nep-ict New Economics Papers
on Information and Communication Technologies
Issue of 2022‒11‒28
six papers chosen by
Marek Giebel
Universität Dortmund

  1. In Pursuit of Fairness? Infrastructure Investment in Digital Markets By Tobias Kretschmer
  2. German financial state aid during COVID-19 pandemic: Higher impact among digitalized self-employed By Bertschek, Irene; Block, Jörn; Kritikos, Alexander; Stiel, Caroline
  3. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as catalyst for the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SGDs) at the local level in Africa By Samba Diop; Simplice A. Asongu
  4. A Multivariate Analysis of Technology and Education in the 21st Century: Antecedents and Determinants By Rocque, Sarvesh Raj
  5. Mobile Phone Innovation and Doing Business in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu
  6. Impact of the Agricultural Supply Chain on Society: A Post-Covid Analysis By Zhang, Shoucheng

  1. By: Tobias Kretschmer
    Abstract: Recent and ongoing investments into telecommunications infrastructure have facilitated the repeated waves of digitization, both in personal and professional life. I address the question of which actors should contribute to investment costs into telecoms infrastructure and how. One widely discussed proposal (made, for example, by ETNO, the European Telecom Network Operations’ Association) is to mandate a few select large firms that offer complementary applications and services through the telecom infrastructure to compensate infrastructure providers by way of a lump sum. I discuss and evaluate this proposal from the perspectives of incentives, risk sharing, fairness, and implementability. Given the undisputed positive external effects of infrastructure investments on different actors in the internet ecosystem, I outline two theoretical first-best solutions and argue that the current proposal from ETNO is far from realizing the potential benefits of these options.
    Keywords: telecommunications infrastructure, investment, OTTs
    JEL: L40 L86 L96
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Bertschek, Irene; Block, Jörn; Kritikos, Alexander; Stiel, Caroline
    Abstract: In response to strong revenue and income losses that a large share of the self-employed faced during the COVID-19 pandemic, the German federal government introduced a €50bn emergency aid program. Based on real-time online-survey data comprising more than 20,000 observations, we analyze the impact of this program on the subjective survival probability. In particular, we investigate how the digitalization level of the self-employed influences the program's effectiveness. Employing propensity score matching, we find that the emergency aid program had only moderately positive effects on the confidence of the self-employed to survive the crisis. However, the self-employed whose businesses were highly digitalized, benefitted much more from the state aid compared to those whose businesses were less digitalized. This holds true only for those self-employed in advanced digitalization stages, who started the digitalization processes already before the crisis. Moreover, taking a regional perspective, we find suggestive evidence that the quality of the regional broadband infrastructure matters in the sense that it increases the effectiveness of the emergency aid program. Our findings show the interplay between governmental support programs, the digitalization levels of entrepreneurs, and the regional digital infrastructure. The study helps public policy to increase the impact of crisis-related policy instruments.
    Keywords: Self-Employment,Emergency Aid,Treatment Effects,COVID-19,Entrepreneurship,Digitalization,Resilience
    JEL: C14 H43 L25 L26 J68 O33
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Samba Diop (Alioune Diop University, Bambey, Senegal); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study evaluates if information and communication technologies (ICTs) can play a role of catalyst for the achievement of most of the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at local level in African countries. We use the Afrobarometer Round 7 Surveys, and base our empirical methodology on 2SLS-IV regressions to take into account the concern of reverse causality. The findings reveal that ICTs have a positive and significant effect on the achievement of SDGs, notably, in eight out of thirteen goals (Goal 1 “No poverty†, Goal 2 “Zero Hunger†, Goal 6 “Clean water and sanitation†, Goal 8 “Decent work and economic growth†, Goal 11 “Sustainable cities and communities†, Goal 5 “Gender equality†, Goal 7 “Affordable and clean energy†, Goal 9 “Industry, innovation and infrastructure†). The results suggest that ICTs can help to accelerate progress towards SDGs in Africa.
    Keywords: information technology; inclusive development; sustainable development
    JEL: D10 D14 D31 D60 O30
    Date: 2022–08
  4. By: Rocque, Sarvesh Raj
    Abstract: Globally, educational systems are undergoing a restructuring in which emerging technologies and information sciences will play a significant role. Education will undergo the most significant changes in over a century as a result of new technology and mobile devices with cutting-edge capabilities. As emerging technologies continue to advance, mobile learning methods are becoming increasingly popular. Literature reviews conducted by the author indicate that as this field of study continues to develop, more and more researchers are investigating how technology impacts learning, how it influences teaching methods, and how teachers are evaluated. Further, this paper examines the educational benefits of using technology to facilitate independent learning. Technology is helping to facilitate a fundamental rethinking of what should be taught and how it should be taught rather than serving as an adjunct to learning and teaching. An undertaking of this magnitude represents both an exciting opportunity and a serious responsibility. In an effort to meet this challenge, this article examines several key antecedents and determinants associated with education and technology. A number of terms have been integrated into the educational field of vision in recent years, including portal connectivity, artificial intelligence, big data, machine learning, mobile technologies, and intelligent learning patterns. Consequently, society and education have undergone unprecedented changes. Consequently, the use of technology in education is likely to follow a hockey stick pattern, according to the author's research. In simple terms, in light of the rapid development of technology in the field of education, the way in which knowledge is delivered and the capability to learn new things will undergo a great deal of change.
    Keywords: Technology, Information Technology, Integrated learning, Technology and Education, ICT- Enabled Education
    JEL: I21 I25 Q55
    Date: 2022–10–16
  5. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon)
    Abstract: This study assesses how knowledge diffusion modulates the effect of the mobile phone on entrepreneurship or doing business in Sub-Saharan Africa. The empirical evidence is based on Generalised Method of Moments in which mobile phones are interacted with three knowledge diffusion variables, namely: education, internet penetration and scientific output. Ten variables of entrepreneurship are used. The following three main findings are established. First, the net effects from interacting mobile phones with the internet and scientific publications are negative whereas the corresponding net impact from the interaction between mobile phones and education is positive on the cost of doing business. Second, the mobile phone interacts with education (the internet) to have a positive (negative) net effect on the time needed to construct a warehouse whereas, the corresponding interaction with the internet yields a net negative effect on the time to enforce a contract. Third, there is a positive net effect from the interaction of mobile phones with education on the time to start a business. Given the construction of the education variable, the positive net effects from education are consistent with corresponding negative net effects from the other knowledge diffusion variables.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship; the Mobile Phone; Knowledge Diffusion; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: L59 L98 O10 O30 O55
    Date: 2022–01
  6. By: Zhang, Shoucheng
    Abstract: Over the past few years, the global agricultural supply chain has been shown to be extremely vulnerable to disruptions as a result of the Covid pandemic that has occurred over the last few years. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, companies around the world have faced unprecedented challenges as well as the cross-border flow of components and materials in the agriculture industry as a result of the outbreak. Due to the ongoing challenges of climate change as well as the changing geopolitical landscape, such disruptions seem to be more frequent and intense than ever before. By leveraging digital technologies to find new ways to protect supply chains in an uncertain climate, farming is able to flourish in this dynamic environment of constant change and find new ways to secure their supply chains in an uncertain climate by leveraging digital technologies. In the context of the agriculture sector, the recent pandemic has had an impact on every aspect of the value chain, from the raw material sourcing in the farming sector to the final customer. Many small and marginal farmers around the globe are being tested in terms of their commercial, operational, financial, and organizational resilience, and this has highlighted the risks and resiliency gaps for many of these farms. It is impossible for any of us to predict what will happen in the future, but what we can do is learn from the past and prepare for the uncertain future. In spite of the fact it is clear now that many supply chains had become complacent in recent years, the urgency to create a supply chain which is able to adapt to the future is greater than ever. It is important to note that one silver lining of this situation is that we have the experience, the intelligence, and the technology at our disposal to resolve supply chain disruptions. Farmers should be able to use those pieces to create a solid strategy and execute on a supply chain transformation plan that makes the most sense for the farming community as a whole to be able to put the pieces together, come up with a solid strategy, and execute on it.
    Keywords: Covid impact on society, post covid impact on agriculture, covid impact on supply chain, rural supply chain, post covid analysis on agriculture
    JEL: J43 O1 O13 Q13 Q16 Q18
    Date: 2022–08–16

This nep-ict issue is ©2022 by Marek Giebel. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.