nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2006‒03‒25
fourteen papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Technical Change Theory and Learning Curves: Patterns of Progress in Energy Technologies By Tooraj Jamasb
  2. Innovation Paths of Estonian Biotechnology By Tõnis Mets
  3. Banks and Innovation: Microeconometric Evidence on Italian Firms By Luigi Benfratello; Fabio Schiantarelli; Alessandro Sembenelli
  4. Managing Knowledge Flows through Appropriation and Learning Strategies By Paul H. Jensen; Elizabeth Webster
  5. Incentives to innovate in oligopolies By Paul, BELLEFLAMME; Cecilia, VERGARI
  6. O diretório dos grupos de pesquisa do CNPq e a interação universidade-empresa no Brasil em 2004 By Márcia Siqueira Rapini; Hérica Morais Righi
  7. Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products in the Globalising World Economy By Ants Kukrus; Raul Kartus
  8. Heterogeneity of Southern Countries and Southern Intellectual Property Rights Policy By Lapan, Harvey E.; Kim, Jeong-Eon
  9. "On the Failure of University-Industry Research Collaboration to Stimulate High Quality Research in Japan" By Tsuyoshi Nakamura; Kazuo Ueda
  10. From the Green Revolution to the Gene Revolution: How will the Poor Fare? By Prabhu Pingali; Terri Raney
  11. Tales of serial exploration By PABLO MARTIN; DIMO DIMOV
  12. The dynamics of the vertical relations in the aeronautics: An analysis of the subcontracting relationships of Airbus (In French) By Med KECHIDI (LEREPS-GRES)
  13. Who will seize the promise of the new? By PABLO MARTIN; DIMO DIMOV
  14. The Cost Factor in Patent Systems. By Bruno van Pottelsberghe; Didier François

  1. By: Tooraj Jamasb
    Abstract: This paper presents a comparative analysis of energy technology learning and progress within the framework of Schumpeter’s invention-innovation-diffusion paradigm. We estimate learning by doing and research rates for a range of energy technologies in four stages of technical progress. Emerging and mature technologies respond slowly to research and development (R&D) and capacity expansion; evolving technologies exhibit high learning-by-doing and research rates; reviving technologies exhibit considerable response to learning-by-research although they do not face significant market constraints. We generally find higher learning-by-doing than learning-by-research rates but do not find any development stage where learning-by-doing alone is the dominant driver of technical change. Also, high capital intensity and market constraints appear to slow down the pace of progress of emerging and evolving technologies. We find little scope for potential substitution between learning-by-doing and learning-by-research across the technologies and different stages of their development path.
    Keywords: Energy technology, electricity, technical change, learning curves
    JEL: O3 Q4
    Date: 2006–03
  2. By: Tõnis Mets (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Centre for Entrepreneurship, University of Tartu)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to evaluate the ratio of expenditures between fundamental research, applied research and technological development, to analyse this proportion in the innovation processes of Estonian biotech public sector and private SMEs, and to shape supportive measures to knowledge transfer and entrepreneurship in the biotechnology sector. The empirical study explores Estonian biotechnology by mapping the strategy, innovation processes and related expenditures of the public sector and private businesses. Findings from the annual reports of biotech SMEs and interviews with managers demonstrate the following: companies are mostly profitable, but their own capability to invest into development is quite limited; only a third of the biotech companies have adopted a growth-oriented strategy; entrepreneurship and marketing experience in the companies was nearly three times lower than in research; international knowledge transfer and networking are mostly related to research and practically never to commercialisation of the research results. The author deduced the gross funding structure proportion of basic and applied research, and product/service development in Estonian biotechnology sector according to the formula: 11:5:1. In the business sector the ratio is approximately 1:3:5 and together with public support: 1:6:5. The structure of research expenditures in the public sector mostly reflects the success of Estonian biosciences rather than the success of the biotech as an economy sector. Some options for improvement of sectoral system of innovation are given.
    Keywords: knowledge transfer, innovation models, biotechnology, R&D expenditures, sectoral system of innovation
    JEL: L65 O31 O32 O38
    Date: 2005
  3. By: Luigi Benfratello (University of Turin); Fabio Schiantarelli (Boston College and IZA Bonn); Alessandro Sembenelli (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the effect of local banking development on firms’ innovative activities, using a rich data set on innovation for a large number of Italian firms over the 1990’s. There is evidence that banking development affects the probability of process innovation, particularly for small firms and for firms in high(er) tech sectors and in sectors more dependent upon external finance. The evidence for product innovation is weaker. There is also some evidence that banking development reduces the cash flow sensitivity of fixed investment spending, particularly for small firms, and that it increases the probability they will engage in R&D.
    Keywords: banks, financial development, innovation, R&D, investment
    JEL: D24 G21 G38 O31 O33
    Date: 2006–03
  4. By: Paul H. Jensen (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne); Elizabeth Webster (Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: In this paper, the management of outgoing and incoming knowledge is modelled as part of the firm’s profit-seeking strategy. Firms stem their outflow of commercially-sensitive knowledge through appropriation mechanisms such as patents and secrecy and stimulate inflows of commercially-valuable knowledge through networking, attending conferences and other forms of external interaction. It is probable, however, that some learning styles undermine some appropriation mechanisms. For instance, recent research on the “paradox of openness” highlights the conflict between firms’ openness and their ability to appropriate innovation profits. We use survey data from over 600 Australian firms to examine this paradox and other effects of firms’ management of knowledge flows such as the complementarity between patents and secrecy.
    Date: 2006–03
  5. By: Paul, BELLEFLAMME; Cecilia, VERGARI (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE))
    Abstract: In the spirit of Arrow (1962), we examine, in an oligopoly model with horizontally differentiated products, how much a firm is willing to pay for a process innovation that it would be the only one to use. We show that different measures of competition (number of firms, degree of product differentiation, Cournot vs Bertrand) affect incentives to innovate in non-monotoic, different, and potentially ways.
    Keywords: innovation; profit incentive; oligopoly; product differentiation
    JEL: L13 O31
    Date: 2006–02–22
  6. By: Márcia Siqueira Rapini (IEL-FIEMG); Hérica Morais Righi (FACE-UFMG)
    Abstract: The present work introsuces CNPq's research group's database that can be used to investigate university-industry interactions in Brazil. CNPq's research groups that declared any relationship with firms are used as a proxy. The data were collected in CNPq's Research Groups Directory in Census 2004. Although limitations intrinsic to information collected, the database supplies some evidence from recent university-industry interactions in Brazil. The general framework points to a closer relationship between universities and firms, showed in relationships based in scientific research and technology transference, but results constrained to private and state-owned enterprises suggest that sophisticated interactions should be taking inter-institutions. This result were in accordance with Brazilian's National System of Innovation, but also suggests that much more can be done fostering academic knowledge transference to firms in the country.
    Keywords: university-industry interactions, research groups, CNPq's Research Groups Directory, Brazil
    JEL: O30 O39
    Date: 2006–03
  7. By: Ants Kukrus (School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology); Raul Kartus (School of Economics and Business Administration, Tallinn University of Technology)
    Abstract: Patenting new products in pharmaceuticals industry is of greater importance than in the other high technology branches of industry nowadays. Concentration of manufacturing takes place in pharmaceuticals industry as well as in the other branches of industry and it is characterised by the joining of firms. However, there are several specific features in patenting pharmaceutical products. Enforcement of the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement) made it compulsory to establish in all World Trade Organization (WTO) Members patent protection on pharmaceutical products and their manufacturing methods as well as patent protection of drugs. WTO Doha Declaration is an essential stage in patent protection of pharmaceutical products establishing the legal basis and compulsory licensing system. In 2005, the European Commission completed the Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council on compulsory licensing of patents relating to the manufacture of pharmaceutical products for export to countries with public health problems.
    Keywords: patent protection of pharmaceutical products, the TRIPS Agreement, the Doha Declaration, compulsory license, exclusive right, global economy
    JEL: K10 K41
    Date: 2005
  8. By: Lapan, Harvey E.; Kim, Jeong-Eon
    Abstract: We develop a model with one innovating northern firm and heterogeneous southern firms that compete in a final product market. We assume southern firms differ in their intrinsic costs and their ability to adapt technology and study southern incentives to protect intellectual property rights. We find that in a non-cooperative equilibrium governments will resist IPR protection, but collectively southern countries benefit from some protection. We show that countries with more efficient firms prefer higher collective IPR protection than those with less efficient firms. However, given the aggregate level of IPR protection, it is more efficient if the more efficient countries have weaker IPR protection.
    Keywords: Commercial Policy; Intellectual Property Rights protection; Trade; Innovation; Imperfect competition
    JEL: F1 O3
    Date: 2006–03–23
  9. By: Tsuyoshi Nakamura (Faculty of Economics, Tokyo Keizai University); Kazuo Ueda (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)
    Abstract: Using a panel of 30 Japanese chemical and pharmaceutical companies for the period of 1985 to 1998, we estimate the effects of university-industry research collaboration (UIC) on participating firms' research output. We find, as in other studies in the field, that UIC leads to more research output, in terms of the number of patents obtained. In contrast to the results for the U.S., however, we find no evidence that UIC significantly affects quality adjusted patents, that is, citation weighted patent counts. By looking finely at what part of the quality ladder of patents UIC stimulates, we find that UIC increases only those patents with a small number of citations, thus failing to affect the "average" quality of patents. Discussions of possible reasons for this finding are also offered.
    Date: 2006–03
  10. By: Prabhu Pingali (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Terri Raney (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: The past four decades have seen two waves of agricultural technology development and diffusion to developing countries. The first wave was initiated by the Green Revolution in which an explicit strategy for technology development and diffusion targeting poor farmers in poor countries made improved germplasm freely available as a public good. The second wave was generated by the Gene Revolution in which a global and largely private agricultural research system is creating improved agricultural technologies that flow to developing countries primarily through market transactions. The Green Revolution strategy for food crop productivity growth was based on the premise that, given appropriate institutional mechanisms, technology spillovers across political and agro-climatic boundaries can be captured. A number of significant asymmetries exist between developed and developing, e.g.: agricultural systems, market institutions and research and regulatory capacity. These asymmetries raise doubts as to whether the Gene Revolution has the same capacity to generate spillover benefits for the poor. A strong public sector – working cooperatively with the private sector – is essential to ensure that the poor benefit from the Gene Revolution.
    Keywords: Agricultural Biotechnology, Agricultural Research, Technological Change, Economic Development.
    JEL: O13 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2005
  11. By: PABLO MARTIN (Instituto de Empresa); DIMO DIMOV (Instituto de Empresa)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the firm and ecological factors that affect the long-term sustainability of exploration. We analysed the investment decisions by US venture capital firms to enter new technological domains over a 43-year period. Our results suggest that in addition to the well studied effects of inertia and slack, exploration is affected by an organization´s knowledge specialization, is conducive to repetitive momentum, and affects an organization´s subsequent exploration when occurring early in an organization´s life. We contribute to the literature on organizational learning by identifying some of the antecedents of exploration and its sustenance over time.
    Date: 2006–01
    Abstract: The plane production constraints, and more particularly an international multisite constraints, raise a strong question of productive and cognitive coordination of a complex technical product. This question treates the coordination, the design and the realization of the subsets and the coordination of the integration of the subsets up to the end product. It is We can observe the specifities of the relations interfirms in the sector of aeronautics by focusing on the relationships of subcontracting. The objectif of this paper is to characterize and to analyze the singularities of the relations between firms in the sector of aeronautics using the example of the vertical relations between Airbus and its principal industrial partners.
    Keywords: NAvertical relations, subcontracting, Airbus, aeronautics, cooperation
    JEL: L14 L15 L23 L24 L64 L52
    Date: 2006
  13. By: PABLO MARTIN (Instituto de Empresa); DIMO DIMOV (Instituto de Empresa)
    Abstract: This paper studies the conditions that motivate firms to begin exploratory moves that lead to investing in an emerging industry. Using knowledge, institutional and population ecology theories, we capture contributing factors to these exploratory drives. We use a longitudinal census of the US Venture Capital industry since inception (>33 years, >4500 firms, >85000 transactions 4 industries). Data are analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model, setting clocks to track unfolding events. Predictions that size (positive), age (negative), knowledge specialization (negative), and interaction between age and prior experience (positive) have significant effects on exploratory drives are supported
    Date: 2006–01
  14. By: Bruno van Pottelsberghe (Centre Emile Bernheim, Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels and DULBEA, Université Libre de Bruxelles.); Didier François (Solvay Business School, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to assess whether and to what extent the cost of patenting affects the demand for patents. The empirical analysis, which focuses on the patent systems of the USA, Japan, and Europe during the year 2003, leads to the following methodological and empirical observations: i) after the grant, the translation, validation and transaction costs induced by an effective protection in several European countries witness a highly fragmented and very expensive European market for intellectual property; ii) for a proper international comparison, the size of the market and the average number of claims must be accounted for; iii) when the cost per claim per capita (the 3C-index) is considered, a negative linear relationship appears between the cost of patenting and the number of claims that are filed; iv) for a patent designating 13 European countries, the 3C-index is about six (two) times more expensive than in the US (Japanese) system; v) The European market being more than twice as large as the US market in terms of inhabitants, the 3C-index suggests that there would be a clear justification for higher nominal examination fees at the EPO, that would ensure a rigorous granting process.
    Keywords: patents; cost elasticity; cost per claim per capita, patent systems
    JEL: P14 P51 O34
    Date: 2006

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