nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2007‒06‒30
25 papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Utrecht University

  1. Shifting the Bias: How to Disentangle Creative Adoption from Radical Innovation. Empirical Evidence from Italy and the US By Antonelli Cristiano; Quatraro Francesco
  2. The Relationship among innovative Output, Productivity, and Profitability. A test comparing USPTO and EPO data By Enrico Santarelli; Francesca Lotti
  3. From creativity to innovation By Yusuf, Shahid
  4. A Brief History of Space and Time: the Scope-Year Index as a Patent Value Indicator Based on Families and Renewals By Bruno Van Pottelsberghe; Nicolas van Zeebroeck
  5. Public sector research and industrial innovation in Norway: a historical perspective By Magnus Gulbrandsen; Lars Nerdrum
  6. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents By Masatsura Igami; Teruo Okazaki
  7. Innovation und Wissensnetze im Wiener Informations- und Kommunikationtechnologiecluster By Michaela Trippl; Lukas Lengauer; Franz Tödtling
  8. Knowledge Assisted Innovation By Benchimol, Guy
  9. The Layers of National Innovation Systems: The Historical Evolution of a National Innovation System in Norway By Olav Wicken
  10. The Role of R&D in Industrial Policy: Rise and fall of a research driven strategy for industrialisation By Olav Wicken
  11. Echange, réciprocité et innovation dans une communauté paysanne - Une lecture conventionnaliste By Frédéric Gannon; Frédéric Sandron
  12. FDI, Market Structure and R&D Investments in China By Lundin, Nannan; Sjöholm, Fredrik; He, Ping; Qian , Jinchang
  13. Pre-empting Technology Competition Through Firm Acquisitions By Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin
  14. The Private Costs of Patent Litigation By James Bessen; Michael J. Meurer
  15. Norwegian Innovation and Industrial Structure: Insiders and Outsiders? By Tommy Clausen; Svein Olav Nås; Bart Verspagen
  16. Cultures of Innovation of the African Poor: Common Roots, Shared Traits, Joint Prospects? On the Articulation of Multiple Modernities in African Societies and Black Diasporas in Latin America By Kohnert, Dirk
  17. The Division of Labour, Coordination, and the Demand for Information Processing By Michaels, Guy
  18. The influence of regional innovation systems on regional economic growth - Linking regional input-output analysis and agent based modelling By Frank Beckenbach; Ramón Briegel; Maria Daskalakis
  19. How to Increase R&D in Transition Economies? Evidence from Slovenia By Polona Domadenik; Janez Prasnikar; Jan Svejnar
  20. Pecuniary Knowledge Externalities and the System Dynamics of Growth By Antonelli Cristiano
  21. Linking Technical Education to Business Growth: A Case Study on Building Technical Skills in India By Basant Rakesh; Chandra Pankaj
  22. Environmental regulation and the export dynamics of energy technologies By Crespi Francesco; Costantini Valeria
  23. Emergence and Evolution of Proprietary ATM Networks in the UK, 1967-2000 By Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo
  24. Knowledge Management System for Cluster Development in Small and Medium Enterprises By Pradorn Sureephong; Nopasit Chakpitak; Yacine Ouzrout; Gilles Neubert; Abdelaziz Bouras
  25. New Pecking Order Financing for Innovative Firms: an Overview By SAU, Lino

  1. By: Antonelli Cristiano (University of Turin); Quatraro Francesco (University of Turin)
    Date: 2007–03
  2. By: Enrico Santarelli (University of Bologna, Department of Economics; ENCORE, Amsterdam; Max Planck Institute of Economics Jena, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy); Francesca Lotti (Bank of Italy, Economic Research Department)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to test whether patent-based indicators are still reliable measures of innovativeness in light of organizational changes in the field of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection and the regulatory reforms already under way respectively at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and the European Patent Office (EPO). For most high-tech industries, patents represent an outcome of the production process and their number can be taken as a proxy for a firm's ability to improve its productivity growth and profitability. The case study reported here concerns the biotechnology industry in Italy, whose firms, by definition, have Intellectual Property (IP) activities in their portfolios. For this purpose, we use a unique data set which collects balance sheet items and patent information from EPO and USPTO. After linking firms' financial and production data with the patent information, we estimate a modified knowledge production function in which the dependent variable is alternatively (labor) productivity growth and profitability. Our findings show that only patents with the EPO, along with larger firm size, have a statistically significant relationship with productivity growth and profitability. This suggests that firms pursue different strategies when patenting with the USPTO and the EPO, and that this difference reflects statutory changes made to the former during the relevant period.
    Keywords: IP Protection, Productivity, Profitability, Italy
    JEL: L25 L65 O34
    Date: 2007–06–25
  3. By: Yusuf, Shahid
    Abstract: Talent is the bedrock of a creative society. Augmenting talent involves mobilizing culture and tradition, building institutions to increase the stock of human capital, enhance its quality, and instill values favoring achievements and initiative. The productivity of this talent in the form of ideas can be raised by nurturing wikicapital-the capital arising from networks. Translating creativity into innovation is a function of multiple incentives and sustaining innovation is inseparable from heavy investment in research. Finally, the transition from innovation to commercially viable products requires the midwifery of many service providers and the entrepreneurship skills of firms small and large.
    Keywords: Education for Development (superceded),ICT Policy and Strategies,Tertiary Education,Agricultural Knowledge & Information Systems,Cultural Policy
    Date: 2007–06–01
  4. By: Bruno Van Pottelsberghe (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels); Nicolas van Zeebroeck (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels.)
    Abstract: The renewal of patents and their geographical scope for protection constitute two essential dimensions in a patent’s life, and probably the most frequently used patent value indicators. The intertwining of these dimensions (the geographical scope of protection may vary over time) makes their analysis complex, as any measure along one dimension requires an arbitrary choice on the second. This paper proposes a new indicator of patent value, the Scope-Year index, combining the two dimensions. The index is computed for patents filed at the EPO from 1980 to 1996 and validated in its member states. It shows that the average value of patent filings has increased in the early eighties but has constantly decreased from the mid-eighties until the mid nineties, despite the institutional expansion of the EPO. This result sheds a new and worrying light on the worldwide boom in patent filings.
    Keywords: Patent value, geographical scope, renewals, patent statistics, patent families.
    JEL: K1 L1 O34 O38
    Date: 2007–06
  5. By: Magnus Gulbrandsen (Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Education - Centre for Innovation Research); Lars Nerdrum (Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Education - Centre for Innovation Research)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the historical role of public research organisations for industrial growth and innovation in Norway – and the changes in this role over time. Public research organisations include research institutes and higher education institutions, and we go back in time to the 19th century. Like many other countries, Norway has a large number research institutes involved in innovation, and these organisations have an equally long history as higher education institutions. Public sector research has co-evolved with the national industrial structure, and institutes and universities have played central roles in developing high technology sectors and activities as well as in modernisations of traditional industries.
    Date: 2007–06
  6. By: Masatsura Igami; Teruo Okazaki
    Abstract: This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). <P>Nanotechnologies : Etat des lieux dressé à partir d'une analyse des brevets <BR>L'analyse présentée a pour objet de mettre en évidence les activités d'invention conduites à l'heure actuelle dans le domaine des nanotechnologies à partir d'une analyse des demandes de brevets déposées auprès de l'Office européen des brevets (OEB).
    Date: 2007–05–23
  7. By: Michaela Trippl; Lukas Lengauer; Franz Tödtling
    Date: 2007
  8. By: Benchimol, Guy
    Abstract: In the present world, change has become a necessity for any organization. This change may be the consequence of evolution of technology, market needs or users behaviour as well as, of course,environment (legal, geopolitical,climatic,cultural and so on); it imposes innovations into numerous fields such as products and services,processes and business models. To accomplish such innovations, knowledge management is a must from the front-end of the value chain until its concrete form that is from basic research to practical requirements. This strategic approach may be carried out through a "Project" state of mind and collaborative work for which KM provides the necessary tools.
    Keywords: knowledge; innovation; Real Time Marketing; networks; democratic corporation; participative innovation; K-Maps; human capital; basic research; thought leaders; Fuzzy Front End
    JEL: L21
    Date: 2007
  9. By: Olav Wicken (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: The national innovation system (NIS) of Norway is characterized by diversity. This paper examines the multiple and heterogeneous historical processes, each defined as a path, that have given rise to such diversity. Each of the paths has involved specific types of social groups, organizations, knowledge bases, and institutional set-ups, and for each path a specific type of innovation structure has been developed. We define three main historical paths emerging from three major industrial transformation processes in Western history defined as Industrial Revolutions (Bruland and Mowery 2004). Each of these transformations created new industrial paths constituting a new layer in the economy. The Norwegian NIS is therefore described as the historical outcome of three diverse paths and consisting of three distinct layers. The creation of a new path does not indicate that the old paths of the economy remain static. Rather each path historically has undergone radical transformation processes in order to remain competitive in changing environments. The main dynamics of the innovation system are therefore linked to path transformation and path creation processes.
    Date: 2007–06
  10. By: Olav Wicken (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: R&D has played a central role in Norwegian public industrial policy for only a relatively short period. Before 1963, there was little interest in linking technological research policy to a wider national industrial strategy. During the mid 1960s, attempts were made to link public research more closely to industrial development, and the state became more engaged in funding industrial R&D. During the 1980s, governments increased public industrial R&D funding substantially, and for a short period of time research became a core element in national industrial policy. However, from the early 1990s the situation again changed. Public research policy lost its significance in wider national industrial strategies.
    Date: 2007–06
  11. By: Frédéric Gannon (EconomiX - [CNRS : UMR7166] - [Université de Paris X - Nanterre]); Frédéric Sandron (LPED - Laboratoire Population-Environnement-Développement - [IRD : UR151] - [Université de Provence - Aix-Marseille I])
    Abstract: Cet article s'intéresse aux implications des mécanismes d'entraide, de réciprocité et d'échange sur l'adoption ou la non-adoption de l'innovation dans les pays en développement. Une conceptualisation de ce thème est proposée dans le cadre des théories éo-institutionnelles et conventionalistes. Plus précisément, l'idée générale est de montrer comment une convention locale de solidarité, le fihavanana, peut devenir un frein à l'adoption de nouvelles techniques dans la mesure où elle autorise un transfert des risques liés à l'innovation individuelle à la communauté dans son ensemble. L'analyse s'appuie sur des données d'enquêtes, des entretiens et des observations de terrain en milieu rural à Madagascar.
    Keywords: convention, innovation, rural, communauté, Madagascar
    Date: 2007–06–18
  12. By: Lundin, Nannan (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Sjöholm, Fredrik (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); He, Ping (National Bureau of Statistics of China); Qian , Jinchang (National Bureau of Statistics of China)
    Abstract: FDI can be an important channel for developing countries’ ability to get access to new technology. The impact of FDI on domestically-owned firms’ technology development is less examined but it is frequently argued that technology externalities or demonstration effects could have a positive impact. Another and so far little examined effect of FDI on technology development in domestically-owned firms is through the impact on competition. We examine the effect of FDI on competition in the Chinese manufacturing sector and the effect of competition on firms’ R&D. Our analysis is conducted on a large dataset including all Chinese large and medium sized firms over the period 1998-2004. Our results show that FDI increases competition but there are no strong indications of competition affecting investments in R&D.
    Keywords: China; FDI; Competition; R&D
    JEL: F23 L11 O31
    Date: 2007–06–21
  13. By: Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin
    Abstract: This paper investigates the motive of pre-empting technology competition through mergers and acquisitions (M&A). Exploiting the patent application procedure at the European Patent Office we introduce a new measure for the possibility to create entry barriers in technology markets. Our results show significant evidence that firms engage in horizontal M&A to pre-empt competition in technology markets.
    Keywords: pre-empting technology competition, mergers and acquisitions
    JEL: G34 L20 O34
    Date: 2007
  14. By: James Bessen (Research on Innovation, Boston University School of Law); Michael J. Meurer
    Abstract: This paper estimates the total cost of patent litigation to alleged infringers. We use a large sample of stock market event studies around the date of lawsuit filings for US public firms from 1984-99. We find that the total costs of litigation are much greater than legal fees and costs are large even for lawsuits that settle. Lawsuits cost alleged infringers about $28.7 million ($92) in the mean and $2.9 million in the median. Moreover, infringement risk rose sharply during the late 1990s to over 14% of R&D spending. Small firms have lower risk relative to R&D.
    Date: 2007
  15. By: Tommy Clausen (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo); Svein Olav Nås (Norwegian Institute for Studies in Research and Education - Centre for Innovation Research); Bart Verspagen (Centre for Technology, Innovation and Culture, University of Oslo)
    Abstract: We examine the hypothesis that the Norwegian innovation system is locked-in to a specialization pattern of scale dependent, resource intensive industries, in which innovation depends mainly on the in-house activities of (a few) large firms. To this extent, we employ a sectoral empirical analysis using data on industrial dynamics and innovation in the Norwegian economy. Our results indicate that although the Norwegian economy has parts that are resourceand scale dependent, and also sectors in which the market structure is inert and concentrated, these characteristics are not systematically related to the level and nature of innovation activities. Our results indicate that innovation in Norway takes place in two main regimes: a highintensive and a low-intensive regime. This is not correlated systematically with industrial dynamics.
    Date: 2007–06
  16. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: The globalized Western culture of innovation, as propagated by major aid institutions, does not necessarily lead to empowerment or improvement of the well-being of the stakeholders. On the contrary, it often blocks viable indigenous innovation cultures. In African societies and African Diasporas in Latin America, cultures of innovation largely accrue from the informal, not the formal sector. Crucial for their proper understanding is a threefold structural differentiation: between the formal and informal sector, within the informal sector, according to class, gender or religion, and between different transnational social spaces. Different innovation cultures may be complementary, mutually reinforcing, or conflicting, leading in extreme cases even to a 'clash of cultures' at the local level. The repercussions of competing, even antagonistic agencies of innovative strategic groups are demonstrated, analyzing the case of the African poor in Benin and the African Diasporas of Brazil and Haiti.
    Keywords: economic development; cultural change; innovations; social structure; African Diaspora; Benin; Brazil; Haiti
    JEL: O57 Z1 E26 Z13 Z12 O31
    Date: 2006–07
  17. By: Michaels, Guy
    Abstract: Since Adam Smith's time, the division of labour in production has increased significantly, while information processing has become an important part of work. This paper examines whether the need to coordinate an increasingly complex division of labour has raised the demand for clerical office workers, who process information that is used to coordinate production. In order to examine this question empirically, I introduce a measure of the complexity of an industry's division of labour that uses the Herfindahl index of occupations it employs, excluding clerks and managers. Using US data I find that throughout the 20th century more complex industries employed relatively more clerks, and recent Mexican data shows a similar relationship. The relative complexity of industries is persistent over time and correlated across these two countries. I further document the relationship between complexity and the employment of clerks using an early information technology (IT) revolution that took place around 1900, when telephones, typewriters, and improved filing techniques were introduced. This IT revolution raised the demand for clerks in all manufacturing industries, but significantly more so in industries with a more complex division of labour. Interestingly, recent reductions in the price of IT have enabled firms to substitute computers for clerks, and I find that more complex industries have substituted clerks more rapidly.
    Keywords: Division of Labour; Information Processing; Organization of Production.; Technological Change
    JEL: D73 J44 M54 O33
    Date: 2007–06
  18. By: Frank Beckenbach (Department of Economics, University of Kassel); Ramón Briegel (Department of Economics, University of Kassel); Maria Daskalakis (Department of Economics, University of Kassel)
    Abstract: In the focus of the research on regional innovation systems (RIS) is an interaction pattern of different regional agents and institutions on one side and an observation of regional outcomes (in terms of value added, employment etc.) attributed to the aforementioned interaction pattern on the other side. Neither how this interaction pattern comes about nor how this pattern generates the attributed regional outcome is usually investigated more closely. In this article we try to fill this gap in the research about RIS. In section II we specify the two focal points of the literature about RIS and the resulting research gap to bridge. In section III it is shown how input-output tables (IOT) can be used to map the regional interaction dynamics on the level of branches. This is supplemented by an agent-based modelling of the final demand dynamics resulting from the innovation activities of regional agents (section IV). Finally some conclusions for further research are drawn (section V).
    Keywords: Regional Innovation System, Multi-Agent-System, Input-Output-Analysis, Evolutionary Economics
    Date: 2007–05
  19. By: Polona Domadenik (University of Ljubljana and Institute for South-East Europe (ISEE)); Janez Prasnikar (University of Ljubljana and Institute for South-East Europe (ISEE)); Jan Svejnar (University of Michigan, CERGE-EI, CEPR and IZA)
    Abstract: Paper addresses the recent initiatives of EU Lisbon Agenda to increase level of R&D expenses in EU Member States by studying firm-level panel data in most advanced transition economy, Slovenia. Previous empirical literature - mainly cross-sectional - has tested the demand-pull hypothesis and found in overall that R&D expenses may be driven by output. Using a panel of over 150 Slovene firms over the 1996-2000 period, and checking for fixed effects, time, industrial and size dummies and for the path-dependent nature of R&D, we also find a significant role of sales in inducing R&D expenditures. Besides that data also confirm that internal funds and (un)successful bargaining for higher wages present significant variables for higher R&D expenses. However, at the micro level, the demand-pull, internal funds and bargaining effects play a varying role for the different sub-samples of firms. In particular, exporting firms, those which are liquidity-constrained, those not receiving public subsidies and those not heading a business group, seem to be particularly sensitive in deciding their R&D expenditures. R&D behavior at the firm level is modeled as errorcorrection model and estimated in system GMM specification.
    Keywords: transition, R&D investment, firms in transition, employee ownership and control, institutions, openness
    JEL: C33 D01 L2 O31 P2
    Date: 2007–05
  20. By: Antonelli Cristiano (University of Turin)
    Date: 2007–03
  21. By: Basant Rakesh; Chandra Pankaj
    Abstract: Education has been recognized as the most important source of competitive advantage for a nation. It is the key determinant of firm level productivity which in turn drives business growth and profitability. Technical knowledge, in particular, is required both for industrial as well as service development. Technical institutions contribute to the growth of business and industry in a variety of ways. The most influential and direct impact is through their graduates who bring in new skills and perspectives to firms. Industries also seek advanced training on specific topics as well as consultancy from technical institutions. Often these institutions collaborate with academics to design and develop new technologies. In this paper we have argued that technical education plays a crucial role in building these capabilities and consequently in the growth of industry. We use the case study of the Indian technical education system to explore the nature of this system, mechanisms used to govern it, linkages between the education regime and the industry, and the roles that different stakeholders play in ensuring that such a regime delivers sustained advantage to the society. We study the business growth in a few select sectors and the changing needs of technical skills therein. These sectors are agricultural implements, auto-components, chemicals, construction, garments and machine tools. We also illustrate the link between technological innovation and technical skills thereby pointing towards the trajectory of developing industrial competitiveness.
    Date: 2007–03–30
  22. By: Crespi Francesco; Costantini Valeria
    Date: 2007–04
  23. By: Batiz-Lazo, Bernardo
    Abstract: Through archival research we investigate the impact of the introduction of Automated Teller Machines (ATM) in British retail banking. Contrary to the experience in the US, in the UK the ATM has been largely neglected by historians and management scholars. Technologically, cash dispensers preceded ATM and were originally a British innovation but U.S. (e.g. IBM and NCR) and German manufacturers (e.g. Siemens) took the lead as the ATM became a global technology. The evolution of the ATM illustrates how banks adopted on-line, real-time computing for the entire branch network and highlights the role of network externalities in financial markets. From a business history perspective, the ATM epitomises a shift in bank strategy, namely how applications of computer technology moved from being potential sources of competitive advantage to being a minimum requirement for effective competition in retail finance. Research in this article traces the origins of this process of competitive change in British retail financial markets, by looking at the emergence of proprietary networks and their evolution into a single national network at the same time that cash dispensers transformed into ATM.
    Keywords: Automated Teller Machines; UK; clearing banks; network effects
    JEL: O33 N24
    Date: 2007–06
  24. By: Pradorn Sureephong (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - [Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I][Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon]); Nopasit Chakpitak (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - [Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I][Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon]); Yacine Ouzrout (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - [Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I][Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon]); Gilles Neubert (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - [Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I][Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon]); Abdelaziz Bouras (LIESP - Laboratoire d'Informatique pour l'Entreprise et les Systèmes de Production - [Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I][Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon])
    Abstract: Many countries such as Canada, Japan, Korea and France gains their competitive advantage through the utilization of clusters development. A cluster contains many Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) operating in the same or similar industry strongly connected with each other to produce good and services.,In developing country , especially, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) take very important role to their economic. Most governments, as facilitator, support cluster through initiate help and encourage SMEs' linkage to reach the concept of industry cluster. Many literature reviewed claimed that the most difficult processes in creating a cluster is the development and sustain the collaboration to connect these SMEs together. After some investigation, the problem of creating SMEs connection is information sharing at micro-economic level.. Knowledge sharing is one of the most important key success factors of cluster management to gain collaboration among SMEs since there are abundant of explicit and tacit knowledge within each SMEs in a cluster. Naturally, most firms do not want to share their business information and knowledge. In reality, however they needs these information to successfully manage their business cluster. It is crucial and necessary we find out what kind of information or knowledge they want to know and shareable among them in order to manage cluster successfully. Many operation management techniques already existed in many firms. One of the ways to help knowledge sharing operate successfully using information technology as a tool is directed to Knowledge Management System (KMS). This methods can help facilitate the communication and information ow and needs to be investigated further to help maintain the cluster collaboration and knowledge sharing.. This paper propose framework and methodology for analyzing, industry cluster for the sustain the lifecycle of cluster.
    Date: 2007–06–22
  25. By: SAU, Lino
    Abstract: The paper try to modify traditional pecking order. For this reason the role of venture capital as private equity financing is taken into account particularly for young innovative firms.
    Keywords: pecking order; venture capital; innovative firms
    JEL: G30 G32
    Date: 2007–02

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