nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2024‒05‒13
seven papers chosen by
Marek Giebel, Universität Dortmund

  1. Does gender of firm ownership matter? Female entrepreneurs and the gender pay gap By Kritikos, Alexander S.; Maliranta, Mika; Nippala, Veera; Nurmi, Satu
  2. Information Technology, Gender Economic Inclusion and Environment Sustainability in Sub-Sahara Africa By Cheikh T. Ndour; Simplice A. Asongu
  3. Bundling Demand in K-12 Broadband Procurement By Gaurab Aryal; Charles Murry; Pallavi Pal; Arnab Palit
  4. Regular Internet Users Across the Italian Regions By Leogrande, Angelo
  5. Measuring Digital Intermediation Services: Experimental Estimates of Gross Output for Rideshare, Travel Services, and Food/Grocery Delivery Service Platforms By Tina Highfill; Brian Quistorff
  6. When Covid 19 Came To Town: Remote Work And Human Resources Challenges by the Organisational Practices of the Portuguese Institutions By Margarida Piteira; Rosana Duarte; Joana Carneiro Pinto; Sara Cervai
  7. Skewed signals? Confronting biases in Online Job Ads data By FERNANDEZ MACIAS Enrique; SOSTERO Matteo

  1. By: Kritikos, Alexander S.; Maliranta, Mika; Nippala, Veera; Nurmi, Satu
    Abstract: We examine how the gender of business-owners is related to the wages paid to female relative to male employees working in their firms. Using Finnish register data and employing firm fixed effects, we find that the gender pay gap is - starting from a gender pay gap of 11 to 12 percent - two to three percentage-points lower for hourly wages in female-owned firms than in male-owned firms. Results are robust to how the wage is measured, as well as to various further robustness checks. More importantly, we find substantial differences between industries. While, for instance, in the manufacturing sector, the gender of the owner plays no role for the gender pay gap, in several service sector industries, like ICT or business services, no or a negligible gender pay gap can be found, but only when firms are led by female business owners. Businesses in male ownership maintain a gender pay gap of around 10 percent also in the latter industries. With increasing firm size, the influence of the gender of the owner, however, fades. In large firms, it seems that others - firm managers - determine wages and no differences in the pay gap are observed between male- and female-owned firms.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Gender Pay Gap, Discrimination, Linked employer-employee data
    JEL: J16 J24 J31 J71 L26 M13
    Date: 2024
  2. By: Cheikh T. Ndour (Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar, Senegal); Simplice A. Asongu (Johannesburg, South Africa)
    Abstract: Purpose – This study examines the relevance of information and communication technologies in the effect of gender economic inclusion on environmental sustainability. Design/methodology/approach – The focus is on a panel of 42 sub-Saharan African countries over the period 2005-2020. The empirical evidence is based on generalized method of moments. The environmental sustainability indicator used is CO2 emissions per capita. Two indicators of women's economic inclusion are considered: women's labour force participation and women's unemployment. The chosen ICT indicators are mobile phone penetration, internet penetration and fixed broadband subscriptions. Findings – The results show that: (i) fixed broadband subscriptions represent the most relevant ICT moderator of gender economic inclusion for an effect on CO2 emissions; (ii) negative net effects are apparent for the most part with fixed broadband subscriptions (iii) both positive ICT thresholds (i.e., critical levels for complementary policies) and negative ICT thresholds (i.e., minimum ICT levels for negative net effects) are provided; (iv) ICT synergy effects are apparent for female unemployment, but not for female employment. In general, the joint effect of ICTs or their synergies and economic inclusion should be a concern for policymakers in order to better ensure sustainable development. Moreover, the relevant ICT policy thresholds and mobile phone threshold for complementary policy are essential in promoting a green economy. Originality/value –The study complements the extant literature by assessing linkages between information technology, gender economic inclusion and environmental sustainability.
    Keywords: ICT, Gender inclusion; Environment sustainability; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C52 O38 O40 O55 P37
    Date: 2024–01
  3. By: Gaurab Aryal; Charles Murry; Pallavi Pal; Arnab Palit
    Abstract: We evaluate the effects of bundling demand for broadband internet by K-12 schools. In 2014, New Jersey switched from decentralized procurements to a new procurement system that bundled schools into four regional groups. Using an event study approach, we find that, on average, prices for participants decreased by one-third, and broadband speed purchased increased sixfold. We bound the change in school expenditures due to the program and find that participants saved at least as much as their total “E-rate” subsidy from the federal government. Under weak assumptions on demand, we show that participating schools experienced large welfare gains.
    Keywords: broadband internet, exposure problem, bundling, welfare
    JEL: D44 H42 L86 L96
    Date: 2024
  4. By: Leogrande, Angelo
    Abstract: In the following article I analyze the determinants of regular internet users in the Italian regions. The data is analyzed both in terms of static analysis and also through the application of the k-Means algorithm optimized with the Elbow method. Subsequently, an econometric model is presented for estimating regular internet users in the Italian regions based on variables that reflect the state of technological innovation and digital culture. The results are analyzed and discussed in light of the implications that digitalisation has for triggering economic growth.
    Keywords: Innovation, Innovation and Invention, Management of Technological Innovation and R&D, Technological Change, Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
    JEL: O30 O31 O32 O33 O34
    Date: 2024–04–02
  5. By: Tina Highfill; Brian Quistorff
    Abstract: The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) produces economic statistics through its system of satellite accounts that highlight specialized areas of the economy that are not directly apparent in BEA’s official economic statistics published under the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS), such as outdoor recreation and arts and culture. BEA recently developed a Digital Economy Satellite Account (DESA) to better understand this area of the economy as it involves production that spans multiple NAICS industries, ranging from computer manufacturing to internet-based retail trade (e-commerce) to software production. Currently, BEA’s digital economy statistics do not fully capture production of digital intermediary services earned from operating a digital platform that facilitates the direct interaction between multiple buyers and multiple sellers for a fee (such as rideshare), resulting in an incomplete picture of the digital economy. In this paper, we discuss options for measuring digital intermediary services across selected industries of interest to other international statistical agencies as well as BEA: rideshare, travel services, and food/grocery delivery services. We also provide experimental estimates of gross output for these services that cover 2018–2021 using two approaches. We find that digital intermediation services for rideshare, travel services, and food/grocery delivery services represented at least $31 billion in 2021 gross output, or close to 1 percent of the overall value of the digital economy based on the latest DESA statistics.
    JEL: E01 O4
    Date: 2023–10
  6. By: Margarida Piteira; Rosana Duarte; Joana Carneiro Pinto; Sara Cervai
    Abstract: The pandemic scenario from 2020 to 2022 has cast a spotlight on remote work (RW). Thus, this recent past has brought a new reality to organizations and a novel way of organizing work. The results of the qualitative study for the Portuguese case of the EURECA Project are presented here. The guiding question of this research was, 'What role does remote work play in addressing the new challenges in human resources/career management arising from the Covid-19 pandemic scenario in Portuguese institutions?' The study followed a case study approach, based on the assumptions of practice-based theory. Ten Portuguese organizations were surveyed, with input from their directors or human resources representatives. The results highlight the new challenges faced by the hybrid work model, such as communication and ICT, internationalization and HR, workforce diversity, and team leadership, among others. Practical implications are also discussed, and some recommendations for these organizational practices are presented.
    Keywords: Remote work (RW), Human resources (HR) challenges, Organisational practices, Portuguese institutions, Case study.
    JEL: A14 D23 L20 H12 J29
    Date: 2024–01
  7. By: FERNANDEZ MACIAS Enrique (European Commission - JRC); SOSTERO Matteo
    Abstract: Most job vacancies in advanced economies are advertised online. With big data analytics, they can be converted into useful data for research. This data based on Online Job Ads (OJA) is a very promising source for labour market analysis and skills intelligence: rich in content, granular in detail, and available almost in real-time. This data is increasingly being used, in particular to study the changing nature of skills. Some key findings from OJA data emphasize: 1) The growing importance of digital and soft skills; 2) An acceleration in the rate of change in skills demand; 3) A growing hybridisation of jobs. However, some of these findings may be driven by biases inherent in OJA data, because: 1) It tends to overrepresent high-skill occupations relative to manual ones, particularly in ICT; 2) It covers better skills which are formal and standardised, typically associated to profession-al occupations; 3) It suffers from social desirability bias, with positive and soft attributes being over-emphasized in the vacancy notices. OJA can provide frequent and detailed data on labour market trends, and help identify emerging skills and occupations. However, it suffers from biases and it cannot provide all answers. OJA should complement, rather than replace, data from traditional surveys and administrative sources on the labour market
    Date: 2024–01

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