nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2024‒06‒17
four papers chosen by
Marek Giebel, Universität Dortmund

  1. New Technologies, Migration and Labour Market Adjustment: An Intra-European Perspective By Antea Barišić; Mahdi Ghodsi; Michael Landesmann; Alireza Sabouniha; Robert Stehrer
  2. The virtuous spiral of Smithian growth: colonialism as a contradiction By Miller, Marcus
  3. Current State of Telework: An overview based on micro data of the Employment Status Survey (Japanese) By MORIKAWA Masayuki
  4. Distributed innovation processes: Key concepts, case studies, current developments By Schrape, Jan-Felix

  1. By: Antea Barišić; Mahdi Ghodsi (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Alireza Sabouniha (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: In this note, we study the relationship between the use of new technologies (e.g. robots and various ICT assets), labour demand and migration patterns. The adoption of new technologies might change the demand for labour in various ways, which in turn will have an impact on skill composition and wage levels of different types of workers. We report the main results from a study that first analyses the impact of robot adoption on wages by sector and skills. Second, we study the impact of robot adoption in manufacturing industries on the attraction of migrants while controlling for other factors in the labour demand function. This is followed by an analysis of push and pull factors of bilateral migration that focuses on the impact of relative automation gaps across countries. Finally, using the OeNB Euro Survey, we examine determinants of the intention to migrate and the role of income differentials between the countries of origin and destination.
    Keywords: Migration, migrant jobs, wages, employment, novel technologies, adoption of robots, digitalisation, European labour markets, Central Eastern European countries
    JEL: F22 F66 J61 J24 J20 O33
    Date: 2024–05
  2. By: Miller, Marcus (University of Warwick, CAGE and CEPR)
    Abstract: As the world experiences a fourth industrial revolution - in Information Technology - we look back at how things turned out in the first Industrial Revolution, which began when Adam Smith was writing The Wealth of Nations. For the historical record, we draw on the recent study of Power and Progress by Daron Acemoglu and Simon Johnson, who describe how the benefits of innovation were – or were not - spread across society in Britain at that time. This paper focuses on the case of India under colonial rule, however, where two themes emerge. First, how the transfer of technology under the control of a private company – based in London and granted monopoly powers by the British government - was enough to stymie the ‘virtuous spiral of Smithian growth’ for a century or more. Second, how two centuries of colonial control also deprived the indigenous population of what Amartya Sen has claimed is the key insurance against famine - namely democratic accountability. The paper end with brief remarks on how industrial policy in India of today could help spread the benefits of the current IT revolution.
    Keywords: Adam Smith, specialisation, development, colonisation, famine, case studies in economic history JEL Classification: B12, F54, L12, Q1, O30
    Date: 2024
  3. By: MORIKAWA Masayuki
    Abstract: This study, using the micro data of the Employment Status Survey in 2022, summarizes observations about the current state of telework in Japan and the relationship between individual characteristics and telework. According to the results, first, the telework implementation rate among workers is just under 20%, and more than 90% of teleworkers work from home. Second, telework frequency among teleworkers averages 35%, and the share of telework in the total macroeconomic labor input is about 7%. Third, highly educated workers, workers in the information and telecommunications industry, workers in large companies, and workers in the Tokyo area have higher rates of implementation and intensity. Fourth, males have around 10 percentage points higher telework implementation rates than females, but the gender difference narrows to less than 1 percentage point after controlling for other individual characteristics. Fifth, teleworkers earn 30-40% higher wages after controlling for observable characteristics, but there is no relationship between telework frequency and wages.
    Date: 2024–04
  4. By: Schrape, Jan-Felix
    Abstract: This paper provides a brief overview of the concepts of collective invention, user innovation, and open innovation. All three terms describe variants of distributed innovation processes and can be linked to further ideas of socio-economic decentralization. First, the conceptual differences between collective invention, user innovation, and open innovation are elaborated. Second, exemplary case studies from the past decades are presented before more recent forms of distributed innovation in the development of information technologies are discussed. In this context, it becomes evident that distributed innovation processes and internal research and development activities in public and private sector organizations are not in competition with each other but rather in a complementary relationship.
    Abstract: Das vorliegende Diskussionspapier bietet einen kompakten Überblick über die Konzepte der Collective Invention, User Innovation und Open Innovation, die unterschiedliche Ausprägungen verteilter Innovationsprozesse beschreiben. Nach einer Aufarbeitung ihrer jeweiligen konzeptuellen Schwerpunkte wird ihr praktisches Zusammenspiel anhand exemplarischer Fallstudien aus den letzten Jahrzehnten illustriert. Daran anknüpfend erfolgt die Diskussion neuerer Entwicklungen auf dem Feld der Informationstechnologien sowie eine kritische Würdigung. Dabei wird ersichtlich, dass verteilte Innovationsprozesse und interne Forschungs- und Entwicklungsaktivitäten in öffentlichen und privatwirtschaftlichen Organisationen in der Regel nicht in einem konkurrierenden, sondern in einem komplementären Verhältnis zueinander stehen.
    Date: 2024

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