nep-ind New Economics Papers
on Industrial Organization
Issue of 2023‒11‒13
four papers chosen by
Kwang Soo Cheong, Johns Hopkins University

  1. Antitrust Enforcement Increases Economic Activity By Tania Babina; Simcha Barkai; Jessica Jeffers; Ezra Karger; Ekaterina Volkova
  2. Investment Efficiency of Private and Public Firms By Pantelis Kazakis; Woon Sau Leung; Steven Ongena
  3. Empirical Determinants of Innovation in European Countries: Testing the Porter's Hypothesis By Makrevska Disoska, Elena; Tonovska, Jasna; Toshevska-Trpcevska, Katerina; Tevdovski, Dragan; Stojkoski, Viktor
  4. Mergers and Acquisitions in Islamic Banking Sector: An Empirical Analysis on Size Effect, Market Structure, and Operational By Ullah, Nazim; Mat Nor, Fauzias; Abu Seman, Junaidah; Ainna Binti Ramli, Nur; FADLY, AHMED

  1. By: Tania Babina; Simcha Barkai; Jessica Jeffers; Ezra Karger; Ekaterina Volkova
    Abstract: We hand-collect and standardize information describing all 3, 055 antitrust law suits brought by the Department of Justice (DOJ) between 1971 and 2018. Using restricted establishment-level microdata from the U.S. Census, we compare the economic outcomes of a non-tradable industry in states targeted by DOJ antitrust lawsuits to outcomes of the same industry in other states that were not targeted. We document that DOJ antitrust enforcement actions permanently increase employment by 5.4% and business formation by 4.1%. Using an event-study design, we find (1) a sharp increase in payroll that exceeds the increase in employment, meaning that DOJ antitrust enforcement increases average wages, (2) an economically smaller increase in sales that is statistically insignificant, and (3) a precise increase in the labor share. While we cannot separately measure the quantity and price of output, the increase in production inputs (employment), together with a proportionally smaller increase in sales, strongly suggests that these DOJ antitrust enforcement actions increase the quantity of output and simultaneously decrease the price of output. Our results show that government antitrust enforcement leads to persistently higher levels of economic activity in targeted industries.
    Keywords: antitrust enforcement, economic activity, employment, business formation
    JEL: L4 E24 K21 J21
    Date: 2023–10
  2. By: Pantelis Kazakis (University of Glasgow); Woon Sau Leung (University of Edinburgh; University of Southampton); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; NTNU Business School; CEPR)
    Abstract: We document that private firms are more efficient in investment than public firms. Exploiting the Sarbanes-Oxley Act that reduces agency problems of public firms but raises their compliance costs, we find that public firms, especially those with more complex operations, become more inefficient after SOX. Private firms that are likely more financially constrained exhibit greater investment efficiency. Furthermore, during periods of heightened uncertainty and when operating within industries characterized by increased environmental activism, consumer focus, and greater labor expenditure, public firms tend to exhibit higher levels of inefficiency. Mediation tests show that the more efficient investment of private firms translates into future profitability gains. Overall, the investment inefficiency of public firms does not stem from higher agency costs but rather from the inherent difficulty and costs of managing a complex organization.
    Keywords: Investment Efficiency; Public Firms; Private Firms; Information Asymmetry; Agency Costs; Compliance Costs; Uncertainty
    JEL: D25 G30 G32 G38 L11
    Date: 2023–10
  3. By: Makrevska Disoska, Elena; Tonovska, Jasna; Toshevska-Trpcevska, Katerina; Tevdovski, Dragan; Stojkoski, Viktor
    Abstract: We investigate the interplay between innovation and productivity, emphasizing the role of environmental regulations on the innovation behaviours of European firms. Anchored in the Porter hypothesis, which proposes that environmental regulations can drive technological innovation and bolster commercial competitiveness, we utilize the CDM model (Crépon, Duguet, and Mairesse, 1998) for in-depth analysis. Our approach begins by pinpointing the factors that shape firms' decisions to innovate and the associated investments, employing the Heckman correction model. Subsequently, we adopt the three-stage least squares (3SLS) methodology to analyse both innovation outputs and firm productivity in tandem. Drawing data from the Community Innovation Survey (CIS) 2018, our structured examination unveils how diverse innovation drivers can elevate labor productivity in varied institutional landscapes. By contrasting the performance of South Europe (comprising Greece, Spain, Portugal) and Central Eastern Europe (countries like Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary) against a German benchmark, our research offers a nuanced understanding of environmental regulations' influence on innovation and productivity across European contexts.
    Keywords: innovation, productivity, CDM model, CIS, Porter`s hypothesis
    JEL: C33 C36 O31 O33
    Date: 2023–09–29
  4. By: Ullah, Nazim; Mat Nor, Fauzias; Abu Seman, Junaidah; Ainna Binti Ramli, Nur; FADLY, AHMED
    Abstract: The corporate expansion approach is mergers and acquisitions. The paper aims to analyze the impact of mergers and acquisitions on the Islamic banking sector's operational performance. This study uses empirical research methodologies, such as panel data regression, to examine samples of 10 Islamic banks involved in M&A from 6 countries, gathered from the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, FicthConnect, and Bloomberg from 2004Q1 to 2020Q4. Accounting-based measurements are used to quantify operational success, whereas the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index and the concentration ratio are used to signify market structure. To estimate M&A results, Stata package 14.2 is used (5 years pre and 5 years post). According to the findings, M&A improve the operational performance of Islamic banks. In addition, small-sized banks outperform large and medium-sized banks, market structure (LHHI) degrades M&A performance. Therefore, the paper suggests that Islamic banks should be involved in M&A deals and remove the constraints of size.
    Keywords: M&A, Bank Sizes, Market Structure, Operational Performance, Islamic Bank
    JEL: G34
    Date: 2023–08–08

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