nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2023‒01‒23
six papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. When Does Money Matter for Elections? By Julia Cage; Edgard Dewitte
  2. Social media, the internet and the crisis of unionism By Nienhüser, Werner; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina; Troup, Carolyn
  3. The Role of Location in the Emergence of Crowdfunding By Miglo, Anton
  4. The Philippine Digital Sector and Internet Connectivity: An Overview of the Value Chain and Barriers to Competition By Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
  5. Foreign bank penetration in Vietnam following Vietnam’s accession to the WTO: matching expectations with reality By Huong, Pham Thu
  6. Assessing global interest in decentralized finance, embedded finance, open finance, ocean finance and sustainable finance By Ozili, Peterson K

  1. By: Julia Cage (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Edgard Dewitte (ECON - Département d'économie (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: This paper studies electoral campaigns over the long run, through the lens of their spending. In particular, we ask whether changing media technologies and electoral environments have impacted patterns of campaign spending, and their correlation with electoral results. To do so, we build a novel exhaustive dataset on general elections in the United Kingdom from 1857 to 2017, which in­cludes information on campaign spending (itemized by expense categories), electoral outcomes and socio­demographic characteristics for 69, 042 election­-constituency­-candidates. We start by providing new insights on the history of British political campaigns, documenting in particular the growing importance of advertising material (including via digital means), to the detriment of paid staff and electoral meetings. Using a saturated fixed effects model, we then show that there is a strong positive correlation between expenditures and votes, and that overall the magnitude of this relationship has strongly increased since the 1880s, peaking in the last quarter of the 20th century. We link these transformations to changes in the conduct of campaigns, and to the introduction of new information technologies. We show in particular that the expansion of local radio and broadband Internet increased the sensitivity of the electoral results to differences in campaign spending.
    Abstract: Cet article étudie les campagnes électorales sur le long terme, à travers le prisme de leurs dépenses. En particulier, nous investiguons l'impact des évolutions majeures dans les technologies de l'information et les contextes électoraux sur les niveaux, allocations et influences des dépenses des candidats. Pour ce faire, nous construisons un nouvel ensemble de données exhaustif sur les élections générales au Royaume­-Uni de 1857 à 2017, qui comprend des informations sur les dépenses de campagne (détaillées par catégories de dépenses), les résultats électoraux et les caractéristiques socio­démographiques de 69042 candidats­-élections­-circonscriptions. Nous commençons par apporter de nouveaux éclairages sur l'histoire des campagnes politiques britanniques, en documentant notamment l'importance croissante du matériel publicitaire (y compris via des moyens numériques), au détriment du personnel rémunéré et des meetings électoraux. À l'aide d'un modèle à effets fixes, nous montrons ensuite qu'il existe une forte corrélation positive entre les dépenses des candidats et les résultats électoraux de ceux ­ci, et que, dans l'ensemble, la magnitude de cette relation a fortement augmenté depuis les années 1880, pour atteindre un pic dans le dernier quart du XXe siècle. Nous lions ces transformations à des changements dans les stratégies de campagne et à l'introduction de nouvelles technologies de l'information. Nous montrons en particulier que l'expansion de la radio locale et de l'ADSL a augmenté la sensibilité des résultats électoraux aux différences de dépenses de campagne.
    Keywords: Electoral campaigns, Campaign spending, Elections
    Date: 2022–03–10
  2. By: Nienhüser, Werner; Peetz, David; Murray, Georgina; Troup, Carolyn
    Abstract: Public debates have been transformed by the internet and social media. This survey of employees in Germany and Australia asks: How are attitudes to unions shaped by use of traditional and social media and the internet? The results show that greater reliance on the internet and the use of social media tend to have a positive influence on trade union attitudes in both countries. It appears that even if social media spread anti-social conspiracy memes, they have little net effect in spreading anti-union ideology and may even be potentially useful for disseminating pro-union ideas.
    Keywords: social media, trade unions, attitudes
    JEL: J51
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Miglo, Anton
    Abstract: Crowdfunding is an innovative and fastly growing way of financing for entrepreneurial firms. England is the leading country in crowdfunding. Yet no research exists that compare different cities of UK with regard to the conditions of crowdfunding emergence. In this article we shed some light on this question. We have found that cities with better access to ultrafast broadband among households and cities with greater number of people with higher education have significantly better results in crowdfunding. Further we find that entrepreneurs in these cities select lower crowdfunding targets and are more likely to publish a spotlight about their ideas suggesting that entrepreneurs in these cities understand the importance of imperfect information and signalling (direct and indirect) in crowdfunding. We also discuss these findings in light of crowdfunding theories.
    Keywords: crowdfunding, reward-based crowdfunding, crowdfunding in technology sector, digital entrepreneurship, information asymmetry, signalling, factors of crowdfunding success, campaign target
    JEL: G32 L26 M21
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Serafica, Ramonette B.; Oren, Queen Cel A.
    Abstract: The size of the digital sector is significant and comprises various activities, processes, and industries. The interdependence of different markets within and across segments of the digital value chain implies that barriers to entry and expansion in one industry can have far-reaching effects on the growth of the rest of the digital sector and the economy, more widely. Ensuring robust competition across the digital value chain is therefore of paramount importance. Internet connectivity is the most critical element of the value chain as it links the various participants in the digital sector to the final users or consumers. It is also the segment that has the highest barriers to entry. Although natural barriers exist, regulatory and strategic barriers further constrain competition. Thus, access regulations will need to be strengthened and enforced. An open access framework and increased transparency will facilitate the growth of broadband. Adapting M&A guidelines, effective cross-sectoral regulatory cooperation, and investment in training will also reduce barriers to entry and expansion. Partnerships between the private and public sectors will also be necessary to reduce the digital divide in the country significantly. The telecommunications industry has been dominated by two vertically integrated firms, which are also expanding their service portfolios to other segments. While vertical integration along the digital value chain could create efficiencies, significant market power could enable anticompetitive conduct and limit innovation. In the digital age, competitive pressures must be built into the entire value chain by lowering barriers to entry and expansion, removing bottlenecks to innovation, and reducing switching costs. Further analysis of particular segments or specific bottlenecks and anti-competitive practices will be useful in crafting appropriate regulatory approaches. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: ICT;telecommunications;digital;internet;value chain;competition
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Huong, Pham Thu
    Abstract: Vietnam continuously liberalizes the financial market as a requirement for its accession to the World Trade Organization in 2007. This paper discusses the foreign investors’ expectation and their experience when penetrating into Vietnam’s market. The role of the foreign entrants is also assessed. By synthesizing and analyzing relevant research and reports, several important insights are discovered. Firstly, the presence of foreign investors and banks improves market competition, efficiency, and stability. Wholly and partly foreign-owned banks provide the spillover effects in management quality, in the introduction of world standard banking products and services, and in the application of information technology. Secondly, by looking into the foreign owned banks, it is found that the banks’ foreign investors are not likely to play an influential role in managing the banks they invested in. The motive of the investors to control the invested companies leads to their decision of holdings withdrawing.
    Date: 2022–11–29
  6. By: Ozili, Peterson K
    Abstract: This paper analyzes global interest in internet information about decentralized finance (DeFi), embedded finance (EmFi), open finance (OpFi), ocean finance (OcFi) and sustainable finance (SuFi) and the relationship among them. The findings reveal that global interest in internet information about embedded finance (EmFi) was more popular in Asian and European countries. Global web search for internet information about OcFi decreased during the financial crisis while global web search for internet information about OpFi and EmFi increased during financial crisis years. Global web search for internet information about DeFi, SuFi and EmFi increased during the pandemic years. There is a significant positive correlation between global interest in decentralized finance, embedded finance, ocean finance and sustainable finance information. Also, there is a significant negative correlation between global interest in embedded finance information and global interest in open finance information. The regression coefficient matrix shows that global interest in information about open finance, embedded finance, ocean finance, decentralized finance and sustainable finance are significantly related.
    Keywords: information technology, internet, decentralized finance, open finance, embedded finance, ocean finance, sustainable finance.
    JEL: G00 G21 Q56
    Date: 2023

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