nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2007‒02‒10
thirteen papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Utrecht University

  1. Optimal Timing of Environmental Policy. Interaction between Environmental Taxes and Innovation Externalities By Reyer Gerlagh, Snorre Kverndokk and Knut Einar Rosendahl
  2. University patenting and scientific productivity. A quantitative study of Italian academic inventors. By Stefano Breschi; Francesco Lissoni; Fabio Montobbio
  3. Identification of University Inventors and University Patenting Patterns at Lund University:Conceptual- Methodological & Empirical Findings By Goktepe, Devrim
  4. Demographic change and industry-specific innovation patterns in Germany By Golo Henseke; Thusnelda Tivig
  5. University IPRs and Knowledge Transfer. Is the IPR ownership model more efficient? By Gustavo Crespi; Aldo Geuna; Bart Verspagen
  6. Implementing Technology By Diego Comin; Bart Hobijn
  7. A General Framework for Analysing Diversity in Science, Technology and Society By Andy Stirling
  8. Intensity of technology use and per capita real GDP across some African countries By Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich
  9. Optimal Technology and Development By Moscoso Boedo, Hernan
  10. Technological Trampolines for new venture creation in Catalonia: the case of University of Girona By Andrea Bikfalvi; Christian Serarols; David Urbano; Yancy Vaillant
  11. The value of a new idea: knowledge transmission, workers' mobility and market structure By Marini, Marco A.
  12. Preface to the Japanese Translation of An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change By Richard R. Nelson; Sidney G. Winter
  13. Knowledge management – a source of sustainable competitiveness in the knowledge based economy By Ogrean, Claudia

  1. By: Reyer Gerlagh, Snorre Kverndokk and Knut Einar Rosendahl (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the impact of endogenous technology through research and development (R&D) and learning by doing (LbD) on the timing of environmental policy. We develop two models, the first with technological change through R&D and the second with LbD. We study the interaction between environmental taxes and innovation externalities in a dynamic economy and prove policy equivalence between the second-best R&D and the LbD model. Our analysis shows that the difference found in the literature between optimal environmental policy in R&D and LbD models can partly be traced back to the set of policy instruments available, rather than being directly linked to the source of technological innovation. Arguments for early action in LbD models carry over to a second-best R&D setting. We show that environmental taxes should be high compared to the Pigouvian levels when an abatement industry is developing. We illustrate our analysis through numerical simulations on climate change policy.
    Keywords: Environmental policy; technological change; research and development; learning by doing
    JEL: H21 O30 Q42
    Date: 2007–02
  2. By: Stefano Breschi (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano, Italy.); Francesco Lissoni (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano; Università degli studi di Brescia, Italy.); Fabio Montobbio (Cespri, Bocconi University, Milano; Università degli studi dell’Insubria, Varese,Italy.)
    Abstract: Based on longitudinal data for a matched sample of 592 Italian academic inventors and controls, the paper explores the impact of patenting on university professors’ scientific productivity, as measured by publication and citation counts. Academic inventors (university professors who appear as designated inventors on at least one patent application) publish more and better quality papers than their colleagues with no patents, and increase their productivity after patenting. Endogeneity problems are addressed using instrumental variables and applying inverse probability of treatment weights. The beneficial effect of patenting on publication rates last longer for academic inventors with more than one patent.
    Keywords: scientific productivity, university patents, technology transfer.
    Date: 2006–11
  3. By: Goktepe, Devrim
    Abstract: One of the most interesting indicators to show the change in the socio-economic role of universities in the last several decades has been the use of university patenting. However except some individual studies in European countries (e.g. Finland, Norway, Belgium, Italy, Germany and France) there has been no such a comprehensive data available for Sweden and most other European countries. The main motivation of this paper is therefore to obtain a systematic database on university patenting activities in Sweden. The main method of this research is data-matching between the EPO-patents and Lund University Faculty registers, and manual controls. The methodology of this research underlines the importance of searching for university-patents by the name of university inventors rather their affiliated university. The rate of patenting activity showed a positive trend between the years 1990 and 2004. 458 patents have been filed by Lund University researchers. The total number of inventors is 250. Although the number of large firms is lesser than the SMEs, the former group (e.g. Ericsson, Astra-Zeneca) has applied for a larger number of patents than the total number of patents of SMEs.
    Keywords: university patents; technology transfer; innovation; Swedish Model
    JEL: O3 O38 O34
    Date: 2006–01–08
  4. By: Golo Henseke (University of Rostock and Rostock Centre for the Study of Demographic Change, Germany); Thusnelda Tivig (University of Rostock and Rostock Centre for the Study of Demographic Change, Germany)
    Abstract: In Germany, a thread to growth is perceived from demographic change. Demographic change means that a population is aging with the perspective of shrinking. The key question is whether an aging and shrinking population has enough talents to sustain the innovation process that is at the basis of our prosperity. In this paper we deal with the age distributions of inventivity. Specifically, we confirm past conjectures that inventive productivity is age dependent and unequally distributed among inventors. Additionally, we advance the new hypothesis that any age-bias in innovation activity should show up as industry-specific. The reason is that creative productivity is depending on the rate of technological change that on its part is industry specific. We test this hypothesis with European patent data for Germany.
    Keywords: innovation, patents, age-dependent productivity, demographics, sectors
    JEL: O31 J24 B3
    Date: 2007
  5. By: Gustavo Crespi (SPRU, University of Sussex and University of Chile); Aldo Geuna (SPRU, University of Sussex); Bart Verspagen (Eindhoven University of Technology and TIK)
    Keywords: university patenting, public-private technology transfer, european universities
    JEL: O3 I28
    Date: 2007–02–01
  6. By: Diego Comin; Bart Hobijn
    Abstract: We introduce a tractable model of endogenous growth in which the returns to innovation are determined by the technology adoption decisions of the users of new technologies. Technology adoption involves an implementation investment that determines the initial productivity of a new technology. After implementation, learning increases the productivity of a technology to its full potential. In this framework, implementation enhances growth, while growth increases obsolescence and reduces implementation. In a calibrated version of our model, the optimal policy involves a subsidy to capital and to implementation and a R&D tax. This policy would lead to a welfare improvement of 7.6 percent. Out of steady-state analysis yields that the transitional dynamics of the detrended variables after a shock to capital are very similar to the dynamics of the neoclassical growth model, but transitory shocks have permanent effects on the level of productivity.
    JEL: O0 O3
    Date: 2007–02
  7. By: Andy Stirling (SPRU, University of Sussex)
    Keywords: Diversity, Science and Technology, Society
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2007–02–02
  8. By: Amavilah, Voxi Heinrich
    Abstract: African countries may have fared poorly compared to some countries in other regions, but relative to their own performance history some African countries have done quite well over the past eight years. In particular 2004 and 2005 were especially good years. How can such performance be made to stick and even expand? The answer to that question requires better understanding of the source of good performance. This paper proceeds on the assumption that technology was, at least partially, responsible. The result shows that a feeble technology undercuts per capita real GDP across African countries. However, the impacts of new technologies, measured by the intensities of internet and cell phone use are very strong. The policy implication of the findings speaks to the need for investment in new technologies for which productivity is high and the adoption and diffusion costs seem low. Further research can clarify the findings and policy by expanding and improving the data coverage, and examining effects on income of different kinds of technologies.
    Keywords: technology and per capita income; GDP per capita Africa; African countries’ GDP-technology nexus
    JEL: O55 O47 C21 O14 C51 O41
    Date: 2006–11–18
  9. By: Moscoso Boedo, Hernan
    Abstract: Skill intensive technologies seem to be adopted by rich countries rather than poor ones. Related to that observation, the ratio of wages of skilled to unskilled workers - the skill premium - shows two important features over time and across countries. In the US the skill premium decreased during the first half of the 20th century and it increased after 1950, evolving according to a U shaped pattern. On the other hand, the same measure across countries around 1990 is hump shaped when countries are ordered by GDP per worker. By modeling the decisions for factor accumulation and technology adoption, this paper gives a systematic explanation as to why we see ever more skill intensive technologies being adopted both over time in the US and across countries. The model developed here endogenously generates predictions for the skill premium that are consistent with both the US and international observations under the same set of parameter values.
    Keywords: Technology adoption; growth
    JEL: O33
    Date: 2006–09
  10. By: Andrea Bikfalvi (University of Girona); Christian Serarols (Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona); David Urbano (Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona); Yancy Vaillant (Departament d'Economia de l'Empresa, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Recent trends in technology transfer show an intensification of spin-off creation as a modality of university research commercialisation, complementary to the conventional ones, contract research and licensing. In this paper we analyse the evolution, objectives, resources and activities of a specialised unit –Technological Trampoline (TT) - in charge of new venture creation at the University of Girona (Catalonia-Spain). Based on two theoretical frameworks, Resource-based-view and Institutional Theory, we adopt a multi-dimensional approach to study the strategy of spinning-off new ventures at the University of Girona in terms of resources and activities, how this process is organised and if the outputs fit with this UdG’s objectives and the local environment. Our main contribution is an in-depth analysis of the spin-off creation unit with special emphasis on its variety of resources and activities. The results have a series of implications and recommendations at both university and TT level.
    Keywords: Spin-off, technology transfer, entrepreneurship, commercialisation of research
    Date: 2007–01
  11. By: Marini, Marco A.
    Abstract: We model the process of knowledge transmission among firms via workers mobility as a multi-stage game. In our setup an idea to be realized needs that the agent informed about the idea recruits another agent from a pool of uninformed people. This constraint generates a recursive effect of knowledge transmission via players mobility across firms which affects simultaneously the players payoffs and the number of active players engaged in market competition. We provide sufficient conditions for the game to possess a unique symmetric subgame perfect equilibrium in which all incumbent players deter the exit of their collaborators. The equilibrium outcome is shown to depend upon the success of the idea over time, expressed by the behaviour of the market demand and on playerstime preferences. A few other intuitions are provided on the interplay between technology, market structure and the market value of an innovative idea.
    Keywords: Innovation; Workers’ Mobility; Knowledge Transmission; Subgame Perfect Nash Equilibrium; Recursive Games
    JEL: C70 L2
    Date: 2005–07–10
  12. By: Richard R. Nelson; Sidney G. Winter
    Date: 2007–01–24
  13. By: Ogrean, Claudia
    Abstract: Confirming the well known thesis knowledge is power, A. Toffler argued that the knowledge based society represents the acme of the human society development and P. Drucker said that the developed countries passing through the knowledge based society represents the biggest change of the modern world. That made possible and helped the emerging of the managerial revolution (defined as knowledge applied to knowledge itself) at the firm’s level. Under these circumstances, knowledge has to be seen as a strategic resource – source of competitive advantages and of managerial performances as well. Considering this, a firm’s management have to define a coherent behavioral model in order to seriously take into account and to valorize the knowledge management as a source of sustainable competitiveness into the knowledge based society.
    Keywords: knowledge based society; competitiveness; knowledge management; managerial revolution.
    JEL: D83 M19 L29
    Date: 2006–08–03

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