nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2006‒12‒01
thirty papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Persistence of innovation, technological change and quality-adjusted patents in the US Pharmaceutical industry By Gautier Duflos
  2. International Patent Pattern and Technology Diffusion By Kurt A. Hafner
  3. Can´t block, must run: Small firms and appropriality By Justin Byma; Aija Leiponen
  4. Does technology affect network structure? - A quantitative analysis of collaborative research projects in two specific EU programmes By Roediger-Schluga, Thomas;
  5. Choosing intellectual protection : imitation, patent strength and licensing By David Encaoua; Yassine Lefouili
  6. Is Academic Entrepreneurship Good or Bad for Science? Empirical Evidence from the Max Planck Society By Guido Bünstorf
  7. "Deep Pockets'', Collateral Assignments of Patents, and the Growth of Innovations By Jean-Bernard Chatelain; Bruno Amable; Kirsten Ralf
  8. Employment, Innovation, and Productivity: Evidence from Italian Microdata. By Hall, Bronwyn H.; Mairesse, Jacques; Lotti, Francesca
  9. L’innovazione nel settore informatico in Italia: l’attività di Corporate venture capital del Gruppo Olivetti negli anni Ottanta By Cinzia COLAPINTO
  10. Competing through cooperation: Standard setting in wireless telecommunications By Aija Leiponen
  11. Optimal Technology Policy with Imitation and Risk-Averting Households By Tapio Palokangas
  12. Product Market Competition, R&D Effort and Economic Growth By Alberto Bucci
  13. Software and business methods patents: <br />Case law evolution and market strategies By Isabelle Liotard
  14. Price-Induced Technical Progress in Italian Agriculture By Roberto ESPOSTI; Pierpaolo PIERANI
  15. Nouvelles Technologies et Nouvelles Formes d'Organisation du Travail : Quelles conséquences pour l'emploi des salariés âgés ? By Aubert Patrick; Caroli Eve; Roger Muriel
  16. The impact of financial constraints on innovation : evidence from French manufacturing firms By Frédérique Savignac
  17. Northern and Southern Patent Novelty Requirements Harmonization, Growth and Trade By Gilles Koléda
  18. Intellectual Property Rights and National R&D Subsidy Policies in a Two-Country Schumpeterian Framework By Piotr Stryszowski
  19. How Much Does the UK Invest in Intangible Assets? By Mauro Giorgio Marrano; Jonathan Haskel
  20. Technological Backwardness in Agriculture: Is It due to Lack of R&D Expenditures, Human Capital and Openness to International Trade? By Rodolfo Cermeño; Sirenia Várquez
  21. Social Capital, Innovation and Growth: Evidence from Europe By Akcomak, Semih; ter Weel, Bas
  23. Natural Resources, Innovation, and Growth By Elissaios Papyrakis; Reyer Gerlagh
  24. From Growth Spurts to Sustained Growth: The Nature of Growth and Unified Growth Theory By Gonçalo Monteiro; Alvaro S. Pereira
  25. De la construction à l'usage des règles de gestion des compétences : quelle innovation ? By Laurence Baraldi; William Cavestro; Christine Durieux
  26. Human Capital Dispersion and Incentives to Innovate By Maurizio Iacopetta
  27. Focal Randomization: An optimal mechanism for the evaluation of R&D By Elise Brezis
  28. Transport et environnement, organisation de la R&D en France en 2002 By Jean-Pierre Nicolas
  29. Identifying Age, Cohort and Period Effects in Scientific Research Productivity - Discussion and Illustration Using Simulated and Actual Data on French Physicists By Hall, Bronwyn H.; Mairesse, Jacques; Turner, Laure
  30. Entrepreneurs, HRM Orientations and Environmental Fit: A UK-Japan Comparison in High Tech Manufacturing By Hugh Whittaker; Philippe Byosiere; Junpe Higuchi; Thelma Quince

  1. By: Gautier Duflos (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I], CREST-LEI - [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées])
    Abstract: This paper analyzes American pharmaceutical firms' persistence in innovating prior to the wave of mergers and acquisitions that accompanied the "Biotech revolution". We evaluate the impact of past innovative activity on firms' innovation propensities using a non-linear GMM estimator for exponential models that allows for predetermined regressors and linear feedback. We find that innovative activity at the firm level depends strongly on the technological importance of past innovations. In particular, breakthroughs depend largely on past innovations' scope, and this effect is likely to deter further pioneering behaviors rather than strengthen incentives to invest on non cumulative R&D. The results also shed light on the importance of small firms for the technological change in pharmaceuticals, and suggest that large firms may persist in using patents strategically to retain sales.
    Keywords: Patent citations, pharmaceutical industry, persistence in innovation.
    Date: 2006–11–13
  2. By: Kurt A. Hafner
    Abstract: The paper focuses on the impact of business related R&D spending on input factor productivity (IFP) using international patent applications as a technology diffusion channel. Considering the relationship amongst research and productivity, international patent pattern reflect the link between the source (R&D) and the use (IFP). To estimate patent related spill-over effects, I use the estimation techniques developed and proposed by Kao and Chiang (1998) in order to deal with nonstationary and cointegration and to obtain reliable coefficients. I find that patent related foreign R&D spillover effects are present and that impact on labor productivity for Non-G7 countries is higher due to foreign than domestic R&D activities.
    Keywords: Productivity, R&D, Technology Diffusion, Nonstationary Panels
    JEL: C12 C23 O30 O40
    Date: 2005–06
  3. By: Justin Byma; Aija Leiponen
    Abstract: This empirical study examines small firms’ strategies towards appropriating the returns to their investments in innovation and finds that they are qualitatively different from those found in earlier studies of more generally representative samples of firms. First, few of the smallest firms appear to benefit from patenting. Even within this sample of small firms, only the largest firms were likely to identify patents as the most important method of appropriating innovation returns. Thus, the strategic choice for most small firms is between secrecy and speed to market. The smallest firms and those in low technology or complex product industries tend to prefer speed, while small investments in R&D, discrete product technologies, and affiliation with higher tech-nology industries explain preference for trade secrets. These results raise policy questions regarding the functioning of the existing systems of intellectual property rights when key policy goals include innovation by and growth of small firms. Furthermore, innovation policies that mandate collaboration are likely to significantly influence firms’ appropriability strategies.
    Keywords: SMEs, intellectual property rights, innovation, collaboration
    JEL: O31 O34 L24
    Date: 2006–11–21
  4. By: Roediger-Schluga, Thomas (Department of Technology Policy, ARC systems research); (Department of Technology Policy, ARC systems research)
    Abstract: The promotion of collaborative R&D through Framework Programmes is a top priority of European RTD policy. However, despite the considerable sums involved, surprisingly little is known about the structure of the resulting research networks. Arguing that the underlying technological regime critically affects the structure of collaborative R&D, this article examines the structure and topology of collaborative research networks in the telecommunications and the agro-industrial industry in two specific programmes of the 4th EU Framework Programme. We find systematic differences which we attribute to differences in the underlying knowledge base, the research trajectories pursued in EU-funded R&D and the organisation of knowledge production in the two industries. As expected on the basis of prior research, we show that collaborative research projects involve a larger number of partners and require greater funding in the telecommunications industry, and that actors from science are positioned more prominently in the agro-industrial collaborative R&D network. Contrary to expectations, we find fewer and less intense interactions between science and industry in the agro-industrial industry. We provide a tentative explanation for this result and discuss policy implications.
    Keywords: framework programmes, research collaborations, technological regime, sectoral innovation system, social network analysis, science-industry interactions
    JEL: O33 O38 C69
    Date: 2006
  5. By: David Encaoua (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I]); Yassine Lefouili (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I])
    Abstract: This paper investigates the choice of an intellectual protection regime for a process innovation. We set up a multi-stage model in which choosing between patent and trade secrecy is affected by three parameters : the patent strength defined as the probability that the right is upheld by the court, the cost of imitating a patented innovation relative to the cost of imitating a secret innovation, and the innovation size defined as the extent of the cost reduction. The choice of the protection regime is the result of two effects : the damage effect evaluated under the unjust enrichment doctrine and the effect of market competiton that occurs under the shadow of infringement. We find that large innovations are likely to be kept secret whereas small innovations are always patented. Furthermore, medium innovations are patented only when patent strength is sufficiently high. Finally, we investigate a class of licensing agreements used to settle patent disputes between patent holders and their competitors.
    Keywords: Patent, trade secrecy, imitation, licensing.
    Date: 2006–11–22
  6. By: Guido Bünstorf
    Abstract: Based on new data, this paper studies invention disclosure, licensing, and firm formation activities of Max Planck Institute directors over the time period 1985-2004, and analyzes their effects on scientists’ publication and citation records. The results are consistent with prior findings that inventing does not adversely affect research output. More mixed results are obtained with regard to academic entrepreneurship. The analysis raises questions vis-à-vis earlier explanations for positive relationships between inventing and publishing. It finds little evidence than inventors learn from interacting with firms. Likewise, license revenues do not enable scientists to step up their research activities.
    Keywords: Basic science, academic entrepreneurship, innovation, licensing, firm formation Length 32 pages
    JEL: I23 O31
    Date: 2006–11
  7. By: Jean-Bernard Chatelain (EconomiX - [CNRS : UMR7166] - [Université de Paris X - Nanterre], PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - [CNRS : UMR8545] - [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales][Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées][Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris]); Bruno Amable (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - [CNRS : UMR8545] - [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales][Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées][Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris], CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - [CNRS : UMR8174] - [Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - Paris I]); Kirsten Ralf (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - [CNRS : UMR8545] - [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales][Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées][Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris])
    Abstract: This paper studies how the imperfect collateral assignments of patents contribute to "deep pockets'' savings of innovative firms facing random investment opportunities in research and development (R&D) and determine the growth of their innovations, using a version of the Kiyotaki and Moore [1997] model of credit cycles. Results are: patents as collateral leverage R&D finance and magnify the effect of innovative rents on investment; the composition of current versus future financial constraints implies that firms savings decrease the steady state aggregate debt/patent ratio; the interaction between households and firms savings determines a leveraged growth of innovations which increasing when legal reforms reduce the imperfection of patents as collateral.
    Keywords: Collateral, Patents, Research and Development, Credit rationing, Growth
    Date: 2006–11–08
  8. By: Hall, Bronwyn H. (UNU-MERIT); Mairesse, Jacques (UNU-MERIT); Lotti, Francesca (Economics Research Department, Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: Italian manufacturing firms have been losing ground with respect to many of their European competitors. This paper presents some empirical evidence on the effects of innovation on employment growth and therefore on firms' productivity with the goal of understanding the roots of such poor performance. We use firm level data from the last three surveys on Italian manufacturing firms conducted by Mediocredito-Capitalia, which cover the period 1995-2003. Using a modified version of the model proposed by Harrison, Jaumandreu, Mairesse and Peters (2005), which separates employment growth rates into those associated with old and new products, we provide robust evidence that there is no employment displacement effect stemming from process innovation. The sources of employment growth during the period are split equally between the net contribution of product innovation and the net contribution from sales growth of old products. However, the contribution of product innovation is somewhat lower than that for the four comparison European countries considered by Harrison et al.
    Keywords: innovation, employment, productivity, Italy
    JEL: L60 O31 O33
    Date: 2006
  9. By: Cinzia COLAPINTO
    Abstract: The present paper focuses on the innovation process in the computer science industry in Italy during the eighties. We choose a representative case study, the Olivetti Group. During the eighties, Olivetti stepped up its growth with international acquisitions, agreements and alliances, as well as a number of venture capital operations. Olivetti was the only Italian company involved in corporate venture capital (CVC), which is an instrument used to foster research and development, especially in the Information and Technology sector. Olivetti's corporate venture program, initiated in 1980, was developed to provide Olivetti a window on emerging technologies and companies, as well as provide potential new sources of business in the US and Europe
    Keywords: Innovation, Corporate venture capital, Information and Technology
    JEL: G24 O3 L63
    Date: 2006–11
  10. By: Aija Leiponen
    Abstract: This study examines cooperative standard-setting in wireless telecommunications. Focusing on the competition among firms to influence formal standardization, the roles of standard-setting committees, private alliances, and technical consortia are highlighted. The empirical context is Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an international standards development organization. Panel data analyses suggest that participation in external technical consortia significantly enhance firms’ contributions to the development of new specifications in 3GPP committees. Then, once a firm has become a central player in technical committees, it can further influence the standard-setting outcome through change requests to ongoing specifications. External alliances with fellow 3GPP members may also improve change request success. These results suggest that if firms in network technological industries want to influence the evolution of their industry, they should identify both formal standard-setting committees and external cooperative arrangements in which they can discuss, negotiate, and align positions on technical features with their peers. For policymakers, these results suggest that it is important to ensure that technical consortia remain open for all industry actors and that membership fees do not become prohibitive to small and resource-constraint players.
    Keywords: Standard setting, technology strategy, inter-firm networks
    JEL: L15 L41 L96 O34 O38
    Date: 2006–11–21
  11. By: Tapio Palokangas
    Abstract: A Schumpeterian growth model is constructed where R&D firms innovate to produce better versions of the products or imitate to copy existing innovations. Because firms cannot use their innovations or imitations as collateral, they finance their investment by issuing shares. Households save by purchasing these shares. The government affects the level of profits through competition policy. The main findings are the following. A small imitation subsidy slows down growth. In the first-best optimum collusion is socially optimal, but when the government cannot discriminate between innovation and imitation, it should promote product market competition.
    Keywords: Innovation, Imitation, Endogenous growth, Technology policy
    JEL: O41 O38
    Date: 2005–06
  12. By: Alberto Bucci
    Abstract: Empirical evidence has recently pointed to the lack of any relationship between R&D intensity (variously defined and measured) and economic growth in the post-war period in the United States and other OECD countries. Using a framework that integrates human capital accumulation and purposive (horizontal) innovation activity, this paper looks at product market competition as a possible solution to this puzzle. Indeed, we find that changes in product market competition may well have no influence on human capital investment (the growth engine), while affecting R&D effort.
    Keywords: Endogenous Growth; R&D Investment; Human Capital Accumulation; Product Market Competition
    JEL: D43 J24 L16 O31 O41
    Date: 2006–06
  13. By: Isabelle Liotard (CEPN - Centre d'économie de l'Université de Paris Nord - [CNRS : UMR7115] - [Université Paris-Nord - Paris XIII])
    Abstract: In this paper we explore the evolution of the software industry and the increasing importance of patent protection. Through a set of case law, we show that the various American Courts of Justice for the one hand and the European Patent Office (EPO) one the other hand have the same point of view by granting software patents. We put in light the crucial decisions that conduct to this situation. The same cannot be said, however, for another specific object: business methods. These systems, deeply involved in e-business, are perceived, on a legal point of view, in different way sin Europe and in the US and accorded different levels of protection on either side of the Atlantic. We give also some figures of this phenomenon. They show the possible business methods protection in Europe in spite of the common argument of non-patentability of these systems in Europe. Furthermore, we also focus our attention on the effects of the intense use of industrial property on software and business methods, in terms of innovation, competition and the sharp rise in litigation.
    Date: 2006–11–13
  14. By: Roberto ESPOSTI (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia); Pierpaolo PIERANI ([n.a.])
    Abstract: In this paper we aim at investigating the price-induced innovation hypothesis in Italian agriculture. We generalize the framework of analysis proposed by Peeters and Surry (2000). The generalization includes a short-run specification of the dual technology as well as a quadratic spline in a time variable. We argue that the temporary equilibrium setting gives a more realistic representation of how relative prices may steer innovation and variable input bias over time, while the quadratic function has desirable properties with respect the splined variable, i.e., a more flexible treatment of exogenous technical change.;Results provide evidence in favour of price-induced innovation in Italian agriculture over the years 1951 to 1991.
    Keywords: SGM restricted cost function, induced innovation, italian agriculture
    JEL: O30 Q16
    Date: 2006–11
  15. By: Aubert Patrick; Caroli Eve; Roger Muriel
    Keywords: New Technologies, Innovative workplace practices, old workers, labor demand
    JEL: J23 L23 O33
    Date: 2006–09
  16. By: Frédérique Savignac (CREST-LMI - [Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique - Laboratoire de Microéconométrie])
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of financial constraints on innovation for established firms. We make use of a qualitative indicator of the existence of financial constraints based on firms' own assessment obtained thanks to a French specific survey. Thus, the existence of financial constraints for innovation is measured by a direct indicator whereas previous studies rely on proxies (like the cash-flow sensitivity) subject to interpretation problems. The descriptive analysis of balance sheet structures reveals that innovative firms without financial constraints have the best profile in terms of economic performances, financing structure and risk whereas non innovative firms facing financial constraints have the poorest profile. From the econometric point of view, the probabilities of implementing innovative projects and of facing financial constraints are simultaneously estimated by a recursive bivariate probit model to account for the endogeneity of the financial constraint variable. We then find that firms having innovative projects face financial constraints that significantly reduce the likelihood that they implement their innovative investment. The probability of facing financing constraints is explained by firms' ex ante financing structure and economic performances, by industry sector and it decreases with firms' size.
    Keywords: Innovation, financing constraints, recursive bivariate probit.
    Date: 2006–11–22
  17. By: Gilles Koléda
    Abstract: Abstract I study the incentive that governments have to protect IPR in a trading world economy, focusing on the patent novelty requirement and its effect on growth an trade. I consider a world economy with ongoing innovation in two regions. The North is assumed to have a higher wage than the South, possibly a larger market for innovative products and a greater capacity for innovation. I introduce the heterogeneity of innovation size together with the obligation, given by Patent Office of each region, that the innovation size be higher than the patent novelty requirement. This patent characteristic stands to be a useable instrument to promote innovation and growth, and also a strategic trade policy instrument. I numerically determine the Nash equilibrium of the strategic game that results of the setting of patent’s novelty requirement by each regional authority. Then I study effects of an harmonization of the two patent systems, that is the setting of a common patent novelty requirement by a supra-regional organization.
    Keywords: novelty requirement (patent height), innovation, growth, quality ladders, patent harmonization, TRIP, North and South
    JEL: O34 O40 F43
    Date: 2005–06
  18. By: Piotr Stryszowski
    Abstract: I present a two-country Schumpeterian growth model without scale effect, where both countries converge to parallel growth paths because of technological transfer. Two instruments are used by the lagging country to improve its position: R&D subsidies and improvement of patent protection. Because of additional effect on the labor market, the intellectual property protection tends to have more impact on country's relative position in the world's productivity rank than the direct subsidies to research.
    Date: 2005–06
  19. By: Mauro Giorgio Marrano (Queen Mary, University of London, and CeRiBA); Jonathan Haskel (Queen Mary, University of London; AIM, CeRiBA, CEPR and IZA)
    Abstract: We attempt to replicate for the UK the Corrado, Hulten and Sichel (2005, 2006) work on spending on intangible assets in the US. Their work suggests private sector expenditure (investment) on intangibles is about 13% (11%) of US GDP 1998-2000, with intangible investment about equal to tangible capital investment. Our work, using a similar method, suggests the UK private sector spent, in 2004, about £127bn on intangibles, which is about 11% of UK GDP. The implied investment figure is around £116bn (10% of GDP) which is about equal to UK investment in tangible assets. Of the £127bn expenditure, (in round numbers) about 15% is spent on software, about 10% on scientific R&D, almost 20% on non-scientific R&D (design, product development etc.), about 14% on branding, about 20% on training and the rest on organisational capital.
    Keywords: Intangible assets, R&D, Training, Organisational capital, Investment
    JEL: O47 E22 E01
    Date: 2006–11
  20. By: Rodolfo Cermeño; Sirenia Várquez
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the relationship between the agricultural technological level and R&D expenditures, human capital and openness to international trade using cross country information for a sample of 104 countries and various sub samples over the period 1961-1991. We first model the unobservable technological level as a dynamic stochastic process in the context of a general translog production function, and then we relate the implied technological levels to the aforementioned variables. For comparison, alternative specifications of the production and its associated technological process are also considered. We find that the proposed model outperforms all of the alternative specifications. The results suggest that the technological gap between developed and less developed countries in agriculture has increased considerably over this period of time and that, overall, the technological levels are directly related to R&D expenditures, human capital and openness, although this relationship is not robust across the different groups of countries considered.
    Keywords: Agricultural production function, Agricultural technology, Dynamic error components models, Non-linear models, R&D expenditures, Human capital, Openness
    Date: 2005–06
  21. By: Akcomak, Semih (UNU-MERIT); ter Weel, Bas (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the interplay between social capital, innovation and economic growth in the European Union. We identify innovation as an important mechanism that transforms social capital into economic growth. In an empirical investigation of 102 European regions in the period 1990-2002, we show that higher innovation performance is conducive to economic growth and that social capital affects growth indirectly by fostering innovation. Our estimates suggest that there is only a limited role for a direct effect of social capital on economic growth.
    Keywords: Social capital, Innovation, Economic growth, European Union
    JEL: O1 O3 O52 Z13
    Date: 2006
  22. By: Isabelle Liotard (CEPN - Centre d'économie de l'Université de Paris Nord - [CNRS : UMR7115] - [Université Paris-Nord - Paris XIII])
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to stress on two important points. First of all, I wish to draw attention to the IP strengthening, more particularly in software and business methods areas because these informational goods could be viewed as generic assets in digital economy and have a key role for Internet development.<br />The objective of the second part, is to stress on strategic use of IP, especially for setting of technical standards. Past examples have explains this role and conclude to the determinant IP factor. We would like to explore the new use of IP in setting standards in Internet and investigate if the old strategies are the same or not. This part is based on work in progress. <br />Finally, we answer few questions of the IP strategic use in terms of innovation and use of legal proceedings.
    Date: 2006–11–13
  23. By: Elissaios Papyrakis; Reyer Gerlagh
    Abstract: This paper investigates the connection between resource abundance and innovation, as a transmission mechanism that can elucidate part of the resource curse hypothesis; i.e. the observed negative impact of resource wealth on income growth. We develop a variation of the Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model with endogenous growth to explain the phenomenon. In this model, consumers trade off leisure versus consumption, and firms trade off innovation efforts versus manufacturing. For this model, we show that an increase in resource income frustrates economic growth in two ways: directly by reducing work effort and indirectly by inducing a smaller proportion of the labor force to engage in innovation.
    Keywords: Natural Resources, Growth, Innovation
    JEL: O13 O31 Q33
    Date: 2005–06
  24. By: Gonçalo Monteiro; Alvaro S. Pereira
    Abstract: The recent literature on unified growth theory has shed new light on the transition to sustained economic growth. Nevertheless, unified growth theory has not devoted a lot of attention to the nature of economic growth and its impact in the transition from Malthus to Solow. This research presents new evidence on the existence of pre-industrial growth spurts and provides new foundations concerning the nature of economic growth during the Malthus to Solow transition. Following previous research in unified growth theory, sustained economic growth arises due to complementarities between the triple engines of growth of technological development, human capital and the organization of the workplace. In this research, growth spurts are an intrinsic feature of the economy, but throughout history their effect on standards of living is mostly temporary. The rise in living standards only becomes sustained when the complementarity of the triple engines of growth emerges. In Malthusian economies, most technologies were basic and only require straightforward knowledge or human capital, and thus the skill-technology complementarity did not play a role in their development. As a consequence, most technological developments in Malthusian economies generated growth spurts that did not become sustained, although there was a temporary increase in standards of living. However, the increasing complexity of the epistemic knowledge base reported by the historical literature meant that investments in applied technology were progressively more significant, enhancing the role of human capital. After a certain threshold of the knowledge base was surpassed, more and more complex applied technologies were developed, and growth spurts became permanent features of the economy. This research thus captures some of the most important historical features concerning the nature of growth in the transition to sustained economic growth.
    Keywords: growth spurts, unified growth theory, sustained economic growth
    JEL: O10 O33 O40
    Date: 2006–06
  25. By: Laurence Baraldi (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - [CNRS : FRE2664] - [Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II]); William Cavestro (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - [CNRS : FRE2664] - [Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II]); Christine Durieux (LEPII - Laboratoire d'Economie de la Production et de l'Intégration Internationale - [CNRS : FRE2664] - [Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II])
    Abstract: Cette communication a pour objet d'analyser la gestion des compétences dans une entreprise publique comme un processus innovant de gestion des marchés internes du travail (Doeringer et Piore, 1985). Une première partie aborde la question de la transformation des règles de fonctionnement du marché interne du travail liée à l'introduction d'une gestion des compétences. Il s'agit d'analyser les nouvelles règles qui fondent cette logique. Nous examinerons plus précisément en quoi ces règles sont innovantes dans leur contenu. Une deuxième partie traite de l'effectivité de l'usage de ces règles et de leur transformation à travers les tensions générées par la logique de la compétence. Cette analyse permet d'apprécier la manière dont les acteurs s'approprient les règles et par là même le caractère innovant de la gestion des compétences.
    Keywords: gestion des compétences ; compétence ; marché interne ; marché du travail ; gestion ; innovation
    Date: 2006–10–24
  26. By: Maurizio Iacopetta
    Abstract: Do policies that alter the allocation of human capital across individuals affect the innovation capacity of an economy? To answer this question I extend Romer’s growth model to allow for individual heterogeneity. I find that the value of an invention rises with equality. If skills and talents are evenly distributed, inventions are more widely adopted in production and users are willing to bid a higher price. Therefore more inequality is associated with a larger share of the population employed in the business of invention. But, somehow surprisingly, the analysis suggests that although an equal society values inventions more than an unequal one, it may produce fewer of them, or, equivalently, generates inventions of a lower quality. A calibration of the model suggests a weak, but positive, relationship between the rate of innovation and inequality. Finally, in a two-country world, in which ideas, individuals, and capital circulate without restrictions, I find that the unequal economy tends to specialize into the business of innovation. The main implication of the analysis is that an observed difference in the innovation rate between two countries with similar levels of education can hardly be attributed to variations in domestic human capital policies.
    Keywords: human capital, inequality, innovation
    JEL: O15 O31
    Date: 2006–06
  27. By: Elise Brezis
    Abstract: In most countries, governments intervene in the process of R&D by financing a substantial part of it. The mechanism employed for choosing the projects to be financed is a committee composed of experts who evaluate projects in their field of specialization, and decide which ones should be funded. This mechanism for evaluating projects is conservative. Proposals of new ideas are too often rejected, and inventions are commonly thrown out of the set of potential projects. In this paper, I propose a mechanism that will allow less conformity: focal randomization. Focal randomization mechanism (FRM) states that projects which are unanimously ranked at the top by all reviewers, will be adopted. Projects perceived as valueless by all are rejected, while projects that are ranked differently will be randomized. I compare the average return under the present and proposed mechanism. I examine under which conditions this new mechanism is preferable, and its consequences on economic growth.
    Date: 2006–06
  28. By: Jean-Pierre Nicolas (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - [CNRS : UMR5593] - [Université Lumière - Lyon II] - [Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat])
    Abstract: Afin de favoriser un rapprochement entre chercheurs français et suédois travaillant sur le thème du transport et de l'environnement, le Ministère français de l'équipement et des transports(*), et l'Agence de recherche sur les transports suédois (KFB) ont organisé une série de séminaires sur le sujet. Ils ont également décidé de publier une synthèse sur l'organisation du secteur de la recherche et développement dans le domaine pour chacun des deux pays : cette note correspond au cas français.<br />-------------------------------------<br />(*) Plus précisément, au sein de ce ministère, la Direction de la Recherche et des Affaires Scientifiques et<br />Techniques, en association avec le Prédit.
    Keywords: Transport ; environnement ; organisation de la R&D ; secteur public ; secteur privé ; axe de recherche ; France
    Date: 2006–10–19
  29. By: Hall, Bronwyn H. (UNU-MERIT); Mairesse, Jacques (UNU-MERIT); Turner, Laure (ENSAE)
    Abstract: The identification of age, cohort (vintage), and period (year) effects in a panel of individuals or other units is an old problem in the social sciences, but one that has not been much studied in the context of measuring researcher productivity. In the context of a semi-parametric model of productivity where these effects are assumed to enter in an additive manner, we present the conditions necessary to identify and test for the presence of the three effects. In particular we show that failure to specify precisely the conditions under which such a model is identified can lead to misleading conclusions about the productivity-age relationship. We illustrate our methods using data on the publications 1986-1997 by 465 French condensed matter physicists who were born between 1936 and 1960.
    Keywords: scientific productivity, age, identification, panel data, bibliometrics.
    JEL: C23 O31 J44
    Date: 2006
  30. By: Hugh Whittaker; Philippe Byosiere; Junpe Higuchi; Thelma Quince
    Abstract: Entrepreneurs cannot develop a business single handedly. One of the most important tasks the entrepreneur faces is to recruit, allocate work to, motivate and retain employees who will help the business to grow. Based on survey data, this paper examines the HRM orientations of UK and Japanese high tech manufacturing entrepreneurs, and identifies fundamentally different approaches to these tasks, at least as expressed by the entrepreneurs. The UK entrepreneurs espouse an employment relationship based on 'give and take' flexibility, while the Japanese entrepreneurs are more focused on raising or nurturing their employees. Reasons for the differences are explored, and relate to the entrepreneurs' backgrounds, as well as the business and social environment. Implications for the 'new employment relationship' are explored.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; HR management; High-tech small firms
    JEL: L60 M12 M13 M14 M50
    Date: 2006–09

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