directly determines firm’s likelihood to innovate and mediates the effect of some firm-level factors. Also structural problems in the region influence innovation in firms.
    Keywords: innovation, multilevel modeling, regional innovation system, Czech Republic.
    JEL: O32 R15 D21
    Date: 2007–10
  4. By: Christian R. Østergaard
    Abstract: Knowledge spillovers from a university to the local industry play an important role in clusters, but we know little about these spillovers. This paper examines empirically the extent of university-industry informal contacts. Furthermore, it analyses the characteristics of an engineer that acquire knowledge from informal contacts with university researchers. The university-industry contacts are compared with results for interfirm contacts. The research shows that the interfirm informal contacts are more numerous than university informal contacts. Likewise, knowledge is more frequently acquired from other firms than through university-industry contacts. Engineers that have participated in formal projects with university researchers and engineers that are educated at the university have a higher likelihood of acquiring knowledge from informal contacts with university researchers.
    Keywords: Knowledge flows; informal contacts
    JEL: D83 O32 I23
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Nicolas van Zeebroeck (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to investigate the consistency of classical patent value indicators (forward citations, grant, families, renewals and oppositions) and the nature of their relationships over a large sample (considering all applications filed to the European Patent Office between 1980 and 2002). The results show that classical indicators are weakly correlated with each other and frequently attribute the highest value to different sets of patents, suggesting that they actually capture different dimensions of patent value and are therefore complements rather than substitutes. This result supports the construction of a composite indicator that would account for all those dimensions in an inclusive way. The proposed composite indicator suggests a declining trend in the average value of patent applications filed to the EPO over the period 1985-1995, justifying concerns over the worldwide boom in patent filings.
    Keywords: Patent systems, Patent quality, Patent value
    JEL: O31 O34 O50
    Date: 2007–08
  6. By: Paul Beaudry; Patrick Francois
    Abstract: The adoption and diffusion of technological knowledge is generally regarded as a key element in a country's economic success. However, as is the case with most types of information, the transfer of technological knowledge is likely to be subject to adverse selection problems. In this paper we examine whether asymmetric information regarding who knows how to run a new technology efficiently can explain a set of observations regarding within and cross-country patterns of technology diffusion. In particular, we show how the dynamics of adverse selection in the market for technological knowhow can explain (1) why inefficient technology use may take over a market even when better practice is available, (2) why widespread inefficient use may persist unless a critical mass of firms switch to best practice, (3) why efficient adoption of new technologies is more likely to occur where the existing technology is already productive, where wages are already relatively high, and where the new technology is not too great an advance over the old one, and (4) why the international mobility of knowledgeable individuals does not guarantee the diffusion of best practice technology across countries.
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2007–10
  7. By: Carlos J Ponce
    Date: 2007–10–15
  8. By: Sujitha Subramanian (Centre for Competition Policy, University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: Courts have traditionally granted injunctive relief ‘automatically’ upon finding infringement of valid patents on the basis that it is the essence of the patent right to exclude others. But the U.S. Supreme Court signalled a change in 2006 when they vacated the Federal Court’s order granting injunction against eBay for willfully infringing valid patents of MercExchange. The ruling comes at a time when the debate on what have pejoratively been called ‘patent trolls’ have taken centre stage. This paper examines the issues connected to patent trolls and analyses cases post-eBay to study the effect that eBay has had on patent infringement litigation. The analysis shows that the economic status of the patentee and the nature of the patent itself can adversely affect the exclusive rights granted by the patent. This is because non-competing patentees and a patent which covers only a small component of the overall product are less likely to obtain an injunctive relief. Denial of injunctive relief results in judicially-instituted compulsory licensing of patents which dramatically scales down the bargaining power of the patentee during licensing fee negotiations. Wrongly being adjudged a ‘troll’ can have dramatic effects on the incentive for investment and innovation. Consequently, the paper argues that acceptance of the concept of patent ‘troll’ is likely to result in more harm to innovation that otherwise.
    Keywords: Patents, patentees, right to exclude, patent trolls, compulsory licensing
    JEL: K19 K20
    Date: 2007–09
  9. By: Kari Kristinsson; Rekha Rao
    Abstract: This paper uses sectoral systems of innovation framework to examine the relationship between technology policy and industrial development by comparing the emergence of the wind energy sector in Denmark and India. Since the late 1970s Denmark has led the development of a global wind energy industry and in 2004 wind energy supplied 18,8% percent of Denmark’s electricity consumption. India was however a late entrant that managed in a few years to establish itself as the fifth largest producer of wind energy in the world. We suggest that India’s unique policy of ‘interactive learning’ with international and especially Danish actors, instead of imitation of foreign technology policies and institutions, was a substantial contributor to India’s success in developing their wind energy industry.
    Keywords: Wind energy industry; Denmark; India; sectoral systems of innovation
    JEL: O38 Q48
    Date: 2007
  10. By: Patricio Mendez Del Villar (UR Action Collective, Politiques & Marchés - [CIRAD : UPR88]); Carlos Magri Ferreira (Centro de Arroz e Feijão - [EMBRAPA]); Juliana Galvarros Bueno Lobo Ribeiro (Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinaria - [Universidade de Brasilia]); Josema Xavier De Madeiros (Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinaria - [Universidade de Brasilia]); Pasquale Lubello (Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinaria - [Universidade de Brasilia]); Jean-Louis Le Guerroué (Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinaria - [Universidade de Brasilia]); Michel Fok (UPR10 - Systèmes cotonniers en petits paysannats - [CIRAD])
    Abstract: Ce papier analyse l'émergence d'une innovation institutionnelle en accompagnement de la diffusion du soja génétiquement modifié au Brésil. Il en découle une gouvernance plutôt efficace par la création d'une situation gagnant-gagnant pour les acteurs impliqués, au moins à court terme, tant que la coexistence avec les variétés conventionnelles peut demeurer. Cette coexistence est menacée surtout du fait d'une absence de prime de marché pour le soja conventionnel.
    Keywords: OGM; soja; Brésil; innovation institutionnelle; redevance d'emploi; coexistence
    Date: 2007–11–21
  11. By: Alexander Eickelpasch; Anna Lejpras; Andreas Stephan
    Abstract: This paper investigates predictions of Porter's Diamond model regarding the impact of locational factors on innovativeness and performance at the firm level. We formulate a structural equation model based on the relationships between locational conditions, e.g., transportation infrastructure, proximity to universities and research institutes, qualified labour, on the one hand, and innovativeness measured by new product or process development, number of patents, and firm performance in terms of market growth or profit assessment, on the other hand. Based on a sample of about 2,100 East German firms, we apply the partial least squares path modelling approach to test the proposed relationships. We find that particularly cooperation intensity at the local level spurs the innovativeness of firms; whereas in contrast to Porter's predictions, our results indicate that strong local competition and a locally focused market appear to impede the innovativeness and performance of firms.
    Keywords: Hard and soft locational factors, innovativeness, firm performance, East German firms, structural equation modelling, partial least squares approach
    JEL: R30 L25 O30
    Date: 2007
  12. By: De Cleyn S.; Braet J.
    Abstract: The research domain of innovation and entrepreneurship is relatively young and fragmented. Therefore, no consensus exists on the definition of the main concepts. This paper intends to both elucidate (the differences between) the concepts of ‘spinoff’ and ‘spin-out’ and, starting from existing literature typologies, to integrate several existing spin-off taxonomies, classifications and typologies in order to create a clear and complete framework for further research. This way, 10 different ‘ideal’ spin-off and spin-out types will be defined. The resulting integrated typology will be illustrated in view of its practical and theoretical implications.
    Date: 2007–05
  13. By: Huang, Can (UNU-MERIT); Soete, Luc (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper addresses some of the challenges confronting the European Union and China as they build their knowledge economies, and their on-going and possible future actions to address such challenges. Fifty years after the creation of what became the European Union, we argue that there is an urgent need to develop a new European Lisbon Agenda, preparing the EU for globalization. A new and "outward-looking" Lisbon strategy would focus on three key areas: international trade in services, internationalization of research networking, and access to brains and talent. The paper shows that the success of the Chinese economy over the past three decades can be partially attributed to its ability to absorb globally advanced technology and huge flows of foreign investment, its large pool of knowledge and talent, and its enactment of a policy framework that provides incentives to domestic and foreign firms to innovate - a strategy very much reminiscent of Europe's own internal Lisbon agenda. To move further, China needs to overcome the obstacles of regional disparities, transform its industry and deepen industry-academy linkages, which are also unavoidable tasks for the sustainable development of Europe. We contend that the scope for comparative studies of the EU and China, for mutual learning from each other's experience - even for joint initiatives - is substantial.
    Keywords: Knowledge Economy, Industry-University Partnerships, Globalization, Internationalization, Highly Skilled Migration, European Union, China
    JEL: F02 F16 F22 L80 O32
    Date: 2007
  14. By: Silvia Magri (Banca d’Italia)
    Abstract: Small firms encounter difficulties in raising external finance owing to greater information problems. For small innovative firms, whose activity is more difficult to evaluate, the cost of external finance could be even higher. This paper examines special features of the financial structure of small innovative firms, compared with firms of similar size that do not innovate. The evidence shows that small innovators rely less on financial debt and more on internal financial resources; no important differences appear for large firms. This is consistent with the view that informational problems mainly affect small firms; large firms, even when they innovate, continue to rely on their traditional set of financial instruments. Another finding is that in small innovative firms investment is less sensitive to cash flow than in small non-innovative firms, probably because the high incidence of internal financial resources allows them more flexibility in deciding their investments. No comparable difference is found between innovative and non-innovative large firms.
    Keywords: corporate finance, innovative firms, investment dynamics
    JEL: D92 G32 O31
    Date: 2007–09
  15. By: Dixit M.R.; Karna Amit; Sharma Sunil
    Abstract: The research literature has looked at capabilities of a firm from various dimensions. Through this conceptual note, we aim to classify the literature on eight dimensions: Definition, Portfolio, Utilization, Level, Characterization, Demonstration, Lifecycle, and Development. These eight dimensions cover the various perspectives through which capabilities literature has been approached from and furthered to. This classification is expected to enable researchers in this area to position their studies within or across one or more of these dimensions, thus providing a clear contribution by strengthening or furthering research in the area.
    Keywords: Capabilities, Classification of Literature
    Date: 2007–10–11
  16. By: Koren, Miklós; Tenreyro, Silvana
    Abstract: Economies at early stages of development are often shaken by abrupt changes in growth rates, whereas in advanced economies growth rates tend to be relatively stable. To explain this pattern, we propose a theory of technological diversification. Production makes use of different input varieties, which are subject to imperfectly correlated shocks. Technological progress takes the form of an increase in the number of varieties, raising average productivity. In addition, the expansion in the number of varieties in our model provides diversification benefits against variety-specific shocks and it can hence lower the volatility of output growth. Technological complexity evolves endogenously in response to profit incentives. The decline in volatility thus arises as a by-product of firms' incentives to increase profits and is hence a likely outcome of the development process. We quantitatively asses the predictions of the model in light of the empirical evidence and find that for reasonable parameter values, the model can generate a decline in volatility with the level of development comparable to that in the data.
    Keywords: development; endogenous growth; technological diversification; volatility
    JEL: O30 O31 O33
    Date: 2007–10
  17. By: Dumont M.
    Abstract: Some measures of technological performance indicate that a number of mainly small open EU economies have performed rather well in the 1990s, compared to the US, especially when considering exports in high-tech products. Whereas the strong performance of the Nordic EU countries will not come as a surprise, the strong growth in high-tech export shares of Belgium seems in contrast with some gloomy reports on its technological competitiveness. Market reforms and macroeconomic policies, though undoubtedly necessary to shield the European Social model from increasing global competition and the ageing of the population, may not have to be as sweeping as some suggest.
    Date: 2006–10
  18. By: Kiederich A.
    Abstract: While researchers have extensively studied the born global and international new venture phenomena, the related field of NTBF internationalization has been left untouched, giving rise to an investigation aimed at filling this gap in the international business literature. The investigation covers the impact that internationalization has on performance, the process of internationalization and the antecedents of successful internationalization. Being conceptual in nature, this paper lays the theoretical foundation for future empirical research on NTBF internationalization. The theory development is based on an analysis of several factors, including organizational and environmental characteristics, founders, financing, ownership and network ties of NTBFs.
    Date: 2007–04
  19. By: Daniela Marconi (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department); Valeria Rolli (Bank of Italy, Economic Research epartment)
    Abstract: During the last two decades a number of emerging economies have become deeply engaged in technology-intensive production. This has been reflected in a shift in their international trade specialization from labor-intensive towards capital-intensive goods and in rapid productivity gains across all manufacturing activities. The paper draws on a sample of sixteen emerging countries to investigate the linkages between the pattern of revealed comparative advantages (RCAs), captured by a modified version of the Lafay index of international trade specialization, and the competitiveness structure of the domestic manufacturing sector, measured by a set of industry and country-specific variables. Positive and large RCAs are found to be associated with low unit labor costs in both low-technology (labor-intensive) and medium-or-high tech sectors; on the other hand, domestic accumulation of physical capital is associated with positive and large RCAs in medium-or-high tech sectors. The international disadvantage (negative RCAs) in technology-intensive production tends to increase for countries with low human capital, whereas it diminishes for countries that have large domestic markets and import technology through foreign capital goods.
    Keywords: Revealed comparative advantages, technological up-grading
    JEL: F14 O10
    Date: 2007–09
  20. By: Dixit M.R.; Sharma Sunil; Karna Amit
    Abstract: It is now an incontrovertible fact that capabilities are the source of competitive advantage. However, the process through which firms build capabilities over a period of time is only partially understood. Concepts like learning, resource combination, and co-evolution can be categorized as enablers as they support capability formation. On the other hand, concepts like inertia and path dependence can be categorized as restrictors as they constrain the process of capability formation. Combined together, while these concepts hint in the right direction, there is a need to have concepts that explain the process of capability formation holistically. An endeavour towards this objective would require taking into account the role of internal and external events. This paper builds concepts of ‘corporate persistence’ and ‘environmental support’ to explain their role in building breakthrough capability by examining major events in the evolution of two mega high technology business belonging to the Samsung group.
    Keywords: Capability Building, Corporate Persistence, Environmental Support, Breakthrough.
    Date: 2007–10–11
  21. By: De Cleyn S.; Braet J.
    Abstract: Mergers and acquisitions of small, innovative firms require special treatment of the due diligence process. The asymmetry in organisational order of magnitude would otherwise force the smaller, ‘target’ venture to become a puppet in the hands of the larger, often multinational company. The aim of this paper is to provide a guideline for smaller, new technology-based firms to face the power disequilibrium. After a brief introduction on the nature of the due diligence process, the paper will discuss dangers of due diligence as perceived by both the disclosing and the receiving party. Special attention will be paid to the concepts of the White Room, the White Book and the need for gradually increasing disclosure of one party and growing commitment – both financially and contractually – of the other. For each phase of the due diligence process, content of the disclosure is discussed, as well as legal, financial and procedural aspects.
    Date: 2006–07
  22. By: Irena Grosfeld
    Abstract: This paper explores the relationship between ownership structure and firm value in a transition economy. It distinguishes firms belonging to the sector of innovative technologies and firms from more "traditional" industries. For the latter, the results of the estimation of a simultaneous equations system give support to the hypothesis that strong monitoring and ownership concentration are beneficial for firm performance. They also show that in high-tech firms, higher ownership concentration does not improve firm performance. The sample consists of all non-financial firms listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange since its creation in 1991.
    Date: 2007

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