nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2023‒03‒20
eleven papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. Aging Population and Technology Adoption By Daniele Angelini
  2. The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Economic Competitiveness By Sharma, Devashish
  3. Potential Telehealth in Pakistan By Syed, Humera Hashim
  4. Does ICT access and usage reduce growth inefficiency in Sub-Saharan Africa? By Désiré Avom; Gilles Dufrénot; Sylvie Eyeffa
  5. ICT effects on firm’s export decisions: evidence for Colombian manufacturing By Andrés Mauricio Gomez-Sanchez; Juan A. Máñez Castillejo; Juan Alberto Sanchis-Llopis
  6. Fourth Industrial Revolution and Evolution of Data Science: Challenges for Official Statistics By Popoola, Osuolale Peter; Adeboye, Olawale Nureni
  7. Information technology, inequality and adult literacy in developing countries By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo; Mushfiqur Rahman
  8. Impact of financial inclusion on economic growth in secular and religious countries By Ozili, Peterson K; Lay, Sok Heng; Syed, Aamir
  9. On the Economic Nature of Control in Smart Real Estate By Patrick Lecomte
  10. Six questions about the demand for artificial intelligence skills in labour markets By Fabio Manca
  11. A Survey on Financial Inclusion: Theoretical and Empirical Literature Review By Shah, Shahid Manzoor; Ali, Amjad

  1. By: Daniele Angelini (University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: Population aging affects the relative supply of inputs in the economy altering the in-centives to adopt different types of technology. Empirically, I document a hump-shaped relation between the age of the population and the adoption of new-technology proxied by the ICT capital share. To explain the non-monotonic relationship and identify the mech-anisms at play, I build a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous technology and R&D-driven technological progress. New-technology is defined as a labor-saving (capital-intensive) technology requiring skills to be used. An increase in the capital-to-labor ratio driven by population aging increases new-technology adoption while the increasing scarcity of young workers that have higher incentives to acquire the comple-mentary skills to new-technology reduces it. The model, calibrated to fit European data, shows that the demographic structure of the population is a major determinant of tech-nology adoption. Population aging explains almost half of the increase in new-technology adoption in the period 1995-2020 and it determines its reduction in the period 2020-2045. A decomposition exercise shows that population aging is a primary source of the increase in the skill premium explaining a larger share of its increase than technological progress.
    Keywords: Automation, Demographic change, Human capital, Inequality, R&D, OLG
    JEL: J11 J24 J26 J31 E25 H23 O31 O33
    Date: 2023–02–01
  2. By: Sharma, Devashish
    Abstract: It is important to note that enterprises will be more productive when they utilize information communication technologies to the fullest extent possible. This will result in an increase in their competitiveness, which will enable them to achieve sustainable economic growth, which, in the long run, is a prerequisite for reducing poverty. As a result of the development of information communication technologies, the opportunities for developing economies to participate in international markets are constantly expanding as a result of the development of this technology. With the advent of the Internet, we are witnessing a dramatic change in how goods and services are produced, delivered, sold, and purchased. As a result, the number of people and businesses that are connected to the internet on a daily basis is increasing, thus making them ready to take part in and contribute to the knowledge economy in an ever-increasing way. As a result of the use of the Internet, weak participants in the global economy will be empowered - such as small business owners in developing countries - enabling them to access information, communication, and knowledge that they had not been able to access in the past. It has become possible to trade goods and services more quickly due to the use of new technologies. Over the past few years, it has been shown that the trade in information and communication technology goods and services has been growing at a faster rate than the trade in total goods and services in the past few years. The information and communication technologies have also enabled trade in other sectors as they have improved market access and brought a broader range of customers into the market, as well as simplified the customs, transportation, and logistics processes that are associated with trade in other sectors. In terms of the economic impact of ICTs, one of their most important features is that they play a very important role in changing productivity processes within organizations.
    Keywords: Information communication technologies, Information communication technologies and economy, Information communication technologies and competitiveness, economic competitiveness, technology and economy
    JEL: O1 O32 O33 Q55
    Date: 2021–10–15
  3. By: Syed, Humera Hashim
    Abstract: Telehealth is the use of information and communication technology (ICT) to deliver health services, expertise and information over distance. It includes Internet or web-based “e-health” and video-based applications, and can be delivered real-time (live) or through store-and-forward (record now, view later) mode. Telehealth is changing the way we think about health and provide healthcare in today’s world. It supports innovations in health, as well as in healthcare delivery, health education, and distribution of health related information such as medical records. Telehealth is adding value. The future of Telemedicine in mainstream medical care is full of potential. Physicians offices, examination rooms and even the traditional stethoscope might be replaced by private secure web sites and digital equipment that records vital signs and physical findings. Though this form of futuristic medicine will be less personable and erode the traditional physician-patient relationship but then it is believed to improve patient satisfaction, physician access and patient outcome. Embracing technological advancement is sure to make the practice of medicine more efficient, more economic, more effective and it is hoped more enjoyable.
    Keywords: Telehealth
    JEL: I0 I00
    Date: 2022–11–19
  4. By: Désiré Avom (University of Yaoundé II-SOA, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Gestion (CEREG), Cameroun); Gilles Dufrénot (Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, AMSE, Marseille, France & CEPII); Sylvie Eyeffa (University of Yaoundé II-SOA, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Gestion (CEREG), Cameroun)
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether or not the access to and use of ICT can help African countries reduce their growth inefficiencies. Inefficiency is measured, on the one hand, by the gap between a country's growth rate and its own frontier, and on the other hand by the relative position of each country compared to the best achievers. We find that if countries were doing a better job of controlling corruption and improving citizen participation in politics, they would achieve higher growth efficiency performance by using ICT. When countries are compared with each other, considering the growth "frontier" as countries in the sample, then growth differentials are explained primarily by non-ICT factors of growth (human capital, schooling rates, capital growth rates, etc.). The role of ICT factors is secondary. But they contribute to growth to a greater extent for the best achievers (compared to the lowest and middle achievers) because they are better endowed with ICT factors than the others.
    Keywords: ICT, African countries, growth inefficiency, frontier, quantiles
    JEL: O11 O32 O55
    Date: 2023–03
  5. By: Andrés Mauricio Gomez-Sanchez (Universidad del Cauca, Colombia.); Juan A. Máñez Castillejo (Universidad de Valencia and ERICES, Valencia, España.); Juan Alberto Sanchis-Llopis (Universidad de Valencia and ERICES, Valencia, España.)
    Abstract: The objective of this work is to explore the impact of ICT (using several indicators) on the firm’s export decision for Colombian manufacturing. To study this decision, we specify a model that accounts for sunk costs, firm previous experience in exporting and the impact of importing on exporting, and we estimate a dynamic (panel data) discrete model for the decision to export. To undertake this study, we merge three data bases at the firm level for Colombia: the Annual Manufacturing Survey (EAM), the Technological Development and Innovation Survey (EDIT) and the Annual ICT Manufacturing Survey (EAM-TIC), for the period 2013-2016. The results we obtain, show that ICT has a significant and positive impact on firm’s propensity to export, regardless the ICT category examined. Our work also confirms the existence of persistence on firm’s exports, self-selection, and depreciation of export experience. This evidence contributes to the scarce empirical literature on this topic for emerging economies, such as Colombia.
    Keywords: ICT, Exports, Self-Selection, Panel Data, Emerging Economies.
    JEL: L16 L96 F14 C23 D22
    Date: 2023–03
  6. By: Popoola, Osuolale Peter; Adeboye, Olawale Nureni
    Abstract: Fourth Industrial Revolution is describes as exponential growth of several key technological fields’ concepts, such as intelligent materials, cloud computing, cyber-physical systems, data exchange, the Internet of things and blockchain technology. At its core, data represents a post-industrial opportunity. The effects of technologies have provided new avenues of data for official statistics, which can then be harnessed through the power of data science. However, as data continue to grow in size and complexity; new algorithms need to be developed so as to learn from diverse data sources. The limitation of conventional statistics in managing and analyzing big data has inspired data analysts to venture into data science. Data Science is a combination of multiple disciplines that use statistics, data analysis, and machine learning to analyze data, and extract knowledge and insights from it. These swathes of new digital data are valuable for official statistics. This paper links industrial eras to the evolution of statistics and data; it examines the emergence of big data and data science, what it means, it benefits and challenges for official statistics
    Keywords: Industrial Eras, Data Evolution, Big Data Revolution, Data Science, Official Statistics
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa); Mushfiqur Rahman (University of Wales, UK)
    Abstract: The study assesses linkages between information technology, inequality and adult literacy in 57 developing countries for the period 2012-2016. Income inequality is measured with the Gini coefficient while six dynamics of information technology are taken on board, namely: use of virtual social network, internet access in schools, internet penetration, mobile phone penetration, fixed broadband subscription and number of personal computer users. The findings show that only internet access in schools unconditionally promote adult literacy. The corresponding inequality threshold that should not be exceeded in order for internet access in schools to continue promoting adult literacy is 0.739 of the Gini coefficient. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: information technology, inequality; adult literacy
    JEL: D10 D14 D31 D60 O30
    Date: 2023–01
  8. By: Ozili, Peterson K; Lay, Sok Heng; Syed, Aamir
    Abstract: Empirical research on the relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth has neglected the influence of religion or secularism. We investigate the effect of financial inclusion on economic growth in religious and secular countries. The financial inclusion indicators are the number of ATMs per 100, 000 adults and the number of bank branches per 100, 000 adults. The findings reveal that bank branch contraction significantly increases economic growth in secular countries. Bank branch expansion combined with greater internet usage increases economic growth in secular countries while high ATM supply combined with greater internet usage decreases economic growth in secular countries. We also find that bank branch expansion, in the midst of a widening poverty gap, significantly increases economic growth in religious countries, implying that financial inclusion through bank branch expansion is effective in promoting economic growth in poor religious countries. It was also found that internet usage is a strong determinant of economic growth in secular countries.
    Keywords: financial inclusion, economic growth, ATMs per 100, 000 adults, bank branches per 100, 000 adults, poverty, internet usage, access of finance, religion, religious countries, secular countries.
    JEL: E32 E51 G21
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Patrick Lecomte
    Abstract: The implementation of smart technologies in the built environment poses many new issues to the real estate sector. Among these issues is behavioural control of building occupants thanks to increasingly sophisticated smart real estate’s technological apparatus. Behavioural control in digital space (e.g., the internet) has generated passionate arguments about human dignity. Stances founded on technology or ethics foster a Manichean perspective, either by focusing on technological innovation and ignoring the negative consequences of embedding smart technology in human lives for the former, or by condemning the very use of digital technology altogether in the name of human freedom for the latter. By doing so, they tend to obscure our ability to rationally assess the impact of technology on space users in smart buildings. This paper applies an economic approach to determine the nature of control in smart real estate and proposes the blueprint for a code of digital governance in the real estate sector. Based on Lecomte (2019, 2020, 2021), it concludes by ascertaining the need for regulators to step in, for instance through tougher ad hoc privacy laws designed for the built environment.
    Keywords: Big data; Control; Digital Technology; smart building
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  10. By: Fabio Manca
    Abstract: This study responds to six key questions about the impact that the demand for Artificial Intelligence (AI) skills is having on labour markets. What are the occupations where AI skills are most relevant? How do different AI-relevant skills combine in job requirements? How quickly is the demand for AI-related skills diffusing across labour markets and what is the relationship between AI skill demands and the demand for cognitive skills across jobs? Finally, are AI skills leading to a wage premium and how different are the wage returns associated with AI and routine skills? To shed light on these aspects, this study leverages Natural Language Processing (NLP) algorithms to analyse the information contained in millions of job postings collected from the internet.
    Keywords: artificial intelligence, education, labour market, skills, technology
    JEL: I26 J01 O14 O33
    Date: 2023–02–23
  11. By: Shah, Shahid Manzoor; Ali, Amjad
    Abstract: Recently, policymakers and researchers have shifted their attention toward financial inclusion to control poverty, the black economy, tax collection, and financial development. Empirical and Theoretical literature shows that financial inclusion has become a fundamental requirement for economic development. This study provides a detailed literature review covering recent development in financial inclusion among different nations as well as in different reigns. This study highlights the major factors which influence financial inclusion i.e., financial literacy, financial innovations, financial regulation, financial stability, income, information communication technology, gender differences, cost of financial services, economic conditions, and political situations. These indicators are different across countries which becomes the major reason for variations in financial inclusion among countries. This study also highlights some demand-side and supply-side factors of financial inclusion. This study suggests that availability, accessibility, and usage are the major dimensions of financial inclusion which are measured by saving, lending, no of ATMs, no of bank branches, and no. of bank accounts. The study also has several dimensions of financial inclusion for future research.
    Keywords: financial inclusion, financial technology, financial stability, financial institutions
    JEL: G10 G20
    Date: 2022

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