nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2023‒04‒24
eight papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Breakthrough Innovations and Productivity: An International Perspective By Kuusi, Tero; Nevavuo, Jenni
  2. School ICT resources, teachers, and online education:Evidence from school closures in Japan during the COVID-19 pandemic By Hideo Akabayashi; Shimpei Taguchi; Mirka Zvedelikova
  3. Trade Policy and African Participation in Global Value Chains: Does Trade Facilitation Matter? By Takpara, Moukaila Mouzamilou; Fouopi Djiogap, Constant; Sawadogo, Bouraima
  4. Impact of Digital Economy Agreements on ASEAN Development: Estimates from a CGE Model By Lim, Jing Zhi; Toh, Mun-Heng; Xie, Taojun
  5. Digital divides among microsized firms: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Damien GIROLLET
  6. Evaluating the Need for C-level Executives to Drive Quality Initiatives in Technology Companies By Ravi, Akash
  7. Germany is looking for foreign labour: How to make recruitment development-orientated, sustainable and fair By Angenendt, Steffen; Knapp, Nadine; Kipp, David
  8. Female entrepreneurship and social media in Morocco By Sanae Hobad; Laila Hobad; Abderrazzak Kabbouri

  1. By: Kuusi, Tero; Nevavuo, Jenni
    Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we shed new light on the productivity impact of breakthrough patents, as well as their role in the variability of productivity across countries. We use text analysis and machine learning–based estimates of the number of breakthrough patents and show that there was a significant drop in quantity in the early 2000s. According to our econometric analysis, the slowdown in innovation activity has a clear temporal connection with the later slowdown in productivity in the 2010s. Breakthrough patents increased productivity on a large scale until the beginning of the 2010s, in particular in industrial information and communications technology (ICT) industries. In sectors other than ICT, productivity growth was more differentiated so that productivity growth is observed in industries that invested significantly in R&D after the emergence of breakthrough patents. We also identify large differences across countries in the link between productivity and breakthrough patents.
    Keywords: Productivity, Innovation, Breakthroughs, Patents
    JEL: D24 O31 O33
    Date: 2023–03–31
  2. By: Hideo Akabayashi (Faculty of Economics, Keio University); Shimpei Taguchi (Graduate School of Economics, Keio University (Graduate student)); Mirka Zvedelikova (Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University)
    Abstract: As schools worldwide were forced to close due to the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, they struggled to switch to online education. Using Japan fs nationwide administrative data, we examine the impact of schools f ICT equipment and teachers f IT skills on the provision of online classes, communication with students f families, and teachers f working hours during and shortly after the closures. To isolate supply-side effects, we exploit differences in ICT resources between public elementary and junior high schools using a municipality-level fixed effects model, the level at which ICT resources are decided. We find that basic ICT equipment was critical to implementing online classes, but IT skills were not. Furthermore, we observe no effect of ICT resources on schools f communication with families. However, IT skills were associated with teachers f working hours. In particular, weak IT skills resulted in a higher percentage of teachers working overtime.
    Keywords: COVID-19, remote education, overtime work, teachers f skills, school resources
    JEL: I20 J22 H75
    Date: 2023–03–15
  3. By: Takpara, Moukaila Mouzamilou; Fouopi Djiogap, Constant; Sawadogo, Bouraima
    Abstract: This study offers an empirical appraisal of the contribution of trade facilitation for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries participation in global value chains. We used new value-added data on a panel of 25 countries over the period 2004-2017. The results using pooled ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and instrumental variable-two-stage least squares (IV-2SLS) estimators reveal that trade facilitation indicators such as physical infrastructure, information and communication technology, and border and transport efficiency support SSA countries' participation in global value chains. More interestingly, these results are robust at the sectoral level, particularly in agriculture, food & beverages, and textiles & clothing sectors for physical infrastructure and ICT, while the business environment is conducive to upstream integration of GVCs in the agriculture and textiles & clothing sectors. These results underscore the increased importance of trade facilitation in the era of global value chains and call for well-targeted sectoral policies to reap the benefits of these GVCs.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Lim, Jing Zhi; Toh, Mun-Heng; Xie, Taojun
    Abstract: Technology strategy and governance have turned from a priority to an imperative for firms and governments alike in today's digital economy. Paving the way for the future, ASEAN has entered discussions for an ASEAN Digital Masterplan in 2025 to improve economic integration, and promote inclusive, sustainable growth for the region. We conduct a computable general equilibrium analysis of the impacts of the DEA on the signatories' economies, the ASEAN region, and the world. We find that DEAs will positively increase the output of the ICT sector and has downstream benefits for the business services & financial sector, increasing their output by an average of 6.78%. The DEAs which aim to improve the interoperability of digital systems between countries will also increase inter-regional trade by an average of 7.27%. Data localization clauses that are overly restrictive may be counterproductive and decrease the ICT sector's sectoral output. We also find that countries with a higher proportion of unskilled labor would see the most considerable growth in demand for skilled labor in ICT, reiterating the importance of reskilling the workforce.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Damien GIROLLET
    Abstract: TThis paper explores digital inequalities in access and usage among 3, 300 firms and entrepreneurs from eight sub-Saharan African countries. To account for informal firms’ heterogeneity, we identify three segments: an upper tier of top performers, a lower tier of survivalists, and an intermediate segment composed of constrained gazelles. Although digital technologies are already used by most of the informal entrepreneurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, our findings suggest that the diffusion of these new technologies is uneven across informal firms, digital inequalities being rooted in the already existing socioeconomic inequalities. Indeed, digital inequalities align with the hierarchy of informal sectors in each country and are associated with entrepreneurs’ and firms’ characteristics. Using multivariate analysis, we find that gender and rural/urban digital divides persist in the productive sphere. At the same time, firms with a high level of informality, low profits, precarious operating conditions, and no access to financial services are less likely to use digital technologies.
    Keywords: Digital technology, ICT, digital divide, informality, Africa.
    JEL: D22 O17 O33 O55
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Ravi, Akash
    Abstract: Quality management is essential to ensure that the products and services offered by organizations satisfy customer requirements and sustain the business. While quality management was mainly based on manufacturing processes in the last century, IT (Information Technology) companies have also come to realize the importance of quality initiatives over the years. Organizations employ quality control engineers and several types of testers across the product stack to detect defects and fix them as software and/or hardware are being built. However, these technical staff members usually report to the corresponding project team’s people managers. These managers tend to represent the interests of their leadership on a broad level and quality is often an afterthought in most teams. Despite information security being a type of quality-related discipline, there is a dedicated Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) to oversee initiatives on an organizational level. However, most IT companies do not have a designation comparable to a Chief Quality Officer. Thus, this research seeks to evaluate the need to have a C-level executive responsible for company-wide quality management and gauge the potential impacts of considering quality as a strategic leadership function. This will be achieved by means of studying the corporate hierarchy of top IT firms and evaluating their commitment to quality initiatives. Based on the available literature and best practices in defining organizational structures, this research will make recommendations on ways to incorporate a culture of quality management into executive decision-making.
    Date: 2022–12–09
  7. By: Angenendt, Steffen; Knapp, Nadine; Kipp, David
    Abstract: Germany's shortage of skilled workers has sharply increased, especially in the social and education sectors, health and care, construction and skilled crafts, information technology and jobs in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Simultaneously, the demand for low qualified labour has also been growing, for instance in help and household-related services. While EU member states continue to be the source for the majority of labour migration, their migration potential is declining due to their similarly ageing and shrinking populations. Recruiting workers from third countries, including Germany's development partner countries, will become of strategic importance. In spite of many recent reforms, the recruitment of workers from third countries is still inadequate, and not enough attention has so far been paid to development policy aspects. Germany's recruitment activities need to be more closely embedded in fair, development-orientated partnerships with countries of origin, in which their interests are taken into account and the rights of migrant workers are respected. Since many industrialised countries now recruit workers, this could also be a competitive advantage for Germany. The German government should make use of the extensive experience gained from the pilot projects to attract skilled workers for large-scale recruitment programs. These projects will require the systematic cooperation of all relevant ministries (whole-of-government approach) as well as the involvement of civil society and the private sector to set the course for development-orientated recruitment. The German government should engage even more strongly in the relevant global processes and forums whilst advocating fair recruitment.
    Keywords: skilled workers, labour migration, demographic potential, Skilled Immigration Act (FEG), medical health jobs, language skills, qualifications, recruitment
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Sanae Hobad (LRSGO - Laboratoire de recherche en sciences de gestion des organisations); Laila Hobad (Le Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences de Gestion des Organisations - LRSGO); Abderrazzak Kabbouri (Le Laboratoire de Recherche en Sciences de Gestion des Organisations - LRSGO)
    Abstract: Female entrepreneurship is a new concept with older roots, it has become a multidisciplinary field of research, It calls almost everyone in the humanities. A large amount of literature brings together multiple disciplines among economists, sociologists, historians, psychologists, managers and administrators, making it an excellent field of research. Entrepreneurship researchers have managed to note the major problem that entrepreneurs suffers from the Private Life Balance. Social media have invaded the world in recent years, and they make relationships between people easier. These social media have represented an important opportunity for entrepreneurs in general and women entrepreneurs in particular, by being part of an epistemological posture interpretivism, the objective of this paper is to propose an analytical framework for the study of the contributions of social media for female entrepreneurship based on an exploratory study preceded by a literature review. Our study is conducted by six semi-structured interviews and a survey of 94 with Moroccan female entrepreneurs, the results obtained showed that social media constituting an entrepreneurial paradise for Moroccan women entrepreneurs by the resolution of many problems that constitute a hindrance to the success of their business.
    Abstract: L'entrepreneuriat féminin est un nouveau concept avec des racines plus anciennes, il est devenu un champ de recherche pluridisciplinaire, il fait appel de presque tout le monde dans les sciences humaines. Une grande quantité de littérature rassemble de multiples disciplines parmi les économistes, les sociologues, les historiens, les psychologues, les gestionnaires et les administrateurs, ce qui en fait un excellent domaine de recherche. Les chercheurs en entreprenariat ont arrivé à constater le problème majeur que souffre les entrepreneurs celui de l'équilibre travail-vie personnelle. Les médias sociaux ont envahi le monde ces dernières années et ils rendent les relations entre les gens plus faciles, ces médias sociaux ont représenté une importante opportunité pour les entrepreneurs en général et les entrepreneures en particulier, en s'inscrivant dans une posture épistémologique interprétativisme, l'objectif de la présente papier est de proposer un cadre analytique de l'étude des apports des médias sociaux pour l'entrepreneuriat féminin en se basant sur une étude exploratoire précédée par une revue de littérature. Notre étude est menée par 6 entretiens semi-directifs et une enquête de 94 questionnaires auprès des entrepreneures Marocaines, les résultats obtenus ont montré que les médias sociaux constituent un paradis entrepreneurial pour les femmes Marocaines entrepreneures par la résolution de beaucoup des problèmes qui constituent une entrave au succès de leurs affaires.
    Keywords: Female entrepreneurship, ICT, Social media, Morocco, L’entrepreneuriat féminin, Les TIC, Médias sociaux, Maroc
    Date: 2023–01–25

This nep-ict issue is ©2023 by Marek Giebel. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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