nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2022‒12‒19
twenty papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. 5G Fixed Wireless Access for rural broadband By Laitsou, Eleni; Ioannou, Nikos; Katsianis, Dimitris
  2. An Empirical Evidence and Proposal on the Spillover Effects of Information and Communication Technology Infrastructure in India By Yoshino, Naoyuki; Siregar, Tifani Husna; Agarwal, Deepanshu; Seetha Ram, KE; Azhgaliyeva, Dina
  3. Internet of Things and the challenges for cross-border network slicing in 5G-based smart networks By Knieps, Günter
  4. Copper to Fibre Migration: Regulated Access Fees Incentivising Migration By Eltges, Fabian; Fourberg, Niklas; Wiewiorra, Lukas
  5. Mobile-Assisted Language Teaching: A Systematic Review with Implications for Southeast Asia By Maliphol, Sira
  6. Relationship between Innovation and Corporate Performance in Japanese SMEs by Two-stage Panel Data Analysis: Focusing on the Joint Effect of ICT and R&D By Matsuzaki, Taisuke; Shigeno, Hidenori; Taher, Sheikh Abu; Tsuji, Masatsugu
  7. Spatial Econometric Analysis of the Digital Divide in Thailand at the Sub-District Level: Patterns and Determinants By Setthasuravich, Prasongchai; Sirikhan, Kulacha; Kato, Hironori
  8. On the application of Machine Learning in telecommunications forecasting: A comparison By Petre, Konstantin; Varoutas, Dimitris
  9. How is mobile broadband intensity affecting CO2 emissions? – A macro analysis By Edquist, Harald; Bergmark, Pernilla
  10. Internet infrastructure and competition in digital markets By Hanspach, Philip
  11. Digital skills for all? From computer literacy to AI skills in online job advertisements By Matteo Sostero; Songül Tolan
  12. Women Online: A Study of Common Service Centers in India Using a Capability Approach By Rajeev, Meenakshi; Bhandarkar, Supriya
  13. ICT in Zambia – Green Informatics on Strategies and Technological Innovations By Kapatamoyo, Musonda; Mbumwae, Victor
  14. A hedonic approach to estimate the price evolution of FTTH service: evidence from EU By Aravantinos, Elias; Petre, Konstantin; Katsianis, Dimitris; Chipouras, Aris; Varoutas, Dimitris
  15. The socioeconomic benefits of the 6 GHz band: Considering licensed and unlicensed options By Bahia, Kalvin; Castells, Pau
  16. Spectrum Policy on Broadband Market To Reduce Digital Divide and Promote Market Competition By Tang, Xin; Howell, Bronwyn
  17. Articles 40-41 GDPR: A New Approach to Using Codes of Conduct in EU Law? By Vander Maelen, Carl
  18. Personal Privacy Protection Problems in the Digital Age By Zhiheng Yi; Xiaoli Chen
  20. Analysis of modern organizational and information technologies in the management of professional health and professional longevity By Turzin Petr; Yashina Elena; Kovalev Sergey; Generalov Andrey; Evseev Alexandr; Lukichev Konstantin

  1. By: Laitsou, Eleni; Ioannou, Nikos; Katsianis, Dimitris
    Abstract: Mobile communication technology is moving into the fifth generation (5G) which is expected to overcome the new challenges that have emerged with the Internet of Things (IoT) and the exponential growth in demand for traffic [1], [2], [3]. The advent of 5G is allowing mobile technology to intersect with the demands of fixed line services. With fixed wireless access (FWA), network operators can provide ultra-fast broadband to suburbs and rural areas to support home and business applications where fiber installation and maintenance is very expensive. In this paper a techno-economic study is performed to assess the feasibility of the deployment of a 5G Standalone fixed wireless access network in a rural area. 24 European countries are taken as case studies. In each of these cases, the conditions are studied under which such an investment can be economically viable through increased revenues and reduced costs. The findings of this study can be an important tool for decision/policy makers in investment strategies for rural broadband networks and for the European Commission that has launched a targeted public consultation on a proposed revision of the Guidelines on State aid rules for broadband networks, 5g fixed wireless access networks included.
    Keywords: 5G fixed wireless access network,techno-economic evaluation,TONIC model,rural area,Net Present Value,Internal Rate of Return,Payback year,CAPEX
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Yoshino, Naoyuki (Asian Development Bank Institute); Siregar, Tifani Husna (Asian Development Bank Institute); Agarwal, Deepanshu (Asian Development Bank Institute); Seetha Ram, KE (Asian Development Bank Institute); Azhgaliyeva, Dina (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the importance of information and communication technology (ICT) not only for the economy but also for human well-being. However, the investment gap in ICT infrastructure has been growing and is expected to reach more than $30 billion by 2040. We argue that one of the ways to attract private sector involvement in ICT infrastructure is by creating a steady stream of income for the investors. We quantify the spillover effects of mobile network on tax revenues, using annual state-level data for 2005 to 2016 from India across all states. Using simple fixed effect (FE) as well as fixed effect (FE) two-stage least-squares (2SLS) estimations, we show that the rise in the number of mobile network subscribers is associated with an increase in the amount of regional tax revenues. On average, an increase in the number of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) subscribers per capita by 1 percentage point is expected to raise annual state tax revenues per capita by ₹134 (3% of average annual state tax revenue per capita in 2016). The number of GSM subscribers affect tax revenues through increased economic activities, as shown by our 2SLS estimation results. The results of this study justify our proposal to share the increased tax revenues with the investors to create a steady stream of income for investors. The findings of this study also support the increased support for the development of digital and physical infrastructure in the national budget of India for 2022–2023.
    Keywords: infrastructure; spillover effect; information and communication technology; tax revenue
    JEL: H20 H54 O18 Q48
    Date: 2022–07
  3. By: Knieps, Günter
    Abstract: The transition towards 5G-based smart network industries is concomitant with a fundamental change of the traditional physical infrastructures driven by digitalization which pervades all decision-relevant components of the infrastructure value chains. The goal of this paper is to develop a network economic foundation for 5G based network slicing based on a generaliza-tion of the concept of virtual networks combining a required sequence of virtual networks in order to fulfill the necessities of smart network industries. Whereas interoperability and inter-connection between different virtual networks are not standardized significant standardization efforts via network slicing can be observed in particular from the perspective of end-to-end QoS guarantees. 5G-based big data use cases with cross-border challenges for network slic-ing, and the subsequent interoperability of virtual networks, enable tremendous potential for innovation in smart physical infrastructures. The 5G-based European Future Railway Mobile Communication System (FRMCS) and cross-border oriented, 5G-based connected, coopera-tive, and automated mobility applications (CCAM) are investigated with a large and open set of heterogeneous use cases begging for cross-border standardization of QoS-differentiated network slices.
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Eltges, Fabian; Fourberg, Niklas; Wiewiorra, Lukas
    Abstract: Consumer sided demand migration from legacy to fibre telecommunication technologies is a key challenge in today's economic policy. We adapt Chen and Riordan (2007) Spokes Model of spatial competition to capture a duopolistic multi-product firm setting in which an incumbent operator and an entrant firm simultaneously offer both a fibre and a copper based product. Consumer preferences are uniformly distributed over the preference space consisting of four spokes (2 products of 2 suppliers). The novelty of our approach is that we allow for a per-unit access fee which is paid by the entrant to the incumbent as prerequisite for offering its own copper based end-user product. Using the access fee as a strategic variable for either the incumbent or a regulating social planner, we compare different scenarios to investigate its role as a potential instrument to induce copper to fibre migration. We find that the access fee acts as an asymmetric cost pass-through for the entrant to promote its fibre product at the expense of its copper access. Furthermore, the socially optimal fee will be either identical to the private solution or smaller, if consumer preferences are strong. If one considers demand for fibre products as the desired objective, our results suggest that the privately chosen access fee already implies full copper to fibre migration. However, if a social planner is responsible for setting access fees, the fee can be utilised to increase demand for fibre products beyond the socially (welfare) desirable level.
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Maliphol, Sira (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Like the rest of the world, COVID-19 created a sudden move to online modes of learning in Southeast Asia that highlights the need for updated teacher training to adopt computer- and mobile-assisted learning/teaching techniques. The changes in technology provide a multimedia platform that revolutionizes how people can interact through ICT, including for education. The results of mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) on student performance have not been overwhelmingly positive. Yet, the use of technology-based instruction tools seems inevitable. The proliferation of ICT technologies including the internet, broadband, and mobile technologies will continue to increase and offer advantages to tap into. How are teachers—the workers in the educational service sector—affected by technological change? Education systems in Southeast Asia can benefit from mobile-assisted language teaching (MALT) in ways that address the specific obstacles that are faced by countries in the region. We systematically review the topics that have been covered in the literature on MALT for content analysis and consider the implications for educational contexts in Southeast Asia. The different strategies that are employed with ICT and/or mobile technology differ from traditional classroom learning. The findings of the systematic review suggest that the existing research is constrained by the type of technologies studied, with a bias toward existing technologies.
    Keywords: computer/mobile-assisted language teaching; education technology; Southeast Asia
    JEL: I20 O29 O33 O35
    Date: 2022–06
  6. By: Matsuzaki, Taisuke; Shigeno, Hidenori; Taher, Sheikh Abu; Tsuji, Masatsugu
    Abstract: The innovation theory tends to focus on innovation capabilities and estimate how these promote innovation. However, the final aim of innovation is not innovation itself but enhancing profits or sales. To complete the innovation theory, it is required to show whether innovation achieved contributes to improve in business performances. A further focus of this paper is on the role of ICT and R&D in the innovation process. ICT plays a vital role in absorbing information from outside the firm, while R&D is essential for assimilating obtained information with existing resources to create something novel. This paper focus on the joint effect of these two factors. The estimation is based on the twostage provit IV panel model and authors' own data of 2012 and 2017. The dependent variables are innovation in the first equation and sales in the second. The results obtained show that (i) Innovation enhances sales; (ii) R&D is significant for innovation; (iii) ICT is not significant for neither of equations; and (iv) the cross term of R&D and ICT is significant for innovation, implying ICT is an enabler of innovation. This is a novel result of the paper.
    Keywords: Open innovation,instrumental variable,mediation,cross term,enabler
    Date: 2022
  7. By: Setthasuravich, Prasongchai; Sirikhan, Kulacha; Kato, Hironori
    Abstract: This study explores spatial patterns in the digital divide and its determinants at a sub-district level in Thailand. This study's design is based on the Spatially Aware Technology Utilization Model, which is used to construct a conceptual model of the digital divide from a geospatial perspective in Thailand. A spatial econometric approach was used to analyze the data set of basic household necessities information from 2021 provided by the Community Development Department of Thailand. The results show a positive spatial autocorrelation of the household internet access divide (HIAD) across Thailand's sub-districts. This spatial clustering tended to be high-high in the sub-districts located in the northeastern and northern regions, with low-low agglomerations in the central region of Thailand. In addition, the spatial econometric analysis results indicated that the HIAD may be influenced by demographic, economic, educational, government ICT prioritization, social capital, transportation, and disaster-related variables of neighboring sub-districts in Thailand. This study provides both theoretical and policy implications to enrich geographic knowledge of the digital divide, specifically in the context of developing countries.
    Keywords: Digital divide,Digital inequality,Spatial analysis,Internet use,Determinant,Cluster,Thailand,Sub-district
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Petre, Konstantin; Varoutas, Dimitris
    Abstract: Over the past few decades, a large number of research papers has published focused on forecasting ICT products using various diffusion models like logistic, Gompertz, Bass, etc. Much less research work has been done towards the application of time series forecasting in ICT such as ARIMA model which seems to be an attractive alternative. More recently with the advancement in computational power, machine learning and artificial intelligence have become popular due to superior performance than classical models in many areas of concern. In this paper, broadband penetration is analysed separately for all OECD countries, trying to figure out which model is superior in most cases and phases in time. Although diffusion models are dedicated for this purpose, the ARIMA model has nevertheless shown an enormous influence as a good alternative in many previous works. In this study, a new approach using LSTM networks stands out to be a promising method for projecting high technology innovations diffusion.
    Keywords: Diffusion models,ARIMA,LSTM,broadband penetration forecasting
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Edquist, Harald; Bergmark, Pernilla
    Abstract: This paper investigates the association between relative mobile broadband penetration and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally. The study is based on 181 countries for the period 2002-2020. The results indicate an initial increase in CO2 emissions for a country at an average emission level once mobile broadband is introduced. Possible explanations might be initial investment in network infrastructure and increased consumption of electricity. However, on average for the period 2002-2020 the continuous relationship between mobile broadband (defined as speeds of at least 256 kbps) and CO2 is significantly negative, i.e. emissions at a country level significantly reduce as mobile broadband penetration increase. Based on a two-stage model and controlling for fixed broadband and four addition control variables (i.e. population density, electricity consumption from fossil fuel, industry as a share of GDP and a regulation index), we are able to conclude that on average a 10 percentage points increase in mobile broadband penetration causes a 7 percent reduction of CO2 emissions per capita (given that the instrumental variable strategy, as assumed, identifies causal effects). Thus, the results show that investments in mobile infrastructure over longer periods of time can contribute to mitigating climate change.
    Keywords: Mobile broadband,carbon dioxide (CO2),climate change
    JEL: O13 O33 Q54
    Date: 2022
  10. By: Hanspach, Philip
    Abstract: Large digital platform companies increasingly integrate vertically by building Internet infrastructure, such as edge computing facilities, content delivery networks, or submarine cables. These investments enable new services while changing their bargaining power towards the upstream supplier. I model competing investment incentives in Internet infrastructure for an upstream player (e.g., an Internet Service Provider) and a large downstream platform and its effects on competition with smaller downstream platforms without proprietary infrastructure. Investment incentives increase discontinuously both upstream and downstream when the downstream platform has the larger network. With symmetric investment costs, the downstream platform will invest more than a pure upstream player. I discuss the model implications for net neutrality, network access regulation, and efficient side payments between platform and upstream industry.
    Keywords: platforms,multi-sided markets,competition policy,net neutrality,Internet,telecommunications infrastructure
    JEL: L13 L42 L51 L63 L86
    Date: 2022
  11. By: Matteo Sostero (European Commission – JRC); Songül Tolan (European Commission – JRC)
    Abstract: The digital transition of the economy is widely expected to change the nature of work. This may happen both through creating new digital job profiles, and by digitising existing jobs. We track the trends in demand for digital skills across occupations, using data from over 60 million online job advertisements in the United Kingdom over 2012-2020, the longest-running such data source in Europe. Although online job advertisements tend to understate the prevalence of basic digital competence (like computer literacy or office software) compared to representative surveys, they are particularly precise in tracking skills related to emerging digital technologies. We classify over 13,000 different skills required by employers in the data into clusters, through a community-detection algorithm based on the co-occurrence of skills in job advertisements. We identify several clusters that relate to advanced digital skills in emerging domains. We also find that digital skills are at the core of some “non-digital” domains, like the administrative and clerical cluster. Advanced digital skills also pay a notable wage premium: premium: skills in the AI & Big Data cluster are associated with about 10.8% higher offered wages, compared to similar advertisements. For skills in the Advanced ICT cluster, the wage premium is about 15.9% and for ICT Support the premium is about 6.3%. Overall, online job advertisements provide a unique view into the process of competence definition of emerging skill profiles.
    Keywords: Digital Transformation, Future of Work, Digital Skills, Artificial Intelligence
    Date: 2022–11
  12. By: Rajeev, Meenakshi (Asian Development Bank Institute); Bhandarkar, Supriya (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: Income-generating activities performed by women are an effective way to reduce gender deprivations and disparities. In the constrained familial and community settings of developing economies, the online platform can be an appropriate means for women to carry out economic activities. In this context, certain important initiatives taken by the Government of India such as the creation of Common Service Centers are worth studying. We critically evaluate such revolutionary online platform-based entrepreneurial initiatives using the capability approach developed by Amartya Sen. We examine how women-run businesses use the online platform and what determines their success, inputs, capabilities, and conversion factors through a case study method. Further, enterprise-level National Sample Survey Organization data at the all-India level are analyzed to show that the states that have a higher level of gender inequality are also the regions with a lower level of information and communication technology usage by women-run enterprises.
    Keywords: common service centers; village-level entrepreneurs; capabilities; online platform; women-run enterprises
    JEL: L26
    Date: 2022–06
  13. By: Kapatamoyo, Musonda; Mbumwae, Victor
    Abstract: The concept of Green Strategies in the management of the environment has taken center stage world over. Zambia has not been left behind as it has ratified and adopted the concept of 'green economy' or 'green growth' through the declared priority theme for the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012 (Rio+20) (Banda &Bass, 2014:3). The definition of green growth adopted by Zambia is "development that makes sustainable and equitable use of Zambia's natural resources within ecological limits through reinforcing the three cornerstones of sustainable development" (UNCSD, 2012: 46). The cornerstones or pillars of sustainable development are the economy, social welfare and environment. In its simplest expression, a green economy is low-carbon, resource efficient and socially inclusive. It is based on a model which underscores both economic growth and social and natural resources development as opposed to the 'brown' economic model which emphasizes economic growth over social and natural (Chileshe & Moonga, 2019). The concept of Green Economy applies much to the ICT sector as ICTs are a major contributor to environmental waste and pollution. The report of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the Global E-Waste Monitor 2020 reported that a record 53.6 million metric tons (Mt) of e-waste - discarded products with a battery or plug such as computers and mobile phones - is reported generated worldwide in 2019, up 9.2 Mt in five years. Toxic and hazardous substances such as mercury, brominated flame-retardants (BFR) or chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are found in many types of electronic equipment and pose severe risk to human health and the environment if not handled in an environmentally sound manner. (...)
    Keywords: SURF Green ICT Maturity Model,E-waste,Green ICT,Green informatics,Sustainability,Zambia
    Date: 2022
  14. By: Aravantinos, Elias; Petre, Konstantin; Katsianis, Dimitris; Chipouras, Aris; Varoutas, Dimitris
    Abstract: The price paid today for broadband bundling, is determined by a number of factors, such as broadband speed, premium content, inclusive call allowances, any value-added services, and it is important that people understand their usage requirements so they can identify the one that suits their need We found strong evidence that bundling proves to have a strong effect on tariffs, a dominant operator's strategy during the study's period, 2014-2020, allowing to allocate fixed costs across a range of services. Download Speed is positively significant to tariffs and increases broadband prices, such as a 10% increase in speed raises broadband prices by around 1.4%. Although broadband prices drop around 6.9%, operators emphasize their efforts to charge higher prices on TV bundles, specifically on plans combining broadband, voice telephony and TV that are 54% more expensive over standalone's plans, compared to the 36% of a previous 2014 study. Incumbents charge higher tariffs, around 20.1% compared to the new entrants, in an effort to pay off the fiber network deployment investments, as coverage continues to grow.
    Keywords: Hedonic prices,Bundling,Tariffs,Broadband,European Union,Regulation
    Date: 2022
  15. By: Bahia, Kalvin; Castells, Pau
    Abstract: Considerations on the optimal approach for managing spectrum are currently at the forefront of the debate around the 5925-7125 MHz frequency range (the '6 GHz band'), as Governments decide how best to manage this spectrum over the coming decades. We apply a cost-benefit analysis, using a supply and demand framework, in 24 countries to identify the policies that will maximise the social and economic value of this spectrum. We find that the optimal assignment policy primarily depends the expected adoption of 5G and fixed fibre/cable broadband services in each market, the speeds that fixed broadband can offer consumers, the existing and future spectrum availability for licensed and unlicensed use, and usage of high bands by 5G and Wi-Fi. In most countries, allocating the full 6 GHz band for licensed mobile use will drive the greatest benefit. Allocating the lower 6 GHz band for licence-exempt use and the upper 6 GHz band for licensed mobile use could drive the greatest economic benefit in countries with very high fibre and cable broadband adoption and if fixed broadband speeds can reach up to 5-10 Gbps. Allocating the full 6 GHz band for licence-exempt use will not be the most beneficial option in any of the considered analyses.
    JEL: D61 L51 L96
    Date: 2022
  16. By: Tang, Xin; Howell, Bronwyn
    Abstract: A necessary condition for digital transformation is ubiquitous access to high-quality communications networks, leading to the construction of communications infrastructure accessible to all citizens featuring prominently in the policy agendas of many countries. In New Zealand, this is reflected in the investment focus of the country's Ultra-Fast-Broadband (UFB) program aiming to roll out FTTP to 87% of households by 2022, and the Rural Broadband Initiative (RBI) improving mobile network connectivity in underserved and unserved locations. In recent years, technological innovation has led to new network typologies and changing cost structures for all network types. These innovations raise questions about whether the appropriate policy response to reduce "digital divides" in access to infrastructure should be to pay specific firms to build predetermined infrastructures. This paper will use New Zealand's policy context of the UFB and RBI, and existing spectrum policy framework, to explore policy options for addressing digital divides. The inquiry uses Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) modelling as a tool to inform policy development and assessment. The CLD models will capture the interactions between policy, market, regulations and technologies, and allow comparative evaluation of the expected effects of different interventions. In particular, the models will explore how new technologies and spectrum policy influence competition between different network types.
    Keywords: Spectrum Policy,FTTP,FWA,LEO satellite,network sharing,spectrum sharing,digital divide
    Date: 2022
  17. By: Vander Maelen, Carl
    Abstract: In the wake of the 'new governance' school of thought, the EU has increasingly relied on soft law instruments that include a large number of (non-political) stakeholders into the policy process. Codes of conduct are such instruments. They have traditionally been used in EU law in a wide but inconsistent variety of ways. This makes it hard to summarise their legal characteristics. However, a clearer picture emerges in the sub-field of EU personal data protection. The question then becomes whether the use of codes in articles 40-41 GDPR presents a paradigm shift in how codes are used in EU law. Although embedding codes within the EU's hard law instruments is not new, this contribution argues that GDPR codes display unique features across their functional dimensions (implementation, accountability, and enforcement) and the dimensions of legalisation (obligation, precision, and delegation). The paper ends by framing these findings within the larger context of increasingly 'hard' EU soft law and the specific phenomenon of 'GDPR mimesis' in the EU's ICT policy.
    Keywords: Codes of conduct,Article 40 GDPR,Article 41 GDPR,Soft law,Audiovisual Media Services Directive,Digital Services Act,Artificial Intelligence Act
    Date: 2022
  18. By: Zhiheng Yi; Xiaoli Chen
    Abstract: With the development of Internet technology, the issue of privacy leakage has attracted more and more attention from the public. In our daily life, mobile phone applications and identity documents that we use may bring the risk of privacy leakage, which had increasingly aroused public concern. The path of privacy protection in the digital age remains to be explored. To explore the source of this risk and how it can be reduced, we conducted this study by using personal experience, collecting data and applying the theory.
    Date: 2022–11
  19. By: David Oluwatofun Akinwaminde; Olayiwola Oladiran; Jonas Hahn
    Abstract: A city can be termed smart when it is able to effectively apply ICT and other smart technologies in achieving intelligent solutions to everyday challenges posed by the city. In view of this, smart housing concept leverage on smart technologies and data to solve housing problems in smart city projects. In most African smart city projects, the problem lies with the numerous hindrances on techniques to the adopon of Smart housing solutions. The initiative of Nigeria Smart City Iniave (NSCI) is to transform Nigerian major urban centres from traditional dysfunctional cies to modern, efficient, responsive ones capable of satisfying the needs of present and future generations of Nigerians. Using Akwa Millennium City project in Nigeria, this study examines the barriers to the adoption of smart housing concepts in African smart city projects. Structured questionnaires were purposively administered to all the staff of Akwa Millennium City project while all retrieved questionnaires were found suitable for analysis. Descriptive stastics were employed to analyze the data collected from the respondents. Findings depicted that the major barriers could be classified as socio-economic, technical and policy hindrances in the delivery of smart housing in Akwa Millennium City project in Nigeria. It's noteworthy that smart housing concept could be unaffordable due to the most perceived barriers (such as limited consumer demand, retrofitting of existing homes and buildings, lack of financial and financing incentives, high cost of development, and smart technology as divisive, exclusive or irrelevant) in the development of African smart city projects. This study therefore recommends that developers should focus on socio-economic attributes in the adoption of smart housing concepts to achieve an effective planning of smart city projects in Nigeria and Africa at large.
    Keywords: Africa; Akwa Millennium City; Esg; SDGs11; Smart City; Smart Housing
    JEL: R3
    Date: 2022–01–01
  20. By: Turzin Petr (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Yashina Elena (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Kovalev Sergey (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Generalov Andrey (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Evseev Alexandr (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Lukichev Konstantin (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: At present, great importance is attached to the problem of maintaining the professional health of the working-age population and prolonging professional longevity in the world and in the Russian Federation. This problem has become especially urgent in recent years, in connection with the change in the country's retirement age.
    Keywords: professional health, professional longevity
    Date: 2021–01

This nep-ict issue is ©2022 by Marek Giebel. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.