nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2005‒07‒18
twelve papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Universiteit Utrecht

  1. Exports and Labour Demand: Searching for Functional Structure in Multi-Output Multi-Skill Technologies By Bertrand M. Koebel
  2. Growth, Technological Interdependence and Spatial Externalities: Theory and Evidence. By ERTUR, Cem; KOCH, Wilfried
  3. Croissance, capital humain et interactions spatiales : une étude économétrique. By ERTUR, Cem; THIAW, Kalidou
  4. Do External Knowledge Spillovers Induce Firms’Innovations? Evidence from Slovenia By Jože P. Damijan; Andreja Jaklic; Matija Rojec
  5. University Invention, Entrepreneurship, and Start-Ups By Celestine Chukumba; Richard Jensen
  6. Global Engagement and the Innovation Activities of Firms By Chiara Criscuolo; Jonathan E. Haskel; Matthew J. Slaughter
  7. The Pro-cyclical R&D Puzzle: Technology Shocks and Pro-cyclical R&D Expenditure By Taiji Harashima
  8. Debilidades Metodológicas en la Medición de la Capacidad Innovadora de los Sistemas Regionales de Innovación en la UE By Jon Mikel Zabala Iturriagagoitia; Fernando Jiménez Sáez
  9. Benchmarking study about R&D and Innovation at the Spanish By Jon Mikel Zabala Iturriagagoitia
  11. New Technologies, Workplace Organisation and the Age Structure of the Workforce: Firm-Level Evidence. By Patrick Aubert; Eve Caroli; Muriel Roger
  12. Nouvelles technologies et nouvelles formes d'organisation du travail : quelles conséquences pour l'emploi des salariés âges ? By Patrick Aubert; Eve Caroli; Muriel Roger

  1. By: Bertrand M. Koebel (BETA-Thème, Louis Pasteur University, Strasbourg and IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: In order to simplify the representation of a technological relationship between inputs and outputs, a production unit’s technology must typically satisfy some restrictive conditions, some of them being well known in the literature. This paper presents new results for aggregating labour inputs and outputs, in terms of restrictions on elasticities of scale and substitution. These conditions are then empirically investigated, in a framework that is flexible and does not lose its flexibility after separability being imposed. The empirical findings of the exact approach to aggregation are found to be rather pessimistic on the possibility to provide a simplified representation.
    Keywords: aggregation, separability, flexibility, exports, labour demand, Box-Cox, system serial correlation
    JEL: C33 D24 E10 J23 L60
    Date: 2005–07
  2. By: ERTUR, Cem (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne); KOCH, Wilfried (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical model, based on the neoclassical growth literature, which explicitly takes into account technological interdependence among economies and examines the impact of location and neighborhood effects in explaining growth. Technological interdependence is supposed working through spatial externalities. The magnitude of the physical capital externalities at steady state, which is usually not identified in the literature, is estimated using a spatial econometric specification explaining the steady state income level. This spatially augmented Solow model yields a conditional convergence equation which is characterized by parameter heterogeneity. A locally linear spatial autoregressive specification is then estimated.
    Keywords: Conditional convergence ; technological interdependence ; spatial externalities ; spatial autocorrelation ; parameter heterogeneity ; locally linear estimation
    JEL: C14 C31 O4
    Date: 2005–07
  3. By: ERTUR, Cem (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne); THIAW, Kalidou (LEG - CNRS UMR 5118 - Université de Bourgogne)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyze the theoretical and econometric implications of omitting spatial dependence in the Mankiw, Romer, and Weil (1992) model. Indeed, the international distribution of income levels and growth rates suggests the existence of large international disparities, and therefore the important role of location on economic performance. However, taking spatial dependence into account requires resorting to the methods of Spatial Econometrics, not only for a valid statistical inference, but also for revaluating the impact of the variables generally considered as crucial in the growth phenomenon and finding the processes underlying growth rates and income levels. / L'objectif de cet article est d'analyser les implications économétriques et théoriques de l'omission de la dépendance spatiale dans le cadre de l'estimation du modèle de Mankiw, Romer et Weil (1992). En effet, la distribution internationale des taux de croissance et des niveaux de revenu suggère l'existence de bassins de croissance et de récession, et donc un rôle important de la localisation dans les performances économiques. Cependant, la prise en compte de l'autocorrélation spatiale dans l'estimation nécessite de recourir aux méthodes de l'économétrie spatiale afin, non seulement d'obtenir une inférence statistique valide, mais également d'élucider les processus qui sous-tendent la détermination des rythmes de croissance et des niveaux de revenu.
    Keywords: Economic growth ; Human capital ; convergence ; spatial econometrics ; Croissance économique ; capital humain ; convergence ; économétrie spatiale
    JEL: C14 C31 O4
    Date: 2005–07
  4. By: Jože P. Damijan; Andreja Jaklic; Matija Rojec
    Abstract: The paper analyses whether, and to what extent, firm’s ability to innovate is induced by firm’s own R&D activity and to what extent by factors external to firm. It first estimates the impact of firms' internal R&D capital and external R&D spillovers on firms' innovation activity within an integrated dynamic model. In the second step, we then estimate the impact of firms'innovations on firms’ productivity growth. Using the firm level data on innovation activity combined with firms' financial data for a large sample of Slovenian firms in the period 1996-2002, the paper produces three main findings. First, firm’s own R&D expenditures as well as external knowledge spillovers, such as national and international public R&D subsidies, foreign ownership and intra-sector innovation spillovers do enhance firm’s ability to innovate. Second, innovations as a result of firm’s R&D do contribute substantially to firm’s total factor productivity growth. And third, foreign ownership has a double impact on firm’s TFP growth - it first enhances firm’s ability to innovate and then it additionally contributes to firm’s TFP growth via superior organization techniques and other channels of knowledge diffusion.
    Keywords: innovation, external knowledge spillovers, FDI, Slovenia
    JEL: D24 F14 F21
  5. By: Celestine Chukumba; Richard Jensen
    Abstract: This paper develops a game-theoretic model that predicts when a university invention is commercialized in a start-up firm rather than an established firm. The model predicts that university inventions are more likely to occur in start-ups when the technology transfer officers (TTOs) search cost is high, the cost of development or commercialization is lower for a start-up, or the inventor's effort cost in development is lower in a start-up. We test the theory using data from the Association of University Technology Managers, the National Research Council, and the National Venture Capital Association. Licensing is more likely in general, and especially so in start-ups, by universities with higher quality engineering faculty and older TTOs. Start-ups are more likely by universities in states with larger levels of venture capital. TTO size has no effect on start-ups, but does increase licenses. Conversely, universities that earn greater licensing royalties have fewer start-ups but more licenses. The number of start-ups is decreasing in the interest rate, increasing in the S&P 500, and unaffected by levels of industrial research funding and the presence of a medical school. All of these results are consistent with the predictions of our theory.
    JEL: L31 O31 O32
    Date: 2005–07
  6. By: Chiara Criscuolo; Jonathan E. Haskel; Matthew J. Slaughter
    Abstract: Firms that export or, even more so, are part of a multinational enterprise tend to exhibit higher productivity than their purely domestic counterparts. To better understand this correlation, we incorporate the perspective of industrial organization that one of the main drivers of differences in productivity is differences in knowledge. We examine a new data set of several thousand U.K. enterprises covering all industries from 1994 through 2000. For each enterprise we have multiple detailed measures of knowledge outputs, knowledge investments, and sources of existing knowledge. We find that globally engaged firms do innovate more. But this is not just because globally engaged firms use more researchers. It is also because they learn more from more sources such as suppliers and customers, universities, and their intra-firm worldwide pool of information. We also find that the relative importance of knowledge sources varies systematically with the type of innovation.
    JEL: F1 F2 O3
    Date: 2005–07
  7. By: Taiji Harashima (University of Tsukuba & Cabinet Office of Japan)
    Abstract: Empirically R&D expenditure moves pro-cyclically, but the pro- cyclicality is a puzzle from the Schumpeterian point of view. The paper examines the cyclical property of R&D expenditure in the context of endogenous growth, and concludes that (i) substitutability between investing in physical capital and investing in technology/knowledge is a key of the cyclical property of R&D, (ii) basically technology shocks accompany counter-cyclical R&D and demand shocks accompany pro-cyclical R&D, and (iii) the easiest way to solve the pro-cyclical R&D puzzle is to abandon the conjecture that business cycles are generated mainly by technology shocks.
    Keywords: R&D; Technology shock; Business cycle; Schumpeterian; Endogenous growth
    JEL: E32 O30
    Date: 2005–07–12
  8. By: Jon Mikel Zabala Iturriagagoitia (Institute of Innovation & Knowledge Management, INGENIO CSIC-UPV); Fernando Jiménez Sáez (Institute of Innovation & Knowledge Management, INGENIO CSIC-UPV)
    Abstract: La Innovación se ha convertido en uno de los principales pilares de la Unión Europea. En este sentido se manifiestan los acuerdos adoptados en las cumbres de Lisboa y de Barcelona (Consejo Europeo de Lisboa, 2000; Consejo Europeo de Barcelona, 2002). La realización de estudios de Benchmarking sobre Política de Innovación se constituye así, en uno de los principales focos de atención en la bibliografía, lo que lleva aparejado la aparición de propuestas de nuevas metodologías para la medición de la Capacidad de Innovación Regional (Buesa et al., 2002; Archibugi y Coco, 2004; Faber y Hesen, 2004). El objetivo de este artículo consiste en analizar algunas de las metodologías existentes así como los Indicadores empleados, identificando sus principales carencias en la determinación de la capacidad de los Sistemas de Innovación (SI). Para ello, se analizan los indicadores de I+D, Innovación Tecnológica y otros relacionados con la capacidad innovadora de las regiones españolas durante el período 1996–2001. Tras haber comparado las dos metodologías objeto de estudio, es posible concluir, que el empleo de una u otra metodología en la definición de un influye directamente en el ranking de innovación. Por otra parte, la cantidad de variables que intervienen en los análisis estadísticos realizados, así como la interpretación de su significado resultan ciertamente complejas. Además, los cambios de criterio adoptados por los Institutos de Estadística dificultan la realización de series temporales, mientras que el uso de idénticos criterios para la medición de la capacidad innovadora de territorios muy diferentes es calificado como una deficiencia de consideración.
    Keywords: Innovation, Indicators, Indices, Weaknesses.
    JEL: R
    Date: 2005–07–15
  9. By: Jon Mikel Zabala Iturriagagoitia (Institute of Innovation & Knowledge Management, INGENIO CSIC-UPV)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is the realization of a Benchmark analysis about the relative position of the Valencian Innovation System. This comparison has been threefold comparing the Spanish, Mediterranean and European regions. In order to undertake this analysis, on the one hand, for the Spanish regions, their evolution from 1992 to 2001 is analyzed according to the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE) data. On the other hand, when comparing the different Mediterranean and European Regions, the analysis done is related to the indicators offered by the European Innovation Scoreboard for 2002 and 2003. These analyses illustrate the Valencian Innovation System’s weaknesses. The Comunidad Valenciana shows relative strengths in those fields related to public funding, such as High Education, Lifelong learning and Public R&D Expenditure. In contrast, the weaknesses are strongly related to private activities, as Employment in High Technology sectors and Business R&D expenditure. The low employment rates remark the lacking industrial structure at the Comunidad Valenciana, what arises in great difficulties to absorb the new high educated people. This situation shows a great structural imbalance at the Valencian Innovation System, clearly compromising its future development.
    Keywords: Regional Systems of Innovation, Benchmarking, European Innovation Scoreboard
    JEL: O12 O18 O32 O52 R11
    Date: 2005–07–15
  10. By: Jon Mikel Zabala Iturriagagoitia (Institute of Innovation & Knowledge Management, INGENIO CSIC-UPV); Mónica García Melón (Departamento de Proyectos de Ingeniería, DPI, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia)
    Abstract: The decisions made during the design process have a critical impact both on the design solution obtained but also on the design process itself. It can be observed that while the way in which products are developed differs not only across firms but within the same firm over time, what is being decided seems to remain fairly consistent [2]. After a thorough Literature research many references addressing decision processes developed within the NPD have been found. In the paper by Krishnan and Ullrich [4] an extensively list the most common decisions made in each phase of the development process of new products is presented. While rigorous at a bibliographical level, this work has not been empirically verified yet. Therefore, an empirical study to inquire whether decisions considered usual in the literature were actually common within the framework of innovative companies in the Valencia region (Spain) has been carried out. The empirical study has covered a representative sample of innovative companies in this region. A questionnaire including all decisions identified was prepared and sent by mail to all the companies belonging to the sample, whose aim was to determine the frequency these decisions are usually made. At the same time this study has been used to find out the patterns of decision-making processes in those innovative companies. The analysis of the results obtained confirmed that the decisions identified in the literature do correspond to the decisions mostly made in innovative companies of the Valencia Region and that they all follow a specific pattern.
    Keywords: New Product Development (NPD), Innovative firms, decision making, survey.
    JEL: C44 D70 O32 R11
    Date: 2005–07–15
  11. By: Patrick Aubert; Eve Caroli; Muriel Roger
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between new technologies, innovative workplace practices and the age structure of the workforce in a sample of French manufacturing firms. We find evidence that the wage-bill share of older workers is lower in innovative firms and that the opposite holds for younger workers. This age bias affects both men and women. It is also evidenced within occupational groups, thus suggesting that skills do not completely protect workers against the labour-market consequences of ageing. More detailed analysis of employment inflows and outflows shows that new technologies essentially affect older workers through reduced hiring opportunities as compared to younger workers. In contrast, organisational innovations mainly affect the probability of exit, which decreases much more for younger than for older workers following reorganisation.
    Date: 2005
  12. By: Patrick Aubert; Eve Caroli; Muriel Roger
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationships between new technologies, innovative workplace practices and the age structure of the workforce in a static labour demand framework. As a first step, we assume that, in the short run, the only variable factor is the number of workers in different age groups. We then assume, as a second step that the number of workers by age and skill group may vary. The data we use come from several sources: the Changements Organisationnels et Informatisation survey (COI); the Déclarations Annuelles des Données Sociales (DADS) and the Bénéfices Réels Normaux database (BRN). We find evidence that the wage-bill share of older workers is lower in innovative firms. This age bias affects is also evidenced within occupational groups, thus suggesting that skills do not completely protect workers against the labour-market consequences of ageing. Cet article s'intéresse aux relations entre nouvelles technologies, changements organisationnels et structure par âge de la main-d'oeuvre dans un cadre classique de demande de travail statique. Sous l'hypothèse d'une fonction de coût translog, comme cela est habituel dans ce genre de modèle, nous considérons que les seuls facteurs variables sont, dans un premier temps, les effectifs des différents groupes d'âge puis, dans un second temps, les effectifs des groupes d'âge par qualification. Les données utilisées pour estimer ce modèle sont issues de l'appariement de plusieurs sources : l'enquête Changements Organisationnels et Informatisation (COI), les Déclarations Annuelles des Données Sociales (DADS) et la base des Bénéfices Réels Normaux (BRN). Les résultats des estimations montrent que les salariés âgés représentent une part plus faible de la masse salariale dans les entreprises innovantes. Ce " biais à l'encontre de l'âge " est vérifié également au sein des différentes catégories de qualifications : la qualification ne suffit donc pas à protéger complètement contre les conséquences de l'âge.
    Date: 2005

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