nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2024‒06‒24
three papers chosen by
Marek Giebel, Universität Dortmund

  1. Does Gender of Firm Ownership Matter? Female Entrepreneurs and the Gender Pay Gap By Alexander S. Kritikos; Mika Maliranta; Veera Nippala; Satu Nurmi
  2. Local Labour Market Resilience: The Role of Digitalisation and Working from Home By Sarra Ben Yahmed; Francesco Berlingieri; Eduard Brüll
  3. Protests By Cantoni, Davide; Kao, Andrew; Yang, David Y.; Yuchtman, Noam

  1. By: Alexander S. Kritikos; Mika Maliranta; Veera Nippala; Satu Nurmi
    Abstract: We examine how the gender of business-owners is related to the wages paid to female relative to male employees working in their firms. Using Finnish register data and employing firm fixed effects, we find that the gender pay gap is – starting from a gender pay gap of 11 to 12 percent - two to three percentage-points lower for hourly wages in female-owned firms than in maleowned firms. Results are robust to how the wage is measured, as well as to various further robustness checks. More importantly, we find substantial differences between industries. While, for instance, in the manufacturing sector, the gender of the owner plays no role for the gender pay gap, in several service sector industries, like ICT or business services, no or a negligible gender pay gap can be found, but only when firms are led by female business owners. Businesses in male ownership maintain a gender pay gap of around 10 percent also in the latter industries. With increasing firm size, the influence of the gender of the owner, however, fades. In large firms, it seems that others – firm managers – determine wages and no differences in the pay gap are observed between male- and female-owned firms.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Gender Pay Gap, Discrimination, Linked employeremployee data
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 J71 L26 M13
    Date: 2024
  2. By: Sarra Ben Yahmed; Francesco Berlingieri; Eduard Brüll
    Abstract: We show that digital capital and working from home were essential for the resilience of local labour markets in the context of the COVID-19 crisis in Germany. Employment responses differed widely across local labour markets, with differences in short-time work rates of up to 30 percentage points at the beginning of the pandemic. Using recent advancements in the difference-in-differences approach with a continuous treatment, we find that pre-crisis digital capital potential reduced short-time work rate by up to 3 percentage points. The effect was nonlinear, disproportionately disadvantaging regions at the lower end of the digital capital distribution for a longer period. One channel of impact is working from home, which was more often adopted in regions with higher digital capital. But digital capital smoothed the employment shock beyond the effect of remote work.
    Keywords: Covid-19, crisis, digitalisation, employment, information and communication technologies, local labour markets, resilience, short-time work, working from home
    JEL: J21 O30 R12 R23
    Date: 2024
  3. By: Cantoni, Davide; Kao, Andrew; Yang, David Y.; Yuchtman, Noam
    Abstract: Citizens have long taken to the streets to demand change, expressing political views that may otherwise be suppressed. Protests have produced change at local, national, and international scales, including spectacular moments of political and social transformation. We document five new empirical patterns describing 1.2 million protest events across 218 countries between 1980 and 2020. First, autocracies and weak democracies experienced a trend break in protests during the Arab Spring. Second, protest movements also rose in importance following the Arab Spring. Third, protest movements geographically diffuse over time, spiking to their peak, before falling off. Fourth, a country’s year-to-year economic performance is not strongly correlated with protests; individual values are predictive of protest participation. Fifth, the US, China, and Russia are the most over-represented countries by their share of academic studies. We discuss each pattern’s connections to the existing literature and anticipate paths for future work.
    Keywords: protests; information technology; movements; political participation
    JEL: D72 P00
    Date: 2024–02–15

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