nep-ind New Economics Papers
on Industrial Organization
Issue of 2019‒09‒16
four papers chosen by
Kwang Soo Cheong
Johns Hopkins University

  1. R&D and firm resilience during bad times By Maria Garcia-Vega; Oscar Vicente-Chirivella
  2. On the competitive effects of screening in procurement By Adam Pigoñ; Gyula Seres
  3. Durables and Lemons: Private Information and the Market for Cars By Richard Blundell; Ran Gu; Soren Leth-Petersen; Hamish Low; Costas Meghir
  4. Participation and benefits of SMEs in GVCs in Southeast Asia By Javier López González; Laura Munro; Julien Gourdon; Emanuele Mazzini; Andrea Andrenelli

  1. By: Maria Garcia-Vega; Oscar Vicente-Chirivella
    Abstract: In this paper, we empirically investigate how technology transfers from universities to private firms influence firm innovativeness. Using data on R&D acquisitions from universities of more than 10,000 Spanish firms for the period 2005-2013 and applying propensity score matching techniques and DiD estimations, we find that technology transfers from universities strongly increase firm innovativeness. We next explore heterogeneous effects in order to analyse whether these gains are mediated by firm size and the business cycle. Our results suggest that the contribution of universities to firm innovation is particularly important for small firms, during the whole business cycle and it goes beyond its direct effect on innovation: We find that technology transfers from universities generate positive spillovers and enhance firms’ internal R&D capabilities. Our results suggest that the knowledge generated by universities makes an important contribution to economic growth through technology transfers, which makes firms more innovative. Hence, knowledge creation by universities provides an important public good.
    Keywords: Universities, Technology Transfers, Innovation, Firms
    Date: 2019
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:not:notgep:2019-13&r=all
  2. By: Adam Pigoñ; Gyula Seres
    Abstract: Procuring authorities frequently use screening in order to mitigate risky bids. This study estimates the effect of bid screening and litigation on entry and bidding using a unique data set on highway construction procurement auctions in Poland. The market exhibits a screening method that ex post selects eligible offers. We demonstrate with an empirical model that this method disproportionately affects small firms and creates a barrier to entry. Our results suggest that screening increases bids by two channels. First, it directly inates bids as well as decreasing entry. Second, in a competitive market, lower entry also inates bids and prices.
    Keywords: Procurement, Auctions, Market Design, Litigation
    JEL: H57 D44 L5
    Date: 2019–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ibt:wpaper:wp082019&r=all
  3. By: Richard Blundell (University College London); Ran Gu (University of Essex); Soren Leth-Petersen (University of Copenhagen); Hamish Low (University of Oxford); Costas Meghir (Cowles Foundation, Yale University, NBER, IZA, CEPR, and Institute for Fiscal Studies)
    Abstract: We specify an equilibrium model of car ownership with private information where individuals sell and purchase new and second-hand cars over their life-cycle. Private information induces a transaction cost and distorts the market reducing the value of a car as a savings instrument. We estimate the model using data on car ownership in Denmark, linked to register data. The lemons penalty is estimated to be 18% of the price in the first year of ownership, declining with the length of ownership. It leads to large reductions in the turnover of cars and in the probability of downgrading at job loss.
    Keywords: Lemons penalty, Car market, Estimated life-cycle equilibrium model
    JEL: D82 E2
    Date: 2019–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cwl:cwldpp:2197&r=all
  4. By: Javier López González (OECD); Laura Munro (OECD); Julien Gourdon (OECD); Emanuele Mazzini (OECD); Andrea Andrenelli (OECD)
    Abstract: Although global value chain (GVCs) participation in Southeast Asia has been growing, little is known about whether the benefits from participation are accruing to larger firms or if small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs), which make up the majority of companies and employ the bulk of the domestic workforce, are also able to take advantage of the new opportunities on offer. This paper uses detailed firm level data from Southeast Asian countries to split the OECD Trade in Value Added database and map how SMEs have been participating in GVCs. It then identifies the benefits associated with this participation and looks into the policy levers that can help make GVC participation in the region more inclusive. It suggest that policy makers focus on: i) reducing trade costs that hit SMEs hardest; including tariffs, trade agreements and trade facilitation; ii) creating an enabling environment to promote domestic linkages so that SMEs can create partnerships with larger firms and multinationals to export indirectly; and iii) reducing non-tariff measures that are especially onerous for SMEs through wider ASEAN regulatory harmonisation and adopting more flexible rules of origin.
    Keywords: Global Value Chains (GVCs), multinationals, Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs), Rules of Origin (RoO), Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), trade in value added
    JEL: D22 F13 F14 L11 L25
    Date: 2019–09–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:traaab:231-en&r=all

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