nep-ino New Economics Papers
on Innovation
Issue of 2005‒05‒29
seven papers chosen by
Koen Frenken
Universiteit Utrecht

  2. Disaggregated Productivity Growth and Technological Progress in the interpretation of Spanish Economic Growth, 1958-1975 By Mª Teresa Sanchis Llopis
  3. Systems of Innovation and Underdevelopment: An Institutional Perspective By Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji
  4. Variety and the evolution of refinery processing By Nguyen, P.; Saviotti, P.P.; Trommetter, M.; Bourgeois, B.
  5. Start-ups, firm growth and the consolidation of the French biotech industry By Avenel, E.; Corolleur, F.; Gauthier, C.; Rieu, C.
  6. Scientific and Technological Regimes in Nanotechnology: Combinatorial Inventors and Performance By Andrea Bonaccorsi; Grid Thoma
  7. Informatique, organisation du travail et intéractions sociales By Nathalie Greenan; Emmanuelle Walkowiak

  1. By: Gerard Llobet; Javier Suarez (CEMFI, Centro de Estudios Monetarios y Financieros)
    Abstract: The protection that innovators obtain through intellectual property rights crucially depends on their incentives and ability to litigate infringers. Taking patents as a notable example, we study how the financing of legal costs can alter the incentives to litigate in defense of a petent and, thus, the prospects of infrigement and the effective protection of the innovator. We compare the resort to a financier once the infrigement has occurred (ex-post financing) with patent litigation insurance (PLI) as well as other ex-ante arrangements based on leverage. We show that the ex-ante arrangements can be designed (for instance, in the case of PLI, by including an appropiate deductible) so as to implement the innovator's second-best outcome: a situation in which patent predaction is deterred without inducing excessive litigation.
    Keywords: Financial strategy, intellectual property, litigation, predation.
    JEL: G32 O34 O52
    Date: 2005–02
  2. By: Mª Teresa Sanchis Llopis
    Abstract: Spanish economic records in terms of GDP growth and convergence to European levels in the sixties, provide an excellent opportunity to look at a central question underlying in the interpretation of any process of economic growth. The relevance of industrial specific technological progress is confronted to a general and multifaceted productivity change coming from a variety of sectors and causes. This paper exploits sectoral growth accounting methodology in two different ways in order to answer this crucial question revisited recently by historiography with reference to British Industrial Revolution and to Information and Telecommunications Technologies. First, we calculate TFP growth following the Kendrick approach (1961) and using four input-output tables corresponding to 1958, 1962, 1970 and 1975 disaggregated at 25 productive branches. And Second, we examine the impact of electricity and electric machinery and equipment as a General Purpose Technology (GPT) in Spanish economic growth.
    Date: 2005–05
  3. By: Oyelaran-Oyeyinka, Banji (United Nations University, Institute for New Technologies)
    Abstract: This paper examines institutions and their role in supporting technical change as part of the development process, and asks how institutions shape the system of innovation (SI). The context of underdevelopment exhibits distinct system characteristics that differ markedly from those found under advanced economic conditions and as such deserves close empirical scrutiny. SIs differ significantly under the two sets of conditions, leading to uneven structural changes. The paper therefore explores what functions must be served by systems in developing countries in order to generate technical dynamism. To compare different contexts, it introduces the idea of a System of Learning Innovation in Development (SLID) that emphasizes individual and organizational competence building. The differences between “Advanced” Systems of Innovation (ASI) and two types of SLID are discussed. Infrastructure, one of the key components of institutions involved in development, is used as an illustration. The study found that dynamic SIs function best in a regime of high-quality infrastructure (telephone, Internet, computers and reliable electricity supplies). The case of sub-Saharan Africa serves to illustrate the point.
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation Policy, Capacity Building, Learning, Economic Development, Infrastructure, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2005
  4. By: Nguyen, P.; Saviotti, P.P.; Trommetter, M.; Bourgeois, B.
    Abstract: Evolutionary theories of economic development stress the role of variety as both a determinant and a result of growth. In this paper we develop a measure of variety, based on Weitzman's maximum likelihood procedure. This measure is based on the distance between products, and indicates the degree of differentiation of a product population. We propose a generic method, which permits to regroup the products with very similar characteristics values before choosing randomly the product models to be used to calculate Weitzman's measure. We apply the variety measure to process characteristics of oil refining. The results obtained for this technology show classic evolutionary specialization patterns that can be understood on the basis of niche theory. Here the changes in variety are related to changes in the range of the services the technology considered can deliver, range which plays a role similar to that of the size of the habitat of a biological species.
    JEL: L15 L93 Q40
    Date: 2004
  5. By: Avenel, E.; Corolleur, F.; Gauthier, C.; Rieu, C.
    Abstract: Based on an original dataset, we analyze empirically the determinants of firm growth in the French biotech industry during two periods, 1996-1999 and 1999-2002. We have two main results. First, Gibrat's law is violated. The growth of annual turnover is influenced by teh initial size of the firm. The effect is non-linear, negative for small firms. Second, location has a significant impact on growth. We use different sets of dummies to characterize location and different measures of firm growth. As a whole, our results point at Marseilles (and its region) and Nanterre (but not Paris and Evry) as favorable places for the growth of firms between 1999 and 2002. For the 1996-1999, the favorable places are Strasbourg (and Alsace) and Rhône-Alpes (Lyon/Grenoble). Our analysis thus suggests that the changes in the (notably legal) environment of French biotech firms that took place in 1999 had a drastic effect of the comparative advantages of locations for biotech firms.
    JEL: L25 L65 R30
    Date: 2005
  6. By: Andrea Bonaccorsi; Grid Thoma
    Abstract: Academics and policy makers are questioning about the relation between science and technology in the emerging field of nano science and technology (NST) and the effectiveness of different institutional regimes. We analyze the performance of inventors in the NST using multiple indicators. We clustered patents in three groups according to the scientific curricula of the inventors. The first two groups are composed by patents whose inventors respectively are all authors of at least one scientific publication in the NST and none of then has obtained a scientific publication in that field. Thirdly, we isolated those patents that have at least one inventor, who is also author of at least one scientific publication in the NST. The underlining presumption of this classification is that of a proxy of different institutional search regimes of the inventive activity; pure academic research, pure industrial R&D, and academic-industrial research partnerships.
    Keywords: Science-Technology Relation, Emerging Field, Nanotechnology, Patent Quality, Inventive Productivity.
  7. By: Nathalie Greenan (Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi); Emmanuelle Walkowiak (Centre d'Etudes de l'Emploi, Princeton Univ. & ADIS)
    Abstract: Nous proposons un cadre d’analyse unifié des liens de complémentarité entre usage de l’informatique et pratiques organisationnelles innovantes ainsi que des principes de sélection qui sous-tendent leur diffusion au niveau des postes de travail. Nous montrons que les principes communs de sélection, dans l’attribution de l’informatique et le design organisationnel du poste de travail, renvoient au choix de configuration du réseau d’interactions sociales au sein de la firme. Cette structure sociale d’interaction est analysée en référence au concept de « capital social ». Nous distinguons alors, dans la complémentarité entre technologie et organisation, ce qui relève d’une pure coordination des choix dans ces deux dimensions de ce qui relève de la sélection des salariés. Les tests économétriques, que nous avons menés en nous appuyant sur le volet « salariés » de l'enquête « Changements organisationnels et informatisation » (COI) réalisée en 1997, permettent de vérifier quatre propositions. Tout d’abord, nous montrons que le capital social des salariés favorise leur accès aux ordinateurs et plus généralement aux technologies de l’information et de la communication (TIC). Cette sélection dans l’attribution de l’équipement semble spécifique des TIC, puisqu’elle ne permet pas de caractériser l’attribution d’une machine automatique. Deuxièmement, cette même logique de sélection anime l’accès à un poste ayant des caractéristiques productives et informationnelles innovantes. Troisièmement, l’informatique est corrélée aux caractéristiques organisationnelles innovantes des postes de travail résultant de la diffusion des nouvelles formes d’organisation, mais ce lien n’est pas uniforme au sein des différents groupes de professions. Enfin, les caractéristiques organisationnelles innovantes qui intègrent une dimension relationnelle entretiennent avec l’informatique une relation de complémentarité qui puise essentiellement sa source dans la manière dont les salariés ont été sélectionnés pour occuper un poste de travail modernisé.
    Keywords: Informatisation, organisation du travail, complémentarité, capital social
    JEL: L23 O33
    Date: 2005–05–26

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